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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 13 — Jul. 1, 2013
  • pp: 16056–16062
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Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers

Alexey Zaytsev, Chih-Hsuan Lin, Yi-Jing You, Chia-Chun Chung, Chi-Luen Wang, and Ci-Ling Pan  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 13, pp. 16056-16062 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.016056


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Abstract

We report generation of broadband supercontinuum (SC) by noise-like pulses (NLPs) with a central wavelength of 1070 nm propagating through a long piece of standard single-mode fibers (~100 meters) in normal dispersion region far from the zero-dispersion point. Theoretical simulations indicate that the physical mechanism of SC generation is due to nonlinear effects in fibers. The cascaded Raman scattering is responsible for significant spectral broadening in the longer wavelength regions whereas the Kerr effect results in smoothing of SC generated spectrum. The SC exhibits low threshold (43 nJ) and a flat spectrum over 1050-1250 nm.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Supercontinuum (SC) generation methods have gained much attention in recent years for applications in optical communication systems, wavelength tunable sources, gas sensing, and optical metrology. For the moment, SC generation is experiencing a boom thanks to the discovery of a new type of optical fibers, photonic crystal fibers (PCF) or microstructured fibers [1

1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

], which provide higher nonlinearity and allow one to blue-shift the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW). Besides, very powerful light sources at ~800 nm and ~1 um can be used for efficient SC pumping. However, PCFs are still expensive and not widely available.

Standard single-mode fibers (SMF) for optical communication, on the other hand, are inexpensive and easy to integrate. On the other hand, SC generation in SMFs operating in the normal dispersion regime is not so efficient. It requires much more pump power to excite SC compared to the anomalous regime. Also, the SC spectrum so generated exhibits very strong oscillations [2

2. C. Lin, V. T. Nguyen, and W. G. French, “Wideband near-I.R. continuum (0.7 – 2.1 um) generated in low-loss optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 14(25), 822–823 (1978). [CrossRef]

]. Continuous wave (CW) pumping schemes achieved impressive results recently in PCF and standard SMF [3

3. S. Martin-Lopez, P. Corredera, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Cavity dispersion management in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12785–12793 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 4

4. A. Kudlinski, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, M. Taki, and A. Mussot, “Dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers for CW-pumped supercontinuum sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1556–1564 (2009). [CrossRef]

], but they still need higher powers to excite a broadband SC compared with the pulsed ones.

More than a decade ago, Horowitz et al. [5

5. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 799–801 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] reported a special regime of repetitively pulsed fiber lasers, which can generate the so-called noise-like pulses (NLP). Besides a very large optical bandwidth, such pulses are capable of propagating without distortion through a lengthy dispersive medium over a long distance [5

5. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 799–801 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Later, different research groups demonstrated NLP generation in fiber lasers [6

6. O. Pottiez, R. Grajales-Coutiño, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, and J. C. Hernández-García, “Adjustable noiselike pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), E24–E31 (2011). [CrossRef]

8

8. S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S. Smirnov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Latkin, “Generation of double-scale femto/pico-second optical lumps in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20707–20713 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, SC generation was reported in a piece of standard fiber (SMF-28) using as the pump a train of NLP at the central wavelength of 1.5 um [9

9. J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottieza, and J. M. Estudillo-Ayalab, “Supercontinuum generation in a standard fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 221–226 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. To excite a flat broadband SC, the energy threshold was as low as ~12 nJ.

In this work, we report SC generation with a scheme that uses standard SMF fiber pumped in the normal dispersion regime (~1 um). The pump laser employed a ring fiber cavity [see Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup: FC, fiber coupler; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate, GP, grating pair; PI-ISO, polarization-insensitive isolator; ISO, Faraday isolator; M1,M2, mirrors; MM LD, multi-mode laser diodes.
] which can support the operation of either stable mode-locked or noise-like pulses (NLP) [10

10. A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Controllable noise-like operation regime in Yb:doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental setup

Recently [10

10. A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Controllable noise-like operation regime in Yb:doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013). [CrossRef]

], we demonstrated that a dispersion-mapped Yb-doped fiber laser based on the ring cavity design can generate noise-like pulses with energies as high as ~45 nJ and controllable characteristics at ~1 um wavelength. The use of negative dispersion delay line and the spatial spectral filter are found to be important for such high-power noise-like operation [see Fig. 1]. In the NLP regime and pumped at ~10 W, the oscillator irradiates typically a pulse train [see inset at Fig. 1] with repetition rate ~31.5 MHz, average power ~800 mW and average noise-like bunch duration ~35 ps.

The spectrum and intensity autocorrelation trace of the NLP laser are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The experimentally measured spectrum (a) and intensity autocorrelation trace (b) of NLPs irradiated by the oscillator in Fig. 1.
. The iris in the cavity was used to tune the center wavelength to ~1070 nm with a bandwidth of ~11 nm (FWHM). Then, these pulses were boosted up to ~3 W in a single 2.3 m-length Yb-doped amplifier stage and used as a pump to excite the SC. A spool of 100 m length of standard SMF (SMF28, POFC, Taiwan) was directly spliced to the output fiber end of the amplifier.

3. Supercontinuum (SC) generation by Noise-like pulses: Modeling

In order to understand NLP formation, we simulate the buildup dynamics of our laser cavity by recognizing it as consisting of several connected fiber components. Pulse propagation in each fiber section was described by the corresponding nonlinear Schrodinger coupled-mode equations [11

11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 5th Ed. (Elsevier, Academic, 2013).

]
{Axz=iγ{|Ax|2Ax+23|Ay|2Ax+13Ay2Ax}+g(Epulse)Axi2β22Axt2Ayz=iγ{|Ay|2Ay+23|Ax|2Ay+13Ax2Ay}+g(Epulse)Ayi2β22Ayt2,
(1)
where A is the field envelope components; γ is the non-linear coefficient (assumed to be 0.002 (W m)−1); β2 is the group velocity dispersion (GVD) (assumed to be 0.023 ps2/m); g(Epulse) = g0/(1 + Epulse/Esat) is the gain function for active fiber pieces or zero for passive fibers. Dispersive delay line was modeled by introducing negative GVD of ~0.02 ps2. High-order dispersion terms were neglected. Wave plates and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) were represented by its equivalent Jones matrices. For modeling of propagation through each fiber section, we employed the split-step Fourier method [11

11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 5th Ed. (Elsevier, Academic, 2013).

]. Assuming a thermal Gaussian noise as a source of oscillations, we found the conditions where repeated noise-like pulses begin to circulate in the laser cavity after hundreds of round-trips [see Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Building-up dynamics (a) and steady-state waveform (b) in time domain of a fiber ring oscillator generating NLPs.
]. It is significant that all nonlinear terms (self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, four-wave mixing, etc.) in Eq. (1) contribute to NLP creation. In our recent paper [10

10. A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Controllable noise-like operation regime in Yb:doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013). [CrossRef]

], we demonstrated that such simulations yield results (spectra, autocorrelation traces) that are close to experimental measurements. Here we continue such simulations further and apply simulated output waveforms generated by the NLP laser as a pum p to generate SC in a piece of standard SMF.

Examining Fig. 4, we find that SC evolution in the case of NLP pumping is different from those of mode-locked picosecond or femtosecond Gaussian pulses. It is interesting to note that NLPs, in comparison to mode-locked Gaussian pulses of similar waveform duration (~40 ps), exhibit similar broadening in the time domain after propagation [see Figs. 4(b) and 4(d)]. On the other hand, NLPs can generate very broad SC covering the spectral range from 1030 to 1700 nm [see Figs. 4(a) and 4(c)]. Note that picosecond Gaussian pulses (~40 ps) can only generate three clear Raman peaks in its spectrum [Fig. 4(c)]. As for the shorter mode-locked Gaussian pump pulse (200 fs), it can also generate SC from 830 to 1500 nm [Fig. 4(e)] but the peak pump power needed is 2 order of magnitude higher than the corresponding NLP of similar pulse energy (~200 nJ). Also, 200 fs-wide Gaussian pump pulses excite SC in first tens of centimeters of the SMF [see inset in Fig. 4]. Then, its spectrum does not change [see Fig. 4(e)]. The evolution of NLP-excited SC takes longer distance in the fiber. Moreover, the spectral broadening occurs mainly in the longer-wavelength (relative to the pump wavelength) region. Recently, it was theoretically predicted that Raman-induced spectral shift, which may happen even in the normal dispersion region is responsible for such an asymmetry [13

13. J. Santhanama and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-induced spectral shifts in optical fibers: general theory based on the moment method,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 413–420 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Because of the relative narrow band of the NLPs, this could not be the most effective process for SC generation. The distinctive Raman orders in Fig. 4(c) for mode-locked pulses suggested that multiple Raman processes, i.e., cascaded Raman scattering could have happened for NLP pumped SMF. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed our calculated behavior of the broadband SC emission to Raman amplification of noise in the SMF [1

1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The smooth SC spectrum in the case of NLP pumping can be explained by broadband pumping [14

14. I. Ilev, H. Kumagai, K. Toyoda, and I. Koprinkov, “Highly efficient wideband continuum generation in a single-mode optical fiber by powerful broadband laser pumping,” Appl. Opt. 35(15), 2548–2553 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which is a feature of NLP [5

5. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 799–801 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Since noise-like pulses can be interpreted as incoherent waves localized in time, the simulation results presented in Fig. 4(a) show that the spectral evolution of such pulses to be very similar to the evolution of spectral incoherent solitons (SIS) recently reported [15

15. B. Kibler, B. Barviau, C. Michel, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 257–267 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. B. Kibler, C. Michel, A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Emergence of spectral incoherent solitons through supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(6), 066605 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It was demonstrated that SIS can be formed in both normal and anomalous dispersion regions. From Fig. 4(a) it can be seen that the spectrum of the generated SC show clear continuous red-shift, similar to one regime of SIS. In our case, however, the propagation regime cannot be considered as weakly nonlinear as in Ref [15

15. B. Kibler, B. Barviau, C. Michel, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 257–267 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. We estimate that the nonlinear length Lnl = 1/(γP) and the linear dispersion length Ld = tc22, (where tc is the coherence time) for our scheme have the same order of magnitude. For that reason, in our simulation results, the strong nonlinearly does not allow us to identify clearly separated continuous SIS.

4. Experimental results and discussions

First, we compare the spectra of the SC output experimentally measured at 3W of pump power and simulated results using Eqs. (2) and (3) [see Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental (dotted) and simulated (solid) SC spectra generated in 100 m of SMF by pumping with 3W average NLP input power and simulation conditions; (b) Experimental (dotted) and simulated (solid) SC spectra generated in 100 m of SMF by pumping with different average NLP input powers (1 W, 2 W, and 3 W);
]. It is seen that inclusion of only the Kerr term or only the Raman term [see Eq. (3)] into the analysis cannot fit the experimentally measured curve. Considering both terms of Eq. (3), the agreement is excellent. Nevertheless, we note that the Raman effect is responsible for generation of new red-shifted frequency components of the SC spectra, whereas the Kerr effect causes symmetrical broadening and smoothing of total SC output.

The spectra of the SC output for different values of average power at the fiber input is shown in Fig. 5(b) (dotted lines). The corresponding simulated SC spectra are plotted as solid lines in Fig. 5(b). The characteristic asymmetrical spectra hinted that the broadband emission is due to Raman amplification of NLPs [1

1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The pulse energy threshold (~43 nJ) to achieve significant spectral broadening, which corresponds to ~1 W of average pump power, is ~4 times larger than that found in the case of work in the anomalous dispersion regime [6

6. O. Pottiez, R. Grajales-Coutiño, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, and J. C. Hernández-García, “Adjustable noiselike pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), E24–E31 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, compared to other reports of SC generation pumped in the normal-dispersion regime [2

2. C. Lin, V. T. Nguyen, and W. G. French, “Wideband near-I.R. continuum (0.7 – 2.1 um) generated in low-loss optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 14(25), 822–823 (1978). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. R. Song, J. Hou, S. Chen, W. Yang, and Q. Lu, “High power supercontinuum generation in a nonlinear ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1529–1531 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. H. Chen, Y. Lei, S. Chen, J. Hou, and Q. Lu, “Experimentally investigate the nonlinear amplifying process of high power picoseconds fiber amplifier,” Opt. & Las. Tech. 47, 278–282 (2013). [CrossRef]

], the measured threshold is from 1 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower. The measured spectra generated by cascaded Raman scattering is quite uniform, in particular for the 1050-1250 nm region. Also, as it can be seen from Fig. 5(b), the simulated SC spectra matched with experimentally measured ones quite well. The discrepancy is only observed when the generated components approach ZDW. We think that is because of limited number of dispersion terms used for the simulation (only up to 3rd order). It is well known that near the ZDW, higher-order dispersion terms become much more important [11

11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 5th Ed. (Elsevier, Academic, 2013).

].

Figures 6(a)
Fig. 6 Simulated spectral (a) and temporal (b) evolutions of 3W average power NLP propagating through 100 m of SMF (the longitudinal step is 10 m).
and 6(b) shows the simulated spectral and temporal evolutions of NLP propagating through 100 m of SMF. The average power of the NLP at the input of the SMF is assumed to be 3 W. It can be seen that after ~50 m of SMF, the evolution of SC spectrum is quasi-saturated. We explain this behavior as follow: After 50m, the noise-like pulses becomes broader in time such that its low-frequency part and high-frequency part do not overlap in time. So, in that condition the initial pulse energy is split in time and in frequency also. It is equivalent to the reduction the peak power of each sub-pulse. Then, after some further propagation all nonlinear effects (basically Raman scattering) become weaker. Here underlies some unique features of SC generation by NLPs. First of all, they are broadband just like mode-locked femtosecond pulses. Secondly, they can propagate for much longer distance without distortion and breakup just like mode-locked picosecond pulses. Yet, NLPs contribute new spectral components as they propagate along the SMF.

5. Conclusions

We have successfully demonstrated broadband SC generation by noise-like pulses propagating in a piece of 100 m-long standard single-mode fiber operating in the normal dispersion regime. A low energy threshold (43 nJ) and flat SC spectrum over the wavelength range of 1050-1250 nm were achieved. Theoretical simulations based on the Schrodinger coupled-mode equations and general nonlinear Schrodinger equation indicate that the possible physical mechanism for SC generation by this approach is due to both cascaded Raman scattering and Kerr effect in the SMF. The Raman effect is responsible for significant spectral broadening in the longer wavelength regions whereas the Kerr effect results in smoothing of SC generated spectrum pumped by noise-like pulses.

We believe the achieved low energy threshold and flat SC spectrum are caused by special properties of NLP (broadband spectral range and ability to propagate over a long distance). This new SC light source exhibit attractive characteristics that are potentially competitive to those of the currently used technologies including PCF-based approaches.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under grant NSC 101-2622-E-007-001-CC2 and phase 2 of the Academic Top University Program of the Ministry of Education.

References and links

1.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

C. Lin, V. T. Nguyen, and W. G. French, “Wideband near-I.R. continuum (0.7 – 2.1 um) generated in low-loss optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 14(25), 822–823 (1978). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Martin-Lopez, P. Corredera, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Cavity dispersion management in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12785–12793 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. Kudlinski, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, M. Taki, and A. Mussot, “Dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers for CW-pumped supercontinuum sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1556–1564 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(11), 799–801 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

O. Pottiez, R. Grajales-Coutiño, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, and J. C. Hernández-García, “Adjustable noiselike pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Opt. 50(25), E24–E31 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2145–2150 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S. Smirnov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Latkin, “Generation of double-scale femto/pico-second optical lumps in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20707–20713 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottieza, and J. M. Estudillo-Ayalab, “Supercontinuum generation in a standard fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 221–226 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Controllable noise-like operation regime in Yb:doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045104 (2013). [CrossRef]

11.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 5th Ed. (Elsevier, Academic, 2013).

12.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, eds., Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers, (Cambridge University, New York, 2010).

13.

J. Santhanama and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-induced spectral shifts in optical fibers: general theory based on the moment method,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 413–420 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

I. Ilev, H. Kumagai, K. Toyoda, and I. Koprinkov, “Highly efficient wideband continuum generation in a single-mode optical fiber by powerful broadband laser pumping,” Appl. Opt. 35(15), 2548–2553 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

B. Kibler, B. Barviau, C. Michel, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(5), 257–267 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Kibler, C. Michel, A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Emergence of spectral incoherent solitons through supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(6), 066605 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

R. Song, J. Hou, S. Chen, W. Yang, and Q. Lu, “High power supercontinuum generation in a nonlinear ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1529–1531 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. S. Watt, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Generation of supercontinuum radiation in conventional single-mode fibre and its application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 90(1), 47–53 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

H. Chen, Y. Lei, S. Chen, J. Hou, and Q. Lu, “Experimentally investigate the nonlinear amplifying process of high power picoseconds fiber amplifier,” Opt. & Las. Tech. 47, 278–282 (2013). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 13, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 24, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 24, 2013
Published: June 27, 2013

Citation
Alexey Zaytsev, Chih-Hsuan Lin, Yi-Jing You, Chia-Chun Chung, Chi-Luen Wang, and Ci-Ling Pan, "Supercontinuum generation by noise-like pulses transmitted through normally dispersive standard single-mode fibers," Opt. Express 21, 16056-16062 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-13-16056


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References

  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Lin, V. T. Nguyen, and W. G. French, “Wideband near-I.R. continuum (0.7 – 2.1 um) generated in low-loss optical fibers,” Electron. Lett.14(25), 822–823 (1978). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Martin-Lopez, P. Corredera, and M. Gonzalez-Herraez, “Cavity dispersion management in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express17(15), 12785–12793 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Kudlinski, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, M. Taki, and A. Mussot, “Dispersion-engineered photonic crystal fibers for CW-pumped supercontinuum sources,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(11), 1556–1564 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Horowitz, Y. Barad, and Y. Silberberg, “Noise-like pulses with a broadband spectrum generated from an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.22(11), 799–801 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. O. Pottiez, R. Grajales-Coutiño, B. Ibarra-Escamilla, E. A. Kuzin, and J. C. Hernández-García, “Adjustable noiselike pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Appl. Opt.50(25), E24–E31 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, J. Wu, X. Q. Fu, and S. C. Wen, “Noise-like pulse in a gain-guided soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Express15(5), 2145–2150 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, S. Smirnov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Latkin, “Generation of double-scale femto/pico-second optical lumps in mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Express17(23), 20707–20713 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Hernandez-Garcia, O. Pottieza, and J. M. Estudillo-Ayalab, “Supercontinuum generation in a standard fiber pumped by noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fiber laser,” Laser Phys.22(1), 221–226 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. A. K. Zaytsev, C. H. Lin, Y. J. You, F. H. Tsai, C. L. Wang, and C. L. Pan, “Controllable noise-like operation regime in Yb:doped dispersion-mapped fiber ring laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.10(4), 045104 (2013). [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. 5th Ed. (Elsevier, Academic, 2013).
  12. J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, eds., Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers, (Cambridge University, New York, 2010).
  13. J. Santhanama and G. P. Agrawal, “Raman-induced spectral shifts in optical fibers: general theory based on the moment method,” Opt. Commun.222(1-6), 413–420 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. I. Ilev, H. Kumagai, K. Toyoda, and I. Koprinkov, “Highly efficient wideband continuum generation in a single-mode optical fiber by powerful broadband laser pumping,” Appl. Opt.35(15), 2548–2553 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Kibler, B. Barviau, C. Michel, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Thermodynamic approach of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Fiber Technol.18(5), 257–267 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Kibler, C. Michel, A. Kudlinski, B. Barviau, G. Millot, and A. Picozzi, “Emergence of spectral incoherent solitons through supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.84(6), 066605 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Song, J. Hou, S. Chen, W. Yang, and Q. Lu, “High power supercontinuum generation in a nonlinear ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1529–1531 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. S. Watt, C. F. Kaminski, and J. Hult, “Generation of supercontinuum radiation in conventional single-mode fibre and its application to broadband absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B90(1), 47–53 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Chen, Y. Lei, S. Chen, J. Hou, and Q. Lu, “Experimentally investigate the nonlinear amplifying process of high power picoseconds fiber amplifier,” Opt. & Las. Tech.47, 278–282 (2013). [CrossRef]

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