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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 13 — Jul. 1, 2013
  • pp: 15698–15705
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All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics

Xiyuan Li, Wei Li, Xin Guo, Jingyi Lou, and Limin Tong  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 13, pp. 15698-15705 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.015698


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Abstract

We demonstrate all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits by integrating Ag nanowires with optical fibers. Relying on near-field coupling, we realize a photon-to-plasmon conversion efficiency up to 92% in a fiber-based nanowire plasmonic probe. Around optical communication band, we assemble an all-fiber resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with Q-factor of 6 × 106 and extinction ratio up to 30 dB, respectively. Using the MZI, we demonstrate fiber-compatible plasmonic sensing with high sensitivity and low optical power.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Fiber-based SPP probes

The Ag nanowires used here were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate (AgNO3) with ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in a soft, self-seeding process [23

23. Y. G. Sun, Y. D. Yin, B. T. Mayers, T. Herricks, and Y. N. Xia, “Uniform silver nanowires synthesis by reducing AgNO3 with Ethylene Glycol in the presence of seeds and Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone),” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4736–4745 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. In a typical synthesis, 6 mL of AgNO3 (0.33g) and PVP (0.17g) solution (in EG) were added drop wise to 5 mL of EG heated at 160°C. The reaction mixture was continued with heating at 160°C for 1 hour until all AgNO3 had been completely reduced. As-synthesized nanowires were purified by centrifugation, diluted in acetone (5 by volume) to remove EG and then in ethanol (10 by volume) to remove PVP. To tailor a standard optical fiber for nanowire integration, we drew one end of a fiber into sharp taper using a flame-heated taper-drawing technique [24

24. L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By controlling the drawing speed of about 5 m/s, relatively sharp fiber taper with distal end size of about 300 nm can be repeatedly fabricated. Optical characterization shows that, this kind of sharp taper does not only maintain excellent mechanical strength, but also offers nearly adiabatic transition of the fundamental guiding modes of a standard optical fiber into tightly confined modes of the nanofiber at its distal end.

By coupling back the propagating SPPs in Ag nanowire into a collection optical fiber, a return-signal probe can be obtained. As schematically illustrated in Fig. 1(e), two fiber tapers are placed in parallel and bonded on a low-index substrate (MgF2 wafer) using low-index UV-cured fluoropolymer (EFIRON PC-373; Luvantix Co. Ltd.) for robust operation. The Ag nanowire is bent to bridge the both tapers. SEM image and optical micrograph of a typical in-fiber return-signal plasmonic probe are shown in Figs. 1(f) and 1(g), respectively. The probe was assembled using a 210-nm-diameter Ag nanowire, with about 15-μm-length free-standing nanowire for plasmonic waveguiding. The bending radius of the Ag nanowire is about 5 μm, which is large enough to avoid bending loss of the propagation SPPs [29

29. A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When a 633-nm-wavelength light was launched from the upper taper, light scattered from the bent Ag nanowire (mostly induced by surface contamination) was clearly seen (see Fig. 1(h)), indicating the propagation SPPs guided through the nanowire bend.

3. Closed-loop all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon resonators

Relying on the in-fiber return-signal plasmonic probe, a closed-loop all-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon resonator can be readily constructed. As illustrated in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 All-fiber hybrid photonic-plasmonic loop resonator. (a) Schematic of the hybrid photonic- plasmonic loop resonator. The black dashed box is the in-fiber return-signal plasmonic probe shown in Figs. 1(e-h) and the red dashed box marks the closed loop. (b) A typical transmission spectrum of the hybrid resonator.
, by tapering two opposite branches of a commercially available 3-dB X-coupler, and fabricating the probe incorporating a 270-nm-diameter bent Ag nanowire, optical resonance can be established inside the closed loop (see red dashed box in Fig. 2(a)). For optical characterization, a tunable laser (Model: New Focus 6528-LN, linewidth<0.1pm) and an optical power meter (Model: dBm Optics 4650) are used to measure the transmission spectrum. When light from the C-band tunable laser was launched from the left branch, evident resonance was obtained from the right output port of the X-coupler, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The measured free space range (FSR) of the resonance is about 0.7 pm, agrees well with the total optical path of about 3.4 m of the closed loop (30-μm-length Ag nanowire and 2.4-m-length optical fiber). The Q-factor of the hybrid cavity, obtained from the full width at half-maximum (fwhm) of the resonant peak, is about 6 × 106, higher than many other hybrid photon-plasmon cavity reported so far [30

30. M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32

32. Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43(3), 035402 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

4. All-fiber hybrid photonic-plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs)

To construct a MZI, we connected two commercial Y-couplers, and inserted a fiber-based plasmonic probe in one arm, as schematically illustrated in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 All-fiber hybrid photonic-plasmonic MZI. (a) Schematic of the hybrid photonic-plasmonic MZI. The structure in the dashed box represents the in-fiber return-signal plasmonic probe shown in Figs. 1(e-h). (b) Typical transmission spectrum of the hybrid MZI.
. The Ag nanowire used for the probe is 270 nm in diameter and about 25 μm in effective length (free-standing part), and the entire fiber-based circuit is connected by standard FC/PC connectors. To operate the MZI, broadband light (1520 nm-1620 nm) from a tunable laser was sent into the circuit from the left-side fiber, split by the first coupler, and recombined at the second coupler after traveling through the reference arm (the upper pure-fiber arm) and the hybrid arm (including the bottom plasmonic probe), respectively. The output signal from right-most fiber of the second coupler was sent to an optical power meter. Typical spectral response of the MZI is shown in Fig. 3(b), in which a clear interference with an extinction ratio up to 30 dB is observed, with a FSR of about 2.63nm.

Since the all-fiber circuits shown here can be connected by either standard rapid interconnection (hot plugging) FC/PC connectors or fusion splicing, it is convenient to change the optical path by adding/reducing a certain length of the optical fiber. Here, for example, we tuned the optical path of the reference arm of the MZI shown in Fig. 3(a) by plugging in single-mode fiber optic patch cables with different lengths, and evaluated the circuits around the C-band for optical communication. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of an all-fiber hybrid photonic-plasmonic MZI with different optical paths. (a) Transmission spectra of the MZI with different path differences. The spectral intensities of (1)–(3) are offset for clarity. Details of the dashed and solid boxes are showed in (b) and (c) respectively.
gives the typical results with patch cables of different lengths. It shows that, the FSR of the hybrid MZI can be readily changed from nanometer level (e.g., 2.4 nm of spectral line 1 in Fig. 4(a)) to picometer level (e.g., 1.0 pm in Fig. 4(c)), which are promising for large-dynamic optical sensing with high sensitivity.

To verify the wide-range tunability, we estimate the path-length difference of the two arms by [33

33. N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach-Zehnder Multi/Demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01-250 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8(6), 1120–1127 (1990). [CrossRef]

]
ΔL=λmaxλmin/(2Δλng)
(1)
where λmax and λmin are the spectral positions of two adjacent maximum and minimum, respectively; Δλ = λmaxλmin; and ng is the group index of the single-mode fiber. For simplicity, the optical path length of the Ag nanowire (about 20 μm, much shorter than the fiber used in the hybrid arm) is neglected. Using λmaxλmin = 1550 nm, ng = 1.46 at 1550-nm wavelength [34

34. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

], and Δλ of about 1.2 nm (measured from spectral line 1 in Fig. 4(a)), 30 pm (Fig. 4(b)) and 0.5 pm (Fig. 4(c)), we obtain the calculated path length differences of 685 μm, 27 mm and 1620 mm for standard single-mode fibers, which agrees well with length differences of the patch cables in the three situations (less than 1 mm, 27 mm, 1.6 m).

As an example for practical application, we further explored the possibility of using the all-fiber hybrid MZI for optical sensing of ammonia gas (NH3). Here the path difference of the MZI was about 27 mm, and the Ag nanowire was 190 nm in diameter and 20 μm in effective length. When the plasmonic probe was exposed to NH3, the group index of the Ag nanowire was changed due to the change of the resistance [35

35. B. J. Murray, E. C. Walter, and R. M. Penner, “Amine vapor sensing with silver mesowires,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 665–670 (2004). [CrossRef]

], resulting in spectral shifts of the interference peaks. As shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Optical sensing of NH3 with an all-fiber hybrid photonic-plasmonic MZI. (a) Spectral shifts of the interference peak when the probe is exposed to NH3 of 80 ppm (blue) and 160 ppm (red), respectively. (b) Temporal response of the MZI measured by alternately cycling pure N2 and 80 ppm NH3.
, the spectral shift of the interference fringes is clearly seen when the probe was exposed to NH3 (with N2 as carrier gas) of 80 ppm (blue line) and 160 ppm (red line), respectively. For in situ sensing, we launched a monochromic 1550-nm-wavelength light into the MZI, and measured the temporal response of the output while alternately cycling pure N2 and 80 ppm NH3, with typical response given in Fig. 5(b). The output intensity shows reversible response with high signal-to-noise ratio, indicating that the detection limit can go much lower than 80 ppm. The response time estimated from the close-up time-dependent output (see inset of Fig. 5(b)) is about 400 ms (rising time) and 300 ms (falling time), which is on the same order of other types of fast-response gas sensors [36

36. F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

5. Conclusions

The possibility of integrating nanowire plasmonics with standard fiber optics may open a variety of new opportunities for both fiber optics and nanowire photonics. Generally, the fiber-optic technology can provide highly flexible circuitry from long-haul to chip-to-chip level [37

37. R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007). [CrossRef]

,38

38. A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and the nanowire plasmonic waveguiding is ideal for ultra-compact interconnection and redirection from wavelength to sub-wavelength scale [39

39. X. Guo, Y. G. Ma, Y. P. Wang, and L. M. Tong, “Nanowire plasmonic waveguides, circuits and devices,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2013, doi: [CrossRef] .

41

41. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

], the seamless integration of nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics offers a promising route to bridge light from macroscopic fiber systems to microscopic nanowire plasmonics down to deep-subwavelength level, as well as a convenient platform for exploring novel fiber-compatible plasmonic-based devices ranging from optical sensing [42

42. O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3859–3874 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to quantum information technology [43

43. N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum plasmonic circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 1781–1791 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB328703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61036012 and 61108048), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (No.Y6110391), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2013QNA5005).

References and links

1.

M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).

2.

H. Murata, Handbook of Optical Fibers and Cables 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

3.

D. K. Mynbaev and L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology (Prentice Hall, 2001).

4.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 2007).

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H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

7.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 12(3), 213–220 (1993). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Ronot-Trioli, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Monochromatic excitation of surface plasmon resonance in an optical-fibre refractive-index sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 54(1–3), 589–593 (1996). [CrossRef]

11.

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, “Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1–3), 106–111 (2001). [CrossRef]

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X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4515–4519 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. H. Dong, C. L. Zou, X. F. Ren, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “In-line high efficient fiber polarizer based on surface plasmon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(4), 041104 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J. 7(8), 1118–1129 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

N. Liu, Z. P. Li, and H. X. Xu, “Polarization-dependent study on propagating surface plasmons in silver nanowires launched by a near-field scanning optical fiber tip,” Small 8(17), 2641–2646 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, K. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun. 253(1–3), 118–124 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

Y. B. Lin, J. P. Guo, and R. G. Lindquist, “Demonstration of an ultra-wideband optical fiber inline polarizer with metal nano-grid on the fiber tip,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17849–17854 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-20-17849. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Q. Zhang, C. Y. Xue, Y. L. Yuan, J. Y. Lee, D. Sun, and J. J. Xiong, “Fiber surface modification technology for fiber-optic localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(3), 2729–2741 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Highly efficient interfacing of guided plasmons and photons in nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3756–3761 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. X. Yan, P. Pausauskie, J. X. Huang, and P. D. Yang, “Direct photonic-plasmonic coupling and routing in single nanowires,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(50), 21045–21050 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

C. H. Dong, X. F. Ren, R. Yang, J. Y. Duan, J. G. Guan, G. C. Guo, and G. P. Guo, “Coupling of light from an optical fiber taper into silver nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 221109 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. G. Sun, Y. D. Yin, B. T. Mayers, T. Herricks, and Y. N. Xia, “Uniform silver nanowires synthesis by reducing AgNO3 with Ethylene Glycol in the presence of seeds and Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone),” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4736–4745 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Y. G. Ma, X. Y. Li, H. K. Yu, L. M. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. H. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1160–1162 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-35-8-1160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

R. X. Yan, J. H. Park, Y. Choi, C. J. Heo, S. M. Yang, L. P. Lee, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(3), 191–196 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

A. W. Sanders, D. A. Routenberg, B. J. Wiley, Y. N. Xia, E. R. Dufresne, and M. A. Reed, “Observation of plasmon propagation, redirection, and fan-out in silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1822–1826 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

M. Barth, S. Schietinger, S. Fischer, J. Becker, N. Nüsse, T. Aichele, B. Löchel, C. Sönnichsen, and O. Benson, “Nanoassembled plasmonic-photonic hybrid cavity for tailored light-matter coupling,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 891–895 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

Q. J. Lu, D. R. Chen, G. Z. Wu, B. J. Peng, and J. C. Xu, “A hybrid plasmonic microresonator with high quality factor and small mode volume,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125503 (2012). [CrossRef]

32.

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip,” J. Phys. B 43(3), 035402 (2010). [CrossRef]

33.

N. Takato, T. Kominato, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, H. Toba, and M. Kawachi, “Silica-based integrated optic Mach-Zehnder Multi/Demultiplexer family with channel spacing of 0.01-250 nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 8(6), 1120–1127 (1990). [CrossRef]

34.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

35.

B. J. Murray, E. C. Walter, and R. M. Penner, “Amine vapor sensing with silver mesowires,” Nano Lett. 4(4), 665–670 (2004). [CrossRef]

36.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007). [CrossRef]

38.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007). [CrossRef]

39.

X. Guo, Y. G. Ma, Y. P. Wang, and L. M. Tong, “Nanowire plasmonic waveguides, circuits and devices,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2013, doi: [CrossRef] .

40.

H. Wei, Z. X. Wang, X. R. Tian, M. Käll, and H. X. Xu, “Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks,” Nat Commun 2, 387 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat. Photonics 1(11), 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

42.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78(12), 3859–3874 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

43.

N. P. de Leon, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Quantum plasmonic circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(6), 1781–1791 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2310) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 19, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 17, 2013
Published: June 24, 2013

Citation
Xiyuan Li, Wei Li, Xin Guo, Jingyi Lou, and Limin Tong, "All-fiber hybrid photon-plasmon circuits: integrating nanowire plasmonics with fiber optics," Opt. Express 21, 15698-15705 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-13-15698


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References

  1. M. Yamane and Y. Asahara, Glasses for Photonics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).
  2. H. Murata, Handbook of Optical Fibers and Cables 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 1996).
  3. D. K. Mynbaev and L. L. Scheiner, Fiber-Optic Communications Technology (Prentice Hall, 2001).
  4. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 2007).
  6. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  7. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.12(3), 213–220 (1993). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Ronot-Trioli, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, and H. Gagnaire, “Monochromatic excitation of surface plasmon resonance in an optical-fibre refractive-index sensor,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.54(1–3), 589–593 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, and E. Brynda, “Novel spectral fiber optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.74(1–3), 106–111 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. X. Guo, M. Qiu, J. M. Bao, B. J. Wiley, Q. Yang, X. N. Zhang, Y. G. Ma, H. K. Yu, and L. M. Tong, “Direct coupling of plasmonic and photonic nanowires for hybrid nanophotonic components and circuits,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4515–4519 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. H. Dong, C. L. Zou, X. F. Ren, G. C. Guo, and F. W. Sun, “In-line high efficient fiber polarizer based on surface plasmon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(4), 041104 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. A. K. Sharma, R. Jha, and B. D. Gupta, “Fiber-optic sensors based on surface plasmon resonance: a comprehensive review,” IEEE Sens. J.7(8), 1118–1129 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. N. Liu, Z. P. Li, and H. X. Xu, “Polarization-dependent study on propagating surface plasmons in silver nanowires launched by a near-field scanning optical fiber tip,” Small8(17), 2641–2646 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A75(6), 063822 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, K. V. Nerkararyan, and B. Hecht, “Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Opt. Commun.253(1–3), 118–124 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. B. Lin, J. P. Guo, and R. G. Lindquist, “Demonstration of an ultra-wideband optical fiber inline polarizer with metal nano-grid on the fiber tip,” Opt. Express17(20), 17849–17854 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-20-17849 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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