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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 11 — Jun. 3, 2013
  • pp: 13068–13074
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A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals in air and in vacuum

O. Benavides, L. de la Cruz May, and A. Flores Gil  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 11, pp. 13068-13074 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.013068


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Abstract

A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of aluminum in air and in vacuum under the same other experimental conditions is performed. We find that, hemispherical total reflectivity of aluminum undergoes a sharp drop at the plasma formation threshold both in the air and in vacuum. The initial large value (0.8) of aluminum reflectivity decreases to a level of about 0.14 and 0.24 for ablation in the air and in vacuum, respectively. These decreased reflectivity values remain virtually unchanged with further increasing laser fluence. The reflectivity drop in the air is observed to be sharper than in vacuum. Our study indicates that the reflectivity drop is predominantly caused by absorption of the laser light in plasma. Nano/micro-structural defects present on practical sample surfaces play the important role in the plasma formation, especially for the ablation in the air, where the plasma formation threshold is found to be by a factor of 3 smaller than in vacuum.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Experimental

The schematic of the experimental setup used in this study is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for studying reflection of the laser light in ablation of a metal sample.
. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser that generates 50-ns FWHM (Full Width at Half-Maximum intensity) pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nm is used for ablation of a sample. The laser beam is focused onto the sample with a lens. To collect the reflected laser light we use an ellipsoidal light reflector [27

27. A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

,28

28. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The sample is positioned in an internal focal point of the ellipsoidal reflector and tilted relative to the laser beam axis for reducing laser light backscattering through the entrance hole in the reflector. Both the reflector and sample are placed in a vacuum chamber pumped to a pressure of 3.6 × 10−3 Torr or filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Energy of the reflected laser pulse, Erefl, is measured using an energy meter located in the external focal point of the ellipsoidal reflector. A cutoff filter placed in front of the energy meter blocks the plasma radiation. Since the ellipsoidal reflector absorbs a small amount of the laser light reflected from the sample and there are also losses due the chamber rear window and plasma radiation cutoff filter, we calibrated our measuring setup at low laser fluence using mechanically polished metal samples, the reflectivity of which was measured using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Laser pulse energy incident upon the sample, Einc, is measured using an 8%-beamsplittter and energy meter. The hemispherical total reflectivity, R, (a sum of specular and diffuse components of the reflected light) is found as R = Erefl/Einc. The incident laser fluence, F, is determined by dividing the incident laser pulse energy by the laser spot area. The laser fluence incident upon the sample is varied by inserting calibrated attenuation filters and changing the distance between the focusing lens and sample. The total reflectivity is studied in a laser fluence range between 0.2 and 200 J/cm2. After each laser shot, the studied sample is translated to a fresh spot on the sample surface. The studied metal is mechanically polished bulk aluminum. In this study, we also determine both surface damage and plasma formation thresholds. We find the surface damage threshold as the lowest laser fluence that causes a surface damage discerned under an optical microscope. The plasma formation threshold is determined similar to a work [29

29. A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

] by detecting the onset of a bright violet flash from the irradiated spot using a photomultiplier with a filter that blocks the wavelengths longer 0.45 μm. Time-integrated photography is used to take images of laser-induced plasma plumes [30

30. S. Proyer and E. Stangle, “Time-integrated photography of laser-induced plumes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 60(6), 573–580 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. The room-temperature total reflectivity of a mechanically polished aluminum sample at the laser wavelength of 1064 nm is measured to be 0.81 using the Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Hemispherical total reflectivity of aluminum as function of laser fluence for ablation in 1-atm air and in vacuum.
presents the plots of the total reflectivity of aluminum as a function of laser fluence for ablation in air and in vacuum. At low laser fluences, the values of the reflectivity are the same for the air and vacuum and equal to 0.8 in an agreement with the room-temperature reflectivity measured with the Perkin-Elmer Lambda 900 spectrophotometer. This reflectivity value does not change with increasing laser fluence from 0.2 J/cm2 to Frefdrop = 1.1 J/cm2 and 3.1 J/cm2 in air and in vacuum, respectively. Above these threshold fluences, the reflectivityundergoes a sharp drop to a level of about 0.14 and 0.24 in the air and in vacuum, respectively. These low values of the reflectivity remain virtually unchanged with further increasing laser fluence up to the highest studied laser fluence value of about 200 J/cm2. The plasma formation thresholds were found to be Fpl = 1.1 J/cm2 and 3.1 J/cm2 in the air and vacuum, respectively. Similar values of Frefdrop, and Fpl indicate that the reflectivity drop is associated with the plasma onset for ablation both in the air and in vacuum. The damage thresholds were determined to be Fdam = 1.1 J/cm2 and 2.1 J/cm2 in the air and in vacuum, respectively. Therefore, our experiments reveal the following relations, FdamFplFrefdrop for air and Fdam < FplFrefdrop for vacuum.

To explain these observations, we compute the surface temperature at the damage thresholds Fdam = 1.1 J/cm2 and 2.1 J/cm2 for the ablation in the air and in vacuum, respectively, using the following formula [31

31. J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic Press, 1971).

]
Tsurf(t)=(1R)akπ0tI(tτ)τdτ+T0,
(1)
where R is the reflectivity, a is the thermal diffusivity, k is the thermal conductivity, I is the intensity of the incident laser light, t is the time, T0 is the initial temperature, and τ is the integration variable. Using R = 0.8, a = 9.75 × 10−5 m2/s, k = 237 W⋅m−1⋅K−1, and T0 = 20 °C, the maximum surface temperatures are computed to be 350 and 620 °C at Fdam = 1.1 J/cm2 (air) and 2.1 J/cm2 (vacuum), respectively. The computed maximum surface temperature at the damage threshold fluence in vacuum is a little bit smaller the melting point of aluminum (660 °C). This can be explained by enhanced absorption of the laser light by surface nano- and micro-defects present on the sample surface following mechanical polishing and their local overheating. However, the maximum surface temperature at the damage threshold fluence in the air is almost two times smaller the melting point of aluminum. Since in our experiment FdamFpl for ablation in air, we believe that the optical breakdown of the air in front of the metal surface leads to a significantly lower value of Fdam in air as compared with that in vacuum. This can be explained as follows. Previously, it has been shown that thermally-isolated microdefects commonly present on practical surfaces are rapidly heated to a significantly higher temperature relative to the normal surface [32

32. C. T. Walters, R. H. Barns, and R. E. Beverly, “Initiation of laser-supported-detonation (LSD) waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(5), 2937–2949 (1978). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, nanostructural defects typically present on the real surfaces can be also heated to a high temperature due to plasmonic absorption and nanoheating [33

33. S. J. Tan and D. K. Gramotnev, “Heating effects in nanofocusing metal wedges,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 034310 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. These “hot micro/nanospots” on the cold (on average) surface can thermionically emit priming electrons for triggering an avalanche air optical breakdown through their acceleration via inverse-bremsstrahlung mechanism. The other factors, which facilitate the optical breakdown of the air in front of a metal surface, are the constructive interference of the incident and reflected laser beams [34

34. N. M. Bulgakova, V. P. Zhukov, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Modeling of residual thermal effect in femtosecond laser ablation of metals. Role of gas environment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 883–889 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and high-field emission of priming electrons from nano- and micro-protrusions. The study [29

29. A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

] shows that the optical breakdown of the air near the metal surface results in a significant thermal energy transfer from the air plasma to the metal surface. On the contrary, there is no noticeable thermal energy transfer to the sample from the plasma formed in vacuum. Therefore, our observation that the damage threshold in air (Fdam = 1.1 J/cm2) is significantly lower than that in vacuum (Fdam = 2.1 J/cm2) can be explained by “plasma-assisted etching” of the sample in air due to enhanced thermal coupling [29

29. A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

,34

34. N. M. Bulgakova, V. P. Zhukov, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Modeling of residual thermal effect in femtosecond laser ablation of metals. Role of gas environment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 883–889 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Our observation that FplFrefdrop for ablation both in the air and in vacuum indicates that the reflectivity decrease is associated with the plasma formation in front of the irradiated sample. Figure 2 shows that the reflectivity drop is more abrupt in the air than in vacuum. Furthermore, the reflectivity decreases to a significantly smaller value in the air than in vacuum. These observations are explained by an essential distinction of the plasma plumes generated in the air and in vacuum. This distinction is clearly seen in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Time-integrated photographs of plasma plumes produced in air (a) and vacuum (b) at F = 21.5 J/cm2. The laser spot diameter on the sample surface is 1.0 mm. The photographs were taken in the direction parallel to the sample surface. The exposure time after the laser pulse is 1 s.
that shows time-integrated photographs of luminous plasma plumes produced in the ablation of aluminum in the air and vacuum under the same other experimental conditions. It is seen that the size of plasma in air is significantly larger than that in vacuum despite the fact that the ablated material has no resistance to expand into vacuum. The larger size of the plasma plume in the air is explained by the generation of laser-supported absorption waves (laser-supported combustion wave and laser-supported detonation wave) propagating in the air [25

25. L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1989).

,26

26. S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, R. Greif, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation induced vapor plume expansion into a background gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023115 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Webelieve that both more abrupt and more significant drop of the reflectivity in the air is caused by these laser-supported absorption waves that increase the plasma optical thickness. Under conditions of the plasma presence in front of the sample and low laser light scattering from the ablated material, the reflection of the laser beam occurs from a sample-plasma system [27

27. A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

]as schematically shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflection of the laser pulse from the sample-plasma system: P(t) is the incident laser pulse power; P(t)exp[-θ(t)] is the laser pulse power that arrives at the sample surface, here θ(t) is the total optical thickness of the plasma; P(t)Rs(t))exp[-θ(t)] is the laser pulse power reflected from the sample surface, here Rs(t) is the reflectivity of the sample surface; P(t) Rs(t))exp[-2θ(t)] is the laser pulse power that comes out from the sample-plasma system.
for ablation both in the air and in vacuum. Therefore, the time-integrated reflectivity of sample-plasma system measured in our experiment is given by
R=(0τLP(t)Rs(t)exp[2θ(t)]dt)/0τLP(t)dt,
(2)
where τL is the laser pulse duration. The Eq. (2) shows that R depends on both the total optical thickness of the plasma θ and the surface reflectivity Rs. In the absence of plasma, the Eq. (3) reduces to R = Rs. In general, the surface reflectivity Rs depends on both the surface temperature Tsurf and the change of the surface morphology during the laser pulse. The interband absorption of aluminum occurs at the wavelength of 800 nm. Therefore, at the Nd:YAG laser wavelength (1064 nm), the absorption/reflection of aluminum is described by Drude’s free-electron model. In the near infrared, the Drude temperature-dependent reflectivity of an ideally smooth and clean metal surface is given by [35

35. M. N. Libenson, G. S. Romanov, and Ya. A. Imas, “Temperature dependence of the optical constants of a metal in heating by laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 13(7), 925–927 (1969).

]
Rs(T)1ωp2πσ0(T),
(3)
where σ0(T) is the DC conductivity and ωp=(4πnee2/me*)1/2 is the electron plasma frequency, here ne is the density of free electrons in the metal, e is the electron charge, andme* is the effective electron mass. Our experiment in vacuum shows that the reflectivity of the real surface does not noticeably change with increasing laser fluence up to the damage threshold (Fdam = 2.1 J/cm2) when the surface temperature reaches the melting point. Furthermore, the reflectivity does not noticeably change with further increasing laser fluence even up to the plasma formation threshold (Fpl = 3.1 J/cm2). This observation indicates that the temperature dependence of the reflectivity for a mechanically polished aluminum surface does not play essential role up to the plasma formation threshold when the surface temperature exceeds the melting point. In contrast to femtosecond laser ablation, where the surface geometry does not change during the laser pulse [28

28. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011). [CrossRef]

], the surface irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses undergoes surface relief changes during the laser pulse. In other words, the reflection of the nanosecond laser light occurs from a non-stationary plasma-sample interface that makes the study of Rs a very complicated task. To our knowledge, an only attempt to gain insight into the behavior of Rs has been previously reported in [27

27. A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

], where the value of Rs above the plasma formation threshold was estimated to be about the same as the value of Rs below the plasma formation threshold in ablation of copper with nanosecond ruby laser. If this behavior of Rs holds for Nd-YAG laser pulses as well, then the drop of R in our study is predominantly caused by absorption of the laser light in plasma.

4. Conclusions

In this study, we perform a comparative study on the reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in the ablation of aluminum in the air and in vacuum under the same other experimental conditions. Our study shows that the reflectivity of mechanically polished aluminum remains virtually equal to the table room-temperature value with increasing laser fluence up to the plasma formation threshold. The values of the plasma formation threshold were found to be significantly different for the ablation in air (Fpl = 1.1 J/cm2) and in vacuum (Fpl = 3.1 J/cm2). At the plasma formation threshold, the reflectivity begins to drop both in the air and in vacuum. With increasing laser fluence above the plasma formation threshold, the reflectivity undergoes a sharp drop to a level of about 0.14 and 0.24 in the air and in vacuum, respectively. These reflectivity values remain virtually unchanged with further increasing laser fluence up to the highest studied fluence value of about 200 J/cm2. Furthermore, the reflectivity drop in the air is sharper than in vacuum. Our study indicates that the surface nano/micro-structural surface defects play the important role in the plasma formation, especially for the ablation in the air, where the plasma formation threshold is found to be by a factor of about 3 smaller than in vacuum.

References and links

1.

C. R. Phipps, ed., Laser Ablation and Its Applications (Springer, 2007).

2.

D. Marla, U. V. Bhandarkar, and S. S. Joshi, “Critical assessment of the issues in the modeling of ablation and plasma expansion processes in the pulsed laser deposition of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 021101 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Eason, ed., Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, 2007).

4.

L. Li, M. Hong, M. Schmidt, M. Zhong, A. Malshe, B. H. In’tveld, and V. Kovalenko, “Laser nano-manufacturing – State of the art and challenges,” CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 60(2), 735–755 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

S. C. Singh and H. Zeng, “Nanomaterials and nanopartterns based on laser processing: A brief review on current state of art,” Sci. Adv. Mater. 4(3), 368–390 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

Z. B. Wang, M. H. Hong, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, S. M. Huang, Q. F. Wang, L. P. Shil, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1603–1606 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 081103 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

S. T. Hendow and S. A. Shakir, “Structuring materials with nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10188–10199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Abdolvand, R. W. Lloyd, M. J. J. Schmidt, D. J. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(2), 447–452 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

N. M. Bulgakova, A. N. Panchenko, A. E. Tel’minov, and M. A. Shulepov, “Formation of microtower structures in nanosecond laser ablation of liquid metals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(2), 393–400 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and Y.-F. Guan, “Surface nanostructuring of silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 77(2), 277–284 (2003).

12.

A. Kurella and N. B. Dahotre, “Review paper: Surface modification for bioimplants: The role of laser surface engineering,” J. Biomater. Appl. 20(1), 5–50 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. Haverkamp, R. M. Mayo, M. A. Bourham, J. Narayan, C. Jin, and G. Duscher, “Plasma plume characteristics and properties of pulsed laser deposited diamond-like carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(6), 3627–3634 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

S. G. Gorny, G. V. Odintsova, A. V. Otkeeva, and V. P. Veiko, “Laser induced multicolor image formation on metal,” Proc. SPIE 7996, 799605, 799605-7 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

J.-Y. Cheng, M.-H. Yen, C.-W. Wei, Y.-C. Chuang, and T.-H. Young, “Crack-free direct-writing on glass using a low-power UV laser in the manufacture of a microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 15(6), 1147–1156 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

G. Tang, A. C. Hourd, and A. Abdolvand, “Nanosecond pulsed laser blackening of copper,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231902 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Direct femtosecond laser surface nano/microstructuring and its applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 385–407 (2013). [CrossRef]

20.

B. Verhoff, S. S. Harilal, J. R. Freeman, P. K. Diwakar, and A. Hassanein, “Dynamics of femto- and nanosecond laser ablation plumes investigated using optical emission spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093303 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Amoruso, J. Schou, and J. G. Lunney, “Energy balance of a laser ablation plume expanding in a background gas,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(1), 209–214 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

N. G. Basov, V. A. Boiko, O. N. Krokhin, O. G. Semenov, and G. V. Sklizkov, “Reduction of reflection coefficient for intense laser radiation on solid surfaces,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 13(1), 1581–1582 (1969).

23.

T. E. Zavecz, M. A. Saifi, and M. Notis, “Metal reflectivity under high-intensity optical radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(4), 165–168 (1975). [CrossRef]

24.

Yu. I. Dymshits, “Reflection of intense radiation from a thin metal film,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 22(7), 901–902 (1977).

25.

L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1989).

26.

S.-B. Wen, X. Mao, R. Greif, and R. E. Russo, “Laser ablation induced vapor plume expansion into a background gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023115 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Ya. Vorob’ev, “Reflection of the pulsed ruby laser radiation by a copper target in air and in vacuum,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 490–493 (1985). [CrossRef]

28.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Reflection of femtosecond laser light in multipulse ablation of metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 043102 (2011). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Y. Vorobyev, V. M. Kuzmichev, N. G. Kokody, P. Kohns, J. Dai, and C. Guo, “Residual thermal effects in Al following single ns- and fs-laser pulse ablation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(2), 357–362 (2006). [CrossRef]

30.

S. Proyer and E. Stangle, “Time-integrated photography of laser-induced plumes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 60(6), 573–580 (1995). [CrossRef]

31.

J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic Press, 1971).

32.

C. T. Walters, R. H. Barns, and R. E. Beverly, “Initiation of laser-supported-detonation (LSD) waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 49(5), 2937–2949 (1978). [CrossRef]

33.

S. J. Tan and D. K. Gramotnev, “Heating effects in nanofocusing metal wedges,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 034310 (2011). [CrossRef]

34.

N. M. Bulgakova, V. P. Zhukov, A. Y. Vorobyev, and C. Guo, “Modeling of residual thermal effect in femtosecond laser ablation of metals. Role of gas environment,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 92(4), 883–889 (2008). [CrossRef]

35.

M. N. Libenson, G. S. Romanov, and Ya. A. Imas, “Temperature dependence of the optical constants of a metal in heating by laser radiation,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 13(7), 925–927 (1969).

OCIS Codes
(120.5700) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Reflection
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(160.0160) Materials : Materials
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: April 15, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 13, 2013
Published: May 20, 2013

Citation
O. Benavides, L. de la Cruz May, and A. Flores Gil, "A comparative study on reflection of nanosecond Nd-YAG laser pulses in ablation of metals in air and in vacuum," Opt. Express 21, 13068-13074 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-11-13068


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References

  1. C. R. Phipps, ed., Laser Ablation and Its Applications (Springer, 2007).
  2. D. Marla, U. V. Bhandarkar, and S. S. Joshi, “Critical assessment of the issues in the modeling of ablation and plasma expansion processes in the pulsed laser deposition of metals,” J. Appl. Phys.109(2), 021101 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Eason, ed., Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, 2007).
  4. L. Li, M. Hong, M. Schmidt, M. Zhong, A. Malshe, B. H. In’tveld, and V. Kovalenko, “Laser nano-manufacturing – State of the art and challenges,” CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology60(2), 735–755 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. S. C. Singh and H. Zeng, “Nanomaterials and nanopartterns based on laser processing: A brief review on current state of art,” Sci. Adv. Mater.4(3), 368–390 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. Z. B. Wang, M. H. Hong, B. S. Luk’yanchuk, S. M. Huang, Q. F. Wang, L. P. Shil, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel nanostructuring of GeSbTe film with particle mask,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(4–6), 1603–1606 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. V. Zorba, P. Tzanetakis, C. Fotakis, E. Spanakis, E. Stratakis, D. G. Papazoglou, and I. Zergioti, “Silicon electron emitters fabricated by ultraviolet laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 081103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. S. T. Hendow and S. A. Shakir, “Structuring materials with nanosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express18(10), 10188–10199 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Abdolvand, R. W. Lloyd, M. J. J. Schmidt, D. J. Whitehead, Z. Liu, and L. Li, “Formation of highly organized, periodic microstructures on steel surfaces upon pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.95(2), 447–452 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. N. M. Bulgakova, A. N. Panchenko, A. E. Tel’minov, and M. A. Shulepov, “Formation of microtower structures in nanosecond laser ablation of liquid metals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.98(2), 393–400 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Pedraza, J. D. Fowlkes, and Y.-F. Guan, “Surface nanostructuring of silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(2), 277–284 (2003).
  12. A. Kurella and N. B. Dahotre, “Review paper: Surface modification for bioimplants: The role of laser surface engineering,” J. Biomater. Appl.20(1), 5–50 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Haverkamp, R. M. Mayo, M. A. Bourham, J. Narayan, C. Jin, and G. Duscher, “Plasma plume characteristics and properties of pulsed laser deposited diamond-like carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys.93(6), 3627–3634 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. S. G. Gorny, G. V. Odintsova, A. V. Otkeeva, and V. P. Veiko, “Laser induced multicolor image formation on metal,” Proc. SPIE7996, 799605, 799605-7 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. J.-Y. Cheng, M.-H. Yen, C.-W. Wei, Y.-C. Chuang, and T.-H. Young, “Crack-free direct-writing on glass using a low-power UV laser in the manufacture of a microfluidic chip,” J. Micromech. Microeng.15(6), 1147–1156 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. G. Tang, A. C. Hourd, and A. Abdolvand, “Nanosecond pulsed laser blackening of copper,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(23), 231902 (2012). [CrossRef]
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