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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 12 — Jun. 17, 2013
  • pp: 14618–14626
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Phase noise analysis of a 10 Watt Yb-doped fibre amplifier seeded by a 1-Hz-linewidth laser

Iolanda Ricciardi, Simona Mosca, Pasquale Maddaloni, Luigi Santamaria, Maurizio De Rosa, and Paolo De Natale  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 12, pp. 14618-14626 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.014618


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Abstract

We report a thorough analysis of the spectral properties of an ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier, seeded by a Nd:YAG laser, whose linewidth has been narrowed down to 1 Hz by locking the laser to an ultrastable reference cavity. We measured the phase noise contribution from the amplifier, showing that it does not depend on the amplification gain, nor on the seed laser linewidth. Moreover, the amplifier-induced phase noise does not affect the final linewidth, as verified by heterodyne linewidth measurement within the 0.2 Hz resolution bandwidth of our acquisition set-up. Preservation of spectral purity below Hz-level is promising for more demanding applications, from nonlinear optics to frequency/time-standard transfer over fibre links.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In the last decades, fibre optical amplifiers, originally based on Erbium doped fibres, have found a large use in the field of communication technology, as signal power regenerators in long-haul optical transmissions. Afterwards, other rare-earths-doped fibres extended the spectral range of fibre-based devices, enabling high-efficiency power amplification of laser sources operating at different wavelengths. For many applications, including optical transmission, it is desirable to retain the seed laser features (e.g., tunability, spectral width, amplitude stability, etc) to the high power output. Future generations of gravitational-waves interferometric detectors require high-power lasers with several hundreds of Watts of output power and with extremely small temporal and spatial fluctuations [1

1. H. Tünnermann, J. H. Pöld, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, B. Willke, and P. Weßels, “Beam quality and noise properties of coherently combined ytterbium doped single frequency fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 19600–19606 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

]. Also, high-power and high spectral purity are both required for high-resolution spectroscopy exploiting frequency conversion in nonlinear optical media. In particular, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillators (SRO) have greatly benefited from the availability of high-power pump lasers, due to typical threshold levels in the Watt range. In this respect, Yb-doped fibre amplifiers (YDFAs) emitting around 1 μm represent highly efficient and suitable pump sources for SROs emitting in the mid-infrared (MIR) region with a spectral linewidth in the kHz range [2

2. I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20, 9178–9186 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 3

3. I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A narrow-linewidth optical parametric oscillator for mid-infrared high-resolution spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110, 2103–2109 (2012) [CrossRef] .

]. In principle, the MIR spectral linewidth of a SRO can be reduced by using a narrower pump laser, provided that the amplification stage does not degrade the final performance. Finally, YDFAs could play a major role in metrological applications, as the dissemination of ultra-stable optical frequency standards over fibre links, currently based on telecom technology at 1550 nm [4

4. K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-Kilometer Optical Fiber Link for Frequency Metrology at the 19th Decimal Place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

]. The perfect bidirectionality needed for phase noise cancellation techniques, limits the maximum operating gain of Er-doped amplifiers, and new fibre amplifiers are taken into account [5

5. C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” arXiv: 1211.3910 [physics.optics] (2012).

]. Unlike data transmission, fibre dispersion does not affect the transmission of an extremely narrow-bandwidth frequency standard signal, and potentially new optical windows could be viable. However, moving to the wavelength range of Yb-doped fibres around 1 μm involves larger losses, thus requiring higher amplification gains or a denser network of regeneration points.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle puts a fundamental quantum limit to the unavoidable noise that a linear amplifier adds to the signal [6

6. H. A. Haus and J. Mullen, “Quantum Noise in Linear Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2407–2413 (1962) [CrossRef] .

, 7

7. H. Heffner, “The Fundamental Noise Limit of Linear Amplifiers,” Proc. IRE 12, 1604–1608 (1962) [CrossRef] .

]. In practice, technical noise sources further degrade, in general, the noise figure of an amplifier. Although technical noise can be reasonably considered indipendent of the seed linewidth, its contribution will be more noticeable with respect to a narrower seed linewidth. Moreover, narrow seed linewidths and tight confinement of optical fields in fibres can lead to broadening, e.g., through stimulated Brillouin scattering [8

8. Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546–551 (2007) [CrossRef] .

]. In the past years the spectral properties of fibre amplifiers, such as Er:doped [9

9. G. J. Cowle, P. R. Morkel, R. I. Loming, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral broadening due to fibre amplifier phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 26, 424–425 (1990) [CrossRef] .

12

12. L. Moller, “Novel aspects of spectral broadening due to fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1554–1558 (1998) [CrossRef] .

] and Nd:doped fibre amplifiers [13

13. E. Rochat and R. Dandliker, “New investigations on the effect of fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 49–54 (2001) [CrossRef] .

], have been extensively investigated. Yb-doped fiber amplifiers have been studied as well, because of their peculiar features, such as broad amplification bandwidth, high efficiency and high gains [14

14. R. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997) [CrossRef] .

, 15

15. L. Zhang, S. Cui, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and Y. Feng, “170 W, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly-polarized, Yb-doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 21, 5456–5462 (2013) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

]. Intensity and frequency noise characterization of a 1.2 W YDFA at 1083 nm has been reported by Cancio et al. [16

16. P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000) [CrossRef] .

]. They used two different seed sources, with 300 kHz and 5 kHz linewidths, respectively, and did not appreciate any amplifier-induced increase of spectral linewidth, limited by the 300 Hz resolution bandwidth of their spectrum analyzer. Höfer et al. performed linewidth measurements on a YDFA emitting up to 20 W, seeded by a 1-kHz-linewidth Nd:YAG laser equipped with a noise-eater for amplitude noise suppression [17

17. S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellemer, and A. Tünnermann, “Single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier system emitting 20 W of power,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1326–1328 (2001) [CrossRef] .

]. They observed a linewidth contribution from the amplification only when the noise-eater was off, while no effect was visible with the noise-eater on. Finally, spectrally resolved phase-noise measurements have been carried out for amplified signals up to 1 W [18

18. M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, “Phase-noise properties of an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna,” Opt. Lett. 30, 789–791 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 19

19. M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, “Power- and frequency-noise characteristics of an Yb-doped fiber amplifier and actuators for stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 2224–2235 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

].

The present work reports an extensive investigation on phase-noise properties of an YDFA working at 1064 nm, for output powers up to 10 W. The amplifier was seeded with a 1 kHz free-running linewidth Nd:YAG laser. The laser linewidth was subsequently reduced, down to 1 Hz, by locking the laser frequency to an ultrastable Fabry–Pérot cavity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported measurement on a fibre amplifier seeded with such a narrow source. We performed both linewidth and spectrally resolved phase-noise measurements. We did not observe any significant difference between phase spectral densities measured for different amplification gains and signal linewidths. Regarding the amplifier contribution to the final linewidth, we did not observe any broadening within a spectral resolution of a 0.2 Hz. We remark that the fundamental noise contribution dictated by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is extremely small (∼ 10−15 rad2/Hz, for a 1-kHz seed-linewidth [13

13. E. Rochat and R. Dandliker, “New investigations on the effect of fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 49–54 (2001) [CrossRef] .

]) with respect to our set-up resolution.

2. Experimental setup

To investigate the phase-noise properties of the fibre amplifier, we used a heterodyne Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI), in order to subtract the phase noise contribution of the seed laser. The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. The seed laser is a Nd:YAG, with a non-planar ring oscillator, emitting 500 mW at 1064 nm, with a nominal linewidth of 1 kHz over 100 ms (Mephisto 500 by Innolight). A Faraday isolator shields the laser from back-reflections. A half-wave plate combined with a polarizing beam splitter divides the laser beam into two parts and allows to adjust the power unbalance between the outcoming beams. The transmitted light from the beam splitter is fibre-coupled and sent to the amplifier input, while the reflected light is sent to an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) driven by a local oscillator at 110 MHz. The output beam from the amplifier and the frequency shifted AOM output are separately fibre coupled, superimposed in a Y-coupler and finally guided to a fast InGaAs photodetector (1 GHz bandwidth). One of the mirrors used to inject the AOM output radiation into the fibre is mounted on a piezoelectric actuator (PZT) in order to lock the interferometer.

Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup. AOM: acousto-optic modulator; BS: beam splitter; EOM: electro-optic modulator; FFT: fast Fourier transform analyzer; HW: half-wave plate; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; PD: photodiode; PZT: piezoelectric actuator; QW: quarter-wave plate; SA: spectrum analyzer; ULE: Ultra Low Expansion reference cavity; YDFA: Yb-doped fibre amplifier.

The YDFA is a commercial device (Nufern, PSFA-1064-50-10W-2-1) based on a 12.5-m-long single-mode polarization-maintaining Yb-doped fibre. It has a seed threshold of 50 mW, providing output powers continuosly adjustable from 1 W (lowest gain) to 10 W (highest gain). Heat dissipation is ensured by mounting the amplifier case on a temperature-stabilized thermoelectric cold plate (cooler) which in turn dissipates heat in the environment by a fan-aided air flow. The Yb-doped fibre inside the amplifier is unjacketed, while all the other fibres used in the interferometer arms are kevlar-reinforced and PVC-jacketed, to reduce their sensitiveness to environmental disturbs. Few milliwatts of laser light are used for linewidth narrowing by frequency locking to an ultrastable reference cavity: this is made of high reflectivity mirrors optically contacted on a Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) ceramic spacer. The cavity is placed on a double-stage mechanical suspension, kept under vacuum, and temperature-stabilized. The cavity shows a temperature stability of 10−4 °C over one day; similar cavities showed a frequency long-term drift of a few Hz/s, as a consequence of relaxation process in the spacer material [20

20. L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “High-spectral-purity laser system for the AURIGA detector optical readout,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 462–468 (2003) [CrossRef] .

].

3. Results and discussion

In principle, when using an interferometer with perfectly matched path lengths in each arm, the laser phase fluctuations cancel completely at the interferometer output, whereas additional uncorrelated phase-noise generated in the two arms will result in the photocurrent spectrum. Anyway, even in the case of unmatched paths, the smaller is the path imbalance of the two arms with respect to the laser coherence length, the stronger is the rejection of the laser signal noise. In our case, for 1 kHz laser FWHM the coherence length (time) is ∼ 105 m (∼ 10−3 s), thus even a few metres of arm imbalance would result in a signal noise suppression of 140–150 dB/Hz [12

12. L. Moller, “Novel aspects of spectral broadening due to fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1554–1558 (1998) [CrossRef] .

]. For 1 Hz FWHM, the suppression is even more effective.

We performed different measurements in order to estimate the different contributions to the phase noise, from the laser, the fibres in the interferometer, and the amplifier. We preliminarly recorded the power spectrum of the photodetector signal around the beat frequency fAOM. For this purpose, the detector output was band-pass filtered in the frequency range 40–140 MHz and sent to a RF spectrum analyzer. First, we acquired the spectrum without the amplifier in the interferometer. Then, we inserted the amplifier into one interferometer arm and acquired the beat-note spectra of the seed signal with and without amplification.

Figure 2 reports the frequency beat-note spectra without (a) and with the amplifier in a MZI arm, with (b) 1 W, (c) 5 W, and (d) 10 W of output power. The traces have the same background level, they have been offset for the sake of visualization. The width of the beat-notes at 110 MHz is limited by the100 Hz resolution bandwidth of our spectrum analyzer (inset of Fig. 2). Nevertheless, weak sidebands are visible in the spectra corresponding to 5 W and 10 W of output power radiation, equally spaced by 120 kHz and 200 kHz, respectively, with < −50 dBc level. The same sidebands have been observed in the relative intensity noise (RIN) spectra acquired by directly monitoring the amplitude of the amplifier output power.

Fig. 2 Power spectral densities around the 110 MHz beat frequency: (a) with amplifier off, (b) with 1 W, (c) 5 W, and (d) 10 W of amplifier output power (RBW=3 kHz, VBW=300 Hz). The traces are offset for the sake of visualization. Inset: enlarged view of the beat frequency of trace (d), with RBW=100 Hz (500 kHz/div; 10 dB/div).

In a second set of measurements, we detected the relative optical phase fluctuations between the two interferometer arms, and calculated the corresponding spectral density. To this end, the RF beat-note from the fast detector was sent to an analog phase detector and mixed with a reference signal given by the same AOM local oscillator. The filtered output phase signal was acquired with a digital oscilloscope and the power spectral density (PSD) calculated with a built-in FFT routine. To keep the phase signal in the linear response range and avoid cycle slips, we locked the MZI to a constant output phase. Thus, the phase signal was fed to a servo-loop (unity gain bandwidth, 1 kHz), which drives the mirror PZT. The limited dynamic range of the servo control prevented us from keeping the MZI locked for times longer than a few seconds, especially when the amplifier was operating. For this reason, the acquired averaged spectra are limited to the lowest frequency of 10 Hz. The spectra are given by the correction loop signal, in the servo bandwidth, and the phase signal outside the loop bandwidth, respectively. The fibres in the interferometer arms are sensitive to the environmental noise (mainly acoustic and seismic) which adds to the detected phase signal, setting the detection limit of our MZI. To estimate this effect, we measured the phase noise in presence of fibre patchcords of different lengths. Moreover, we also unbalanced the arm lengths up to ∼ 12 m, to verify that the laser noise was effectively canceled. From the recorded phase spectra we did not observe any significant effect neither due to the unbalanced arm lengths, nor to longer balanced paths inside the fibres.

Thereafter, the amplifier was inserted into one interferometer arm and phase-noise spectra were acquired under various experimental conditions. First, in order to set our detection limit, we acquired the phase-noise spectra with the amplifier switched off (curve (a) in Fig. 3). In a second test, we switched on the amplifier cooler, still keeping the amplifier off. (curve (b) in Fig. 3). Then, we acquired the phase-noise spectra with the amplifier on, with different amplification gains. Figure 3 reports the spectra for 1 W (c) and 10 W (d) of output power. Similar spectra, acquired for intermediate gains, are not reported in the figure for the sake of clarity, as they practically overlap to spectra (c) and (d). The amplifier cooler adds noise for Fourier frequencies from 30 Hz to 20 kHz. With the amplifier on, the phase noise further increases in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range, irrespective of the amplification gain, while for frequencies largerer than 1 kHz the fluctuation level is set by the cooler noise. These fluctuations are mainly due to the acoustic noise generated by the fan which blows air on the cold plate heat sink. A quieter cooling system could reduce this contribution.

Fig. 3 MZI output phase spectra under different experimental configurations: (a) both the cooler and the amplifier switched off; (b) cooler on, amplifier off; (c) and (d) both the cooler and the amplifier on, with the lowest and highest available gain, respectively.

Fig. 4 Laser frequency noise spectra: (a) free-running; (b) locked to the ULE cavity (in-loop); (c) detection limit.
Fig. 5 (a) MZI output phase spectra with 10 W of amplifier output power, with 1 kHz and 1 Hz of seed laser linewidth. The dashed line represents the separation line βϕ(f) = 8ln(2)/π2f (see text). (b) Power spectral density around the beat-note at 4 kHz for 1-Hz laser linewidth and maximum amplification. The two sidebands at 55 Hz from the carrier nicely match the peak above the βϕ-line. (c) enlarged view of the beat frequency in a log scale,RBW=0.2 Hz.

PSD of phase/frequency noise is usually a more informative spectral description than line-shape and its linewidth. Indeed, the spectral lineshape can be derived from the usually more informative PSD [22

22. G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4801–4807 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 23

23. D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982) [CrossRef] .

]. In particular, the frequency PSD can be separated in two areas which affect in a different way the lineshape [22

22. G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4801–4807 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

]. The two regions are defined by the separation line βν(f) = 8ln(2) f/π2, which in the phase spectral domain becomes βϕ(f) = 8ln(2)/π2f, plotted (dashed line) in Fig. 5. The spectral components above the separation line (i.e., Sϕ(f) > βϕ) contribute to the linewidth, while the noise below the β-separation (i.e., Sϕ(f) <βϕ) contributes mainly to the wings of the lineshape but does not affect the linewidth. Except for a peak around 55 Hz the measured spectra lie under the β-separation. Nothing can be said about the spectral contribution for f < 10 Hz. However, we can roughly model the measured phase PSD as a power law, ∼ 0.1/f2 rad2/Hz, where f is the spectral frequency in Hz, which translates in a constant (white) frequency noise, giving a Lorentzian FWHM of ∼ 0.3 Hz [23

23. D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982) [CrossRef] .

].

4. Conclusions

We analysed the spectral properties of a YDFA output, seeded by a narrow-linewidth Nd:YAG laser. To estimate the additional frequency/phase noise due to the presence of the amplifier, we canceled out the laser spectral noise by using a heterodyne MZI. The free-running laser linewidth of 1 kHz has been further reduced down to 1 Hz, representing the narrowest linewidth ever injected into a fibre amplifier. Additional phase noise comes from the amplifier cooling system and from the amplifier itself as well. However, the noise is independent of both the amplification gain and the laser linewidth. Moreover, we estimated possible broadening of the seed linewidth with the unprecedented frequency resolution of 0.2 Hz, placing a more stringent upper limit on the amplifier contribution to the final linewidth.

The present results demonstrate the suitability of Yb-doped fiber amplifiers to retain the spectral features of very narrow seed lasers, avoiding the implementation of supplementary narrowing schemes downstream of the amplifier. The demonstrated preservation, at the Hz level, of spectral purity of amplified signal represents a decisive step towards more demanding applications where high power or signal regeneration must coexist with low spectral noise. Similar analysis can be easily extended to other types of amplifiers and to higher gains, exploring at a deeper level their spectral characteristics.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Progetto Operativo Nazionale ( PON), PON01_01525 MONi-toraggio Innovativo per le Coste e l’Ambiente Marino - MONICA.

References and links

1.

H. Tünnermann, J. H. Pöld, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, B. Willke, and P. Weßels, “Beam quality and noise properties of coherently combined ytterbium doped single frequency fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19, 19600–19606 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

2.

I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20, 9178–9186 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

3.

I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A narrow-linewidth optical parametric oscillator for mid-infrared high-resolution spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110, 2103–2109 (2012) [CrossRef] .

4.

K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-Kilometer Optical Fiber Link for Frequency Metrology at the 19th Decimal Place,” Science 336, 441–444 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

5.

C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” arXiv: 1211.3910 [physics.optics] (2012).

6.

H. A. Haus and J. Mullen, “Quantum Noise in Linear Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2407–2413 (1962) [CrossRef] .

7.

H. Heffner, “The Fundamental Noise Limit of Linear Amplifiers,” Proc. IRE 12, 1604–1608 (1962) [CrossRef] .

8.

Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, D. N. Payne, R. Horley, L. M. B. Hickey, and P. W. Turner, “Power Scaling of Single-Frequency Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier Sources up to 500 W,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 546–551 (2007) [CrossRef] .

9.

G. J. Cowle, P. R. Morkel, R. I. Loming, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral broadening due to fibre amplifier phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 26, 424–425 (1990) [CrossRef] .

10.

H. Okamura and K. Iwatsuki, “Spectral linewidth broadening in Er-doped-fibre amplifiers measured with less than 1.4 kHz linewidth light source,” Electron. Lett. 26, 1965–1967 (1990) [CrossRef] .

11.

E. Desurvire, “Analysis of noise figure spectral distribution in erbium doped fiber amplifiers pumped near 980 and 1480 nm,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3118–3125 (1990) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

12.

L. Moller, “Novel aspects of spectral broadening due to fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1554–1558 (1998) [CrossRef] .

13.

E. Rochat and R. Dandliker, “New investigations on the effect of fiber amplifier phase noise,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 49–54 (2001) [CrossRef] .

14.

R. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997) [CrossRef] .

15.

L. Zhang, S. Cui, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and Y. Feng, “170 W, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly-polarized, Yb-doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 21, 5456–5462 (2013) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

16.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000) [CrossRef] .

17.

S. Höfer, A. Liem, J. Limpert, H. Zellemer, and A. Tünnermann, “Single-frequency master-oscillator fiber power amplifier system emitting 20 W of power,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1326–1328 (2001) [CrossRef] .

18.

M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, “Phase-noise properties of an ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna,” Opt. Lett. 30, 789–791 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

19.

M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, “Power- and frequency-noise characteristics of an Yb-doped fiber amplifier and actuators for stabilization,” Opt. Express 13, 2224–2235 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

20.

L. Conti, M. De Rosa, and F. Marin, “High-spectral-purity laser system for the AURIGA detector optical readout,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 462–468 (2003) [CrossRef] .

21.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. W. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97–105 (1983) [CrossRef] .

22.

G. Di Domenico, S. Schilt, and P. Thomann, “Simple approach to the relation between laser frequency noise and laser line shape,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4801–4807 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

23.

D. S. Elliott, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, “Extracavity laser band-shape and bandwidth modification,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 12–18 (1982) [CrossRef] .

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(230.2285) Optical devices : Fiber devices and optical amplifiers

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: May 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: May 16, 2013
Published: June 12, 2013

Citation
Iolanda Ricciardi, Simona Mosca, Pasquale Maddaloni, Luigi Santamaria, Maurizio De Rosa, and Paolo De Natale, "Phase noise analysis of a 10 Watt Yb-doped fibre amplifier seeded by a 1-Hz-linewidth laser," Opt. Express 21, 14618-14626 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-12-14618


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References

  1. H. Tünnermann, J. H. Pöld, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, B. Willke, and P. Weßels, “Beam quality and noise properties of coherently combined ytterbium doped single frequency fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express19, 19600–19606 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy,” Opt. Express20, 9178–9186 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Ricciardi, E. De Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. De Rosa, and P. De Natale, “A narrow-linewidth optical parametric oscillator for mid-infrared high-resolution spectroscopy,” Mol. Phys.110, 2103–2109 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Predehl, G. Grosche, S. M. F. Raupach, S. Droste, O. Terra, J. Alnis, T. Legero, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and H. Schnatz, “A 920-Kilometer Optical Fiber Link for Frequency Metrology at the 19th Decimal Place,” Science336, 441–444 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Clivati, G. Bolognini, D. Calonico, S. Faralli, F. Levi, A. Mura, and N. Poli, “Distributed Raman optical amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies,” arXiv: 1211.3910 [physics.optics] (2012).
  6. H. A. Haus and J. Mullen, “Quantum Noise in Linear Amplifiers,” Phys. Rev.128, 2407–2413 (1962). [CrossRef]
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