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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 10 — May. 20, 2013
  • pp: 12797–12802
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Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber

Grzegorz Sobon, Jaroslaw Sotor, Iwona Pasternak, Aleksandra Krajewska, Wlodek Strupinski, and Krzysztof M. Abramski  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 10, pp. 12797-12802 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.012797


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Abstract

We report an all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber. The laser emits 1.2 ps pulses at 1884 nm center wavelength with 4 nm of bandwidth and 20.5 MHz mode spacing. The graphene layers were grown on copper foils by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred onto the fiber connector end. Up to date this is the shortest reported pulse duration achieved from a Tm-doped laser mode-locked by graphene saturable absorber. Such cost-effective and stable fiber lasers might be considered as sources for mid-infrared spectroscopy and remote sensing.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Mid-infrared sources are currently experiencing intense development due to their importance in many scientific applications, e.g. remote sensing, spectroscopy and medicine. The 1.8 – 2.0 μm spectral range, covered by Thulium-doped fiber lasers, overlaps with many absorption lines of several molecules, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2) or hydrogen bromide (HBr) [1

1. W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010). [CrossRef]

], which creates the possibility of constructing cost-effective trace-gas sensing platforms. Strong water absorption in this range makes Tm-doped fiber lasers extremely desirable in biomedical applications. It has been shown, that 2 μm laser outperform 1µm and 1.55 μm sources in dermatology and surgery, serving as precise and efficient optical scalpels [2

2. N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-Power Thulium Fiber Laser Ablation of Urinary Tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic Vaporesection of the Prostate Using the Continuous-Wave 2-microm Thulium Laser: Outcome and Demonstration of the Surgical Technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Application of mode-locking techniques for Tm-doped lasers might potentially create new possibilities and extend the range of applications of those sources.

Up to date, only two Tm-doped all-fiber lasers mode-locked with graphene were demonstrated in the literature. Both utilize graphene flakes obtained via LPE. In [25

25. M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the authors use a graphene-PVA composite, which allowed to achieve 3.6 ps pulses. The laser presented in [26

26. Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013). [CrossRef]

] delivered 2.1 ps pulses and used graphene/DMF dispersion. In our work we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, an all-fiber Tm-doped laser mode-locked with CVD-grown graphene layers, which are transferred onto the fiber connector with the use of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) support. Usually, after the transfer process the polymer layer is removed from the substrate [11

11. P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such removal is difficult and may cause damage of the graphene layer. In our experiments we have found, that PMMA exhibits nearly 100% transmission in the 1.8 – 1.9 μm spectral region. Thus, a CVD-graphene/PMMA composite can be successfully used as a SA for an all-fiber, Tm-doped fiber laser.

2. Graphene SA preparation and characterization

The graphene films were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on the surface of 12 μm thick copper foils. To obtain graphene of top quality we use the Aixtron VP508 horizontal CVD hot wall reactor. At first, the samples were pretreated at 1000°C under an Ar gas flow and then H2 gas flow at the pressure of 100 mbar. Afterwards, both C3H8 and H2 gas were introduced into the reactor for 2 minutes. Finally, the copper substrates covering the graphene films were cooled down to room temperature in Ar atmosphere. To detach graphene from the copper foil, graphene was covered with a thin layer of PMMA by spin-coating method. Then we have removed graphene from the backside of copper foil to avoid impurities between the top and lateral graphene films formed during copper etching. The PMMA/graphene stack was subsequently introduced into an aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate. After etching copper away, the PMMA/graphene stack was cleaned with deionized water. Next, the PMMA/graphene stack was fished by the substrate to which graphene does not stick and finally dried in an air atmosphere. Figure 2(a) shows the Raman spectra of graphene on PMMA measured using a 532 nm laser beam. The spectrum contains pronounced G (1592 cm−1) and 2D (2685 cm−1) bands, characteristic for sp2 hybridization of carbon. This confirms the presence of a graphene structure in the measured sample. A photograph of the fabricated free-standing PMMA/graphene membrane is shown inset Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Raman spectrum of the PMMA/graphene composite with photograph of an exemplary fabricated free-standing membrane (a). Transmission measurement of the PMMA/graphene composite (b).
. A small piece (about 1x1 mm) of such composite is deposited onto the tip of the angled fiber connector (FC/APC) connector and connected with another one. The fabricated graphene/PMMA SA has a flat absorption spectrum over the range of 1500 – 2000 nm. The measured transmission through the graphene/PMMA layer deposited on the connector is plotted in Fig. 1(b). The average transmission of the composite is at the level of 94-95%.

3. Experimental setup

The schematic of the all-fiber ring laser is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the Tm-doped fiber laser.
. The cavity consists of a 2 m long Tm-doped fiber (Nufern SM-TSF-9/125), a 1570/2000 nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), 20% output coupler (OC), a fiber isolator, a three-paddle fiber-based polarization controller (PC) and the graphene-based saturable absorber. The cavity contains only single-mode fibers with anomalous dispersion at the operating wavelength. The laser is pumped by a 1570 nm laser source, which is based on a laser diode amplified by an erbium-ytterbium doped-fiber amplifier (EYDFA).

4. Experimental results

The performance of the laser was observed using an optical spectrum analyzer (Yokogawa AQ6375), 12 GHz digital oscilloscope (Hameg DSO9254A), 7 GHz RF spectrum analyzer (Agilent EXA N9010A) coupled with a 12 GHz photodetector (Discovery Semiconductors DSC2-50S), and an interferometric autocorrelator.

Stable mode-locking of the laser was observed at pump powers from the range of 140 – 170 mW. In order to initiate the mode-locking, slight adjustment of the PC is required. All measurements were done at 150 mW of pumping and the laser output power was 1.35 mW. We estimate the intra-cavity fluence on the saturable absorber to be 230 µJ/cm2. The measurements performed by I. Baek et al. and W.B. Cho et al. show, that the saturation fluence of single-layer CVD-graphene is at the level of 14 µJ/cm2 and 66 µJ/cm2, measured at 1250 nm and 800 nm wavelengths respectively [27

27. I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012). [CrossRef]

,28

28. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This suggests, that the graphene in our experiment is well saturated. The modulation depth of monolayer CVD-graphene is estimated to be lower than 0.4% at wavelengths above 2 µm [29

29. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In our case the transmission measurement indicates a bi-layer graphene structure. Hence, we may assume the modulation depth to be twice that for monolayer graphene. In order to confirm that the mode-locking originates from the graphene SA, the laser was firstly tested with clean connectors (without deposited graphene). No mode-locking was observed in such configuration at any position of the PC. The optical spectrum of the mode-locked emission measured with 0.05 nm resolution is depicted in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Measured output spectrum of the laser together with the water absorption lines taken from HITRAN database (a) and the 1.2 ps pulse autocorrelation trace (b).
. The graph inset Fig. 3(a) shows the spectrum recorded with 50 nm span (black line) and output spectrum of the laser operating in the CW regime (blue line). The mode-locked spectrum is centered at 1884 nm and has a typical soliton-like shape, which results from the all-anomalous cavity design. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of the emission is 4 nm. Additionally, characteristic dips can be seen in the high-resolution spectrum. We have found that they result from the water absorption lines in air, which are densely located in the 1.9 μm region. In order to confirm it, we have simulated the absorption of light over 1 m path in air with 1% water content using HITRAN database [28

28. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The simulated absorption lines are plotted (with red line) in Fig. 3(a). It can be seen, that the location and amplitude of the absorption peaks on the spectrum ideally match the simulated water lines.

Figure 2(b) shows the autocorrelation of the laser output pulse together with a sech2 fitting. The pulse duration after deconvolution is 1.2 ps. The sensitivity of our autocorrelator is low at 1.9 μm wavelength, which causes the relatively large noise level. Nevertheless the signal power was enough to perform a reliable measurement. With 4 nm bandwidth (337 GHz), the time-bandwidth product (TBP) is equal to 0.42. It means, that the pulses have an about 25% longer pulse duration than resulting from the transform limit (TBP equal to 0.315).

The radio frequency (RF) spectrum measured with 2 MHz frequency span and 1 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW) is depicted in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Measured RF spectrum (a) and the oscilloscope trace (b) of the laser output.
. The repetition rate of the laser was 20.5 MHz, which corresponds to an approx. 10 m long cavity. A graph inset Fig. 4(a) illustrates the RF spectrum recorded in the 5 GHz frequency span, showing a broad spectrum of harmonics. The oscilloscope trace is depicted in Fig. 4(b). The pulses are equally spaced by approx. 49 ns, corresponding to 20.5 MHz repetition frequency. No signs of dual-pulsing were observed. The graph inset Fig. 4(b) illustrates the pulse train in 250 ns wide span.

5. Summary

Summarizing, we have demonstrated a Tm-doped fiber laser operating in the mid-infrared, mode-locked with the use of a CVD-graphene/PMMA composite saturable absorber. The laser was capable of delivering 1.2 ps pulses at 20.5 MHz repetition rate, centered at 1884 nm wavelength with 4 nm FWHM bandwidth. Thanks to the flexibility of the developed graphene/PMMA composite, it can be easily transferred onto fiber connectors, which allows to build fully fiberized, environmentally stable lasers, without the use of bulk free-space components. The presented laser is the first, up to date, Tm-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked with epitaxially grown graphene.

Acknowledgments

The work presented in this paper was supported by the National Science Centre (NCN, Poland) under the project “Saturable absorption in atomic-layer graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers” (decision no. DEC-2011/03/B/ST7/00208)” and by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the project no. POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09-00. Research fellowship of two authors (G.S. and J.S.) is co-financed by the European Union as part of the European Social Fund.

References and links

1.

W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 10(4), 2492–2510 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-Power Thulium Fiber Laser Ablation of Urinary Tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic Vaporesection of the Prostate Using the Continuous-Wave 2-microm Thulium Laser: Outcome and Demonstration of the Surgical Technique,” Eur. Urol. 55(2), 368–375 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(1), 19–21 (1995). [CrossRef]

5.

R. C. Sharp, D. E. Spock, N. Pan, and J. Elliot, “190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 881–883 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 mum laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 microm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Synth. Met. 103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999). [CrossRef]

9.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C.- C. Lee, G. Acosta, J. S. Bunch, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-short optical pulse generation with single-layer graphene,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 19(04), 767–771 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(17), 2770–2775 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene modelocked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun. 283(17), 3334–3338 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).

20.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, D. Tang, L. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. M. Chang, H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013). [CrossRef]

27.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012). [CrossRef]

28.

W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 12, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 7, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 14, 2013
Published: May 17, 2013

Citation
Grzegorz Sobon, Jaroslaw Sotor, Iwona Pasternak, Aleksandra Krajewska, Wlodek Strupinski, and Krzysztof M. Abramski, "Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber," Opt. Express 21, 12797-12802 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-10-12797


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References

  1. W. Zeller, L. Naehle, P. Fuchs, F. Gerschuetz, L. Hildebrandt, and J. Koeth, “DFB Lasers Between 760 nm and 16 μm for Sensing Applications,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)10(4), 2492–2510 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-Power Thulium Fiber Laser Ablation of Urinary Tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol.19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Szlauer, R. Götschl, A. Razmaria, L. Paras, and N. T. Schmeller, “Endoscopic Vaporesection of the Prostate Using the Continuous-Wave 2-microm Thulium Laser: Outcome and Demonstration of the Surgical Technique,” Eur. Urol.55(2), 368–375 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.67(1), 19–21 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Sharp, D. E. Spock, N. Pan, and J. Elliot, “190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold,” Opt. Lett.21(12), 881–883 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 mum laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett.34(23), 3616–3618 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 microm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1336–1338 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, “Optical Properties of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes,” Synth. Met.103(1-3), 2555–2558 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1786–1791 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res.4(3), 297–307 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express20(3), 2460–2465 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C.- C. Lee, G. Acosta, J. S. Bunch, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-short optical pulse generation with single-layer graphene,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.19(04), 767–771 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, K. Grodecki, P. Paletko, W. Strupinski, Z. Jankiewicz, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(17), 2770–2775 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, and S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene modelocked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(8), 591–596 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Vector dissipative solitons in graphene mode locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Commun.283(17), 3334–3338 (2010). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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