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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 12 — Jun. 17, 2013
  • pp: 14215–14222
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All-optical image switching in a double-Λ system

Bongjune Kim, Cha-Hwan Oh, Byoung-uk Sohn, Do-Kyeong Ko, Hyung Tak Kim, Changsoo Jung, Myoung-Kyu Oh, Nan Ei Yu, Bok Hyeon Kim, and Hoonsoo Kang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 12, pp. 14215-14222 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.014215


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Abstract

The coherent control of optical images has garnered attention because all information embedded in optical images is expected to be controlled in a parallel way. One of the most important control processes is switch for information delivery. We experimentally demonstrated phase-controlled optical image switching in a double-Λ system where the transmission of the image through a medium was switched. Two independent laser sources were adopted for a double-Λ system such that images inscribed in two weak probe light beams were incoherent with each other. Arbitrary phase was added to the optical images to show that switching could be accomplished just with the relative phase difference between the probe pixels.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Theory

Fig. 1 A double-Λ system and Experimental set-up. (a) A double-Λ system implemented with Zeeman levels of rubidium 87 D1 transition. (b) Experimental set-up for optical image switching with two independent extended-cavity diode lasers, polarization beam splitter (PBS), beam splitter (BS) and mirror (M), imaging lens (L), and spatial light modulator (SLM).).

3. Experiment

We began with experimental observation of the phase dependent probe transmission in a double-Λ system. A warm 87Rb atom vapour, mixed with nitrogen as buffer gas, was used to implement the double-Λ system. The gaseous cell was shielded with a 3-layer μ-metal from geomagnetic field. The 87Rb vapour cell was heated up to 90 Celsius and wound with copper wire to generate a static magnetic field in the direction parallel to the propagation of the coupling/probe laser. Two independent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems were used to generate coupling and probe fields. Each ECDL generated a pair of coupling and probe fields to excite each Λ system composed of Zeeman levels. The phase-difference between probe fields was adjusted by using optical delay line with piezoelectric transducers (PZT). Both probes were overlapped exactly and detected by a gained photo-diode. The probe and coupling beam diameters were 1 and 3 mm, respectively. Both coupling beams were coupled to a single polarization-maintenance-fibre (PMF) for exact overlapping. They were overlapped with the probe beams inside the rubidium vapour cell and tilted 1° from the probe beams to avoid leakage into the photo-diode. Figure 2 shows the transmissions of both probe beams at two differences of the phase induced by PZT with scanning the static magnetic field applied to Rb vapour cell. We could observe the double EIT of both probe fields at zero phase difference. The 90 % of the probe transmission was removed at a phase-difference of π, even though theoretical calculations showed up to 100 % transmission removal in ideal situation. The coupling beam power was about several mW and that of probe was sub-μW. The Rabi frequencies of both coupling fields were about 250 kHz and those of the probe fields were evaluated as Ω02,03 ∼ 0.01Ω12,13. The linewidth of the double EIT in Fig. 2 is broader than either coupling Rabi frequency. The conducted theoretical calculation showed that the estimated linewidth of the double EIT was driven by Ω122+Ω132. For optical image switching, a spatial light modulator (SLM) was employed to control the spatial phase distribution of two probe fields which will be converted to an optical image in a double-Λ system (Fig. 1(b)). The SLM pixel size (Holoeye-Pluto) is 8 μm, its filling factor is 87 % and its active area is 15.36×8.64 mm2. For the experimental easiness, both probe beams illuminated a single SLM of which the different regions were used to induce spatial phase shift to two probe fields respectively. Pixel pairs of two probe fields could be considered as multiple switching fields in a double-Λ system. The pixel phases of one probe field control the transmission of the pixels of the other probe field and vice versa in a double-Λ system. Piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in Fig. 1(b) induced the common phase shift on all pixels of the probe field. The probe fields were just transversely phase-modulated field distribution until Rb vapor cell. We used imaging lenses to place the imaging plane of the probe fields inside of the Rb vapor cell. At the image plane of the probe fields inside Rb vapour cell, the phase distribution was converted to the intensity distribution by the switching in a double-Λ system. After exiting the cell, the probe fields were separated from the coupling fields by polarization optics, and the probe field was imaged again on an electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera sensor (iXon, Andor), with CCD lens focus adjusted to the image plane inside the vapor cell. Regular CCD might be enough to observe our image but EMCCD is better to catch image with high resolution. Our probe power was several μW with 1 mm diameter. The transmission from vapor cell was 10 % even with maximum EIT condition because warm Rd vapor has high decoherence rate. Then, the total power of the probe image was about few hundred nW and the total pixel number to form the image was about 10,000. Therefore, each pixel picked just 10 pW light to form the image. In this situation EMCCD is much better to get high resolution image. Thus, the weak probe field can be considered as the transmission controller of the other incoherent probe field. The switching between the probe fields could generate an optical image only at the exit of a double-Λ system. We observed an image transmission in the case of A-shaped phase shift of the SLM for both probe fields (Fig. 3(a)). The gray leveled stick at the right of Fig. 3 (a) denotes absolute phase shift amount by SLM. The relative phase difference between the left and right of Fig. 3(a) was π phase shaped ’A’ and the other part was 0 relative phase difference. Therefore, the transmission of the A-shaped image was blocked. However, the background phase of A in the SLM was the same for both probes, what made the background transmission bright as shown in the left transmission image of Fig. 3(b)). As shown on the right side of Fig. 3(b), the contrast of the transmitted image was inverted due to the PZT-induced π phase shift over all pixels of one probe field. We did experiment with two case of phase shift (a) and (c) to show the image transmission can be controlled just by the relative phase difference between two probe fields. In the case (a), even without switching effect, the transmitted image of one probe field could be seen as letter A even though faint due to edge diffraction of A. To manifest that the switching could be implemented just with the relative phase difference between the probe pixels, an arbitrary phase shift was enforced on one probe field as shown in Fig. 3 (c). Meanwhile, the other probe was adjusted for the relative phase distribution between the probes to be shaped to letter H. The probe fields were imaged in a double-Λ system as shown in Fig. 3(d). The size of each arbitrary phase box on SLM (Fig. 3(c)) was about 40×48 μm2.

Fig. 2 The probe transmission with a magnetic field at the condition of two relative phase differences between probe fields in a double-Λ system. A two-photon detuning in a doubleΛ system was occurred by a scanned magnetic field applied to Rb atoms. The conversion scale from magnetic field to frequency detuning is 1.4 MHz/G. The measured FWHM linewith of double EIT was 358 KHz.
Fig. 3 All-optically switched images and the phase shifts of the probe fields with two cases ((a) and (c)). (a) Phase shift distributions of each probe field induced by SLM. Gray levels corresponds to phase shift induced by SLM. (b) Transmitted image (left) of (a) phase shift and a contrast-inverted image by the PZT-induced π phase over all pixels of one probe field (right). (c) Phase distributions of each probe field induced by SLM. The relative phase shift between two probe fields was H shaped π (a phase box size 40×48 μm2). (d) Transmitted image (left) of (c) phase shift and a contrast-inverted image with π-phase shifted by PZT (right).

4. Conclusion

We demonstrate all-optical image switching in a double-Λ system, with optical images generated by two independent laser sources. We added arbitrary phase to both optical images as then, in a double-Λ system, the original image could be recovered by switching the arbitrary phase off. The original image recovery was impossible outside of a double-Λ system because the arbitrary phase of two incoherent probe fields could not be switched off due to lack of other interference effects. As it has been already demonstrated that all-optical switching could be implemented with a double-Λ system in 20 photon-level [15

15. J. Zhang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, “All-optical switching at ultralow light levels,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1317–1319 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

], we expect that it would be employed to a quantum information network where the switching between non-classical photon controls photon routing. Because all-optical image switching is an extension of optical switching for parallel optical information process, we also expect that the result of the present work could be applicable to non-classical optical image information technique such as quantum image routing. We need to expand this work to manipulate quantum image information. Two photon pair generation in a double-Λ system have been demonstrated to be nonclassical photon by observing the second order correlation at a single photon level [22

22. Qun-Feng Chen, Bao-Sen Shi, Min Feng, Yong-Sheng Zhang, and Guang-Can Guo, “Non-degenerate nonclassical photon pairs in a hot atomic ensemble,” Opt. Exp. 16, 21708–21713 (2008) [CrossRef] .

]. The same method can be adopted to demonstrate all-optical switching between nonclassical field in a double-Λ system. Our method might be implemented with semiconductor nano-structure as the phase dependent switching in a double-Λ system was demonstrated on GaAs quantum well structure [23

23. H. Kang, Y. Park, I. Sohn, and M. Jeong, “All-optical switching with a biexcitonic double lambda system,” Opt. Comm. 284, 1045–1052 (2011) [CrossRef] .

].

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grants funded by the Korea government (MEST) ( 2010-0013310 and 2011-0015853) and in part by the Asian Laser Center Program through a grant provided by the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology.

References and links

1.

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, “All-optical delay of images using slow light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

2.

M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Storing images in warm atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 223601 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

3.

P. K. Vudyasetu, R. M. Camacho, and J. C. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of multimode transverse images in hot atomic rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123903 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

4.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science 321, 544–547 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

5.

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

6.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon. 4, 227–230 (2010) [CrossRef] .

7.

S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998) [CrossRef] .

8.

H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, “All-optical wavelength converter and switch based on electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3173–3175 (2000) [CrossRef] .

9.

H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093601 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

10.

M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203902 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

11.

Y. H. Chen, Meng-Jung Lee, Weilun Hung, Ying-Cheng Chen, Yong-Fan Chen, and Ite A. Yu, “Demonstration of the interaction between two stopped light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 173603 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

12.

M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Consequences of induced transparency in a double-Λ scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 063806 (2002) [CrossRef] .

13.

H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Phase-controlled light switching at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 011802 (2006) [CrossRef] .

14.

A. F. Huss, E. A. Korsunsky, and L. Windholz, “Phase control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a double-Λ system, J. of Morde. Opt. 49, 141–155 (2002) [CrossRef] .

15.

J. Zhang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, “All-optical switching at ultralow light levels,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1317–1319 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

16.

B. Dayan and Y. Silberberg, “Atoms and photons share quarters,” Nat. Photon. 3, 429–430 (2009) [CrossRef] .

17.

Jiepeng Zhang, Jun Xu, Gessler Hernandez, Xiang-Ming Hu, and Yifu Zhu, “Polychromatic-field-induced transparency and absorption in a three-level Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 043810 (2007) [CrossRef] .

18.

Jiepeng Zhang, Gessler Hernandez, and Yifu Zhu, “Optical switching mediated by quantum interference of Raman transitions,” Opt. Expr. 16, 19112–19117 (2008) [CrossRef] .

19.

S. Sevincli, N. Henkel, C. Ates, and T. Pohl, “Nonlocal nonlinear optics in cold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 153001 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

20.

H. Kang, B. Kim, Y. Park, C.-H. Oh, and I. Lee, “Phase-controlled switching by interference between incoherent fields in a double-Λ system,” Opt. Exp. 19, 4113–4119, (2011) [CrossRef] .

21.

Jeffrey O. White and Amnon Yariv, “Real time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 5–7 (1980) [CrossRef] .

22.

Qun-Feng Chen, Bao-Sen Shi, Min Feng, Yong-Sheng Zhang, and Guang-Can Guo, “Non-degenerate nonclassical photon pairs in a hot atomic ensemble,” Opt. Exp. 16, 21708–21713 (2008) [CrossRef] .

23.

H. Kang, Y. Park, I. Sohn, and M. Jeong, “All-optical switching with a biexcitonic double lambda system,” Opt. Comm. 284, 1045–1052 (2011) [CrossRef] .

OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(070.4340) Fourier optics and signal processing : Nonlinear optical signal processing
(110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

ToC Category:
Atomic and Molecular Physics

History
Original Manuscript: April 4, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 15, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 25, 2013
Published: June 7, 2013

Citation
Bongjune Kim, Cha-Hwan Oh, Byoung-uk Sohn, Do-Kyeong Ko, Hyung Tak Kim, Changsoo Jung, Myoung-Kyu Oh, Nan Ei Yu, Bok Hyeon Kim, and Hoonsoo Kang, "All-optical image switching in a double-Λ system," Opt. Express 21, 14215-14222 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-12-14215


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References

  1. R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, “All-optical delay of images using slow light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 043902 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Shuker, O. Firstenberg, R. Pugatch, A. Ron, and N. Davidson, “Storing images in warm atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 223601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. K. Vudyasetu, R. M. Camacho, and J. C. Howell, “Storage and retrieval of multimode transverse images in hot atomic rubidium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 123903 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, R. C. Pooser, and P. D. Lett, “Entangled images from four-wave mixing,” Science321, 544–547 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 143601 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nature Photon.4, 227–230 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81, 3611 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Schmidt and R. J. Ram, “All-optical wavelength converter and switch based on electromagnetically induced transparency,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76, 3173–3175 (2000). [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kang and Y. Zhu, “Observation of large Kerr nonlinearity at low light intensities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 093601 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Bajcsy, S. Hofferberth, V. Balic, T. Peyronel, M. Hafezi, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletic, and M. D. Lukin, “Efficient all-optical switching using slow light within a hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102, 203902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. H. Chen, Meng-Jung Lee, Weilun Hung, Ying-Cheng Chen, Yong-Fan Chen, and Ite A. Yu, “Demonstration of the interaction between two stopped light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 173603 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. G. Payne and L. Deng, “Consequences of induced transparency in a double-Λ scheme,” Phys. Rev. A65, 063806 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kang, G. Hernandez, J. Zhang, and Y. Zhu, “Phase-controlled light switching at low light levels,” Phys. Rev. A73, 011802 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. A. F. Huss, E. A. Korsunsky, and L. Windholz, “Phase control of electromagnetically induced transparency in a double-Λ system, J. of Morde. Opt.49, 141–155 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Zhang, G. Hernandez, and Y. Zhu, “All-optical switching at ultralow light levels,” Opt. Lett.32, 1317–1319 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Dayan and Y. Silberberg, “Atoms and photons share quarters,” Nat. Photon.3, 429–430 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. Jiepeng Zhang, Jun Xu, Gessler Hernandez, Xiang-Ming Hu, and Yifu Zhu, “Polychromatic-field-induced transparency and absorption in a three-level Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A75, 043810 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. Jiepeng Zhang, Gessler Hernandez, and Yifu Zhu, “Optical switching mediated by quantum interference of Raman transitions,” Opt. Expr.16, 19112–19117 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Sevincli, N. Henkel, C. Ates, and T. Pohl, “Nonlocal nonlinear optics in cold Rydberg gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107, 153001 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Kang, B. Kim, Y. Park, C.-H. Oh, and I. Lee, “Phase-controlled switching by interference between incoherent fields in a double-Λ system,” Opt. Exp.19, 4113–4119, (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. Jeffrey O. White and Amnon Yariv, “Real time image processing via four-wave mixing in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.37, 5–7 (1980). [CrossRef]
  22. Qun-Feng Chen, Bao-Sen Shi, Min Feng, Yong-Sheng Zhang, and Guang-Can Guo, “Non-degenerate nonclassical photon pairs in a hot atomic ensemble,” Opt. Exp.16, 21708–21713 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Kang, Y. Park, I. Sohn, and M. Jeong, “All-optical switching with a biexcitonic double lambda system,” Opt. Comm.284, 1045–1052 (2011). [CrossRef]

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