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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 14 — Jul. 15, 2013
  • pp: 16248–16254
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Electric field detection of phase-locked near-infrared pulses using photoconductive antenna

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, E. Matsubara, and M. Ashida  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 14, pp. 16248-16254 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.016248


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Abstract

We have demonstrated that a photoconductive antenna gated with 5-fs ultrashort laser pulses can detect electric field transients of near-infrared pulses at least up to 180 THz. Measured sensitivity spectrum of the antenna shows a good agreement with a simple calculation, demonstrating the promising capability of the antenna to near infrared spectroscopy. Using this setup, near-infrared time-domain spectroscopy and characterization of phase controlled near-infrared pulses are demonstrated. Observed absorption spectrum of a polystyrene film and complex refractive index dispersion of a fused silica plate both agree well with those obtained by the conventional methods.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The generation of phase-locked laser pulses is one of the recent important breakthroughs in optical physics and photonics. Since both the amplitudes and the phase of light play important roles in atomic and molecular control, attosecond science, and photochemical reactions [1

1. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013) [CrossRef] .

5

5. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

], the characterization of electric field waveforms is of great importance. Frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), or spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (SPIDER) are used for such characterization [6

6. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrafast Laser Pulses (2000) [CrossRef] .

, 7

7. L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1314–1316 (1999) [CrossRef] .

], in which ambiguity in the absolute phase remains. Recently, direct observation of the electric field waveform is reported using an attosecond streaking method [5

5. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

], whereas it is difficult to apply this method to weak oscillator-based light sources.

In the terahertz frequency range, phase-locked electromagnetic fields are commonly generated and detected by using photoconductive antennas [8

8. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984) [CrossRef] .

] or electro-optic crystals [9

9. X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990) [CrossRef] .

]. In the generation process, both techniques use difference frequency generation (or optical rectification) in materials, and therefore, the carrier envelope phase slip (CEP-slip) of the generated pulses is exactly zero, even if lasers without CEP stabilization are used. This property allows for the observation of the electric field waveforms of terahertz pulses as well as for the generation of precise frequency combs in the low terahertz region [10

10. T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006) [CrossRef] .

], making possible many advanced applications. Such technologies enable not only terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, but also phase-sensitive nonlinear spectroscopy [11

11. I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097401 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

13

13. T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011) [CrossRef] .

], terahertz imaging [14

14. A. Doi, F. Blanchard, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Near-field THz imaging of free induction decay from a tyrosine crystal,” Opt. Exp. 18, 18419–18424 (2010) [CrossRef] .

], etc.

In this paper, we demonstrate that photoconductive antennas, which are often used in the terahertz region, can be applied to electric-field detection of light pulses at least up to near-infrared region. The setup requires only simple electronics, and can be used as a powerful new method in applications such as electric field monitoring, near-infrared time-domain spectroscopy, information-communication technologies, and coherence tomography. Since photoconductive antennas are compatible with electrical circuits, it could also bridge the gap between high-frequency electronics and near-infrared optical technologies, paving the way to the visible wavelengths.

As the detection bandwidth of the electromagnetic waves is determined by the duration of gating pulses and the material response time, we chose a commercial sub-5-fs ultrashort laser (VENTEON) for gating [19

19. R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001) [CrossRef] .

], and a low-temperature-grown GaAs for the antenna substrate. Photoexcited carriers in the substrate have a fast decay time of about 0.1 ps. The calculation shows the increase of the sensitivity at high frequency with decreasing gate-pulse duration (Fig. 1(a)). The sensitivity finally approaches to the Fourier transform of an exponential decay, which drops slowly with 1/ω at high frequency. Even though the carrier decay rate is much lower than the frequency of the electric field, the much faster rise time, which is determined by the gate pulse duration of the laser, enables the detection of high frequency components. This characteristic is a key to realizing smooth and broadband electric field detection, and is important for evaluating waveforms of electromagnetic transients. Therefore, photoconductive antennas are promising devices for the detection of high-frequency electric fields.

Fig. 1 (a) Calculated and observed sensitivity spectrum of the photoconductive antenna gated with 5-fs laser pulses. The pink, red and orange curves represent the calculated sensitivity for Gaussian gate pulses with pulse duration of 2 fs, 4 fs, and 5 fs respectively. The blue curve represents the measured sensitivity, and the dotted curve represents the raw spectrum before calibration. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup for ultrabroadband terahertz generation and detection. NCM: negative chirp mirror; BS: beam splitter; WP: wedge pair; PC antenna: photoconductive antenna; PM: parabolic mirror.

In the calculation of the sensitivity, we used several simple assumptions. In the detection process using a photoconductive antenna gated with ultrashort laser pulses, photoexcited carriers are accelerated by the electric field of the incident electromagnetic field, upon which they generate observable dc current. Using envelope function I(t) of the gate pulses and the decay dynamics of the number of excited carriers n(t) = n0 exp[−t/τ] for t > 0 and n(t) = 0 for t < 0, the total number of excited carriers can be written as
N(t)dtI(t)n(tt).
(1)
Here, we assume that the carrier decay can be described by a single exponential function. In this case, the observed current J(T) at a certain delay time T between near-infrared and gate pulses is written as
J(T)dteμN(tT)E(t).
(2)
Here, E(t) is the electric field waveform of near-ingrared pulses, e is the electron charge, and μ is the mobility of carriers, which is assumed to be constant. Because these equations are convolutions of time-dependent functions, the Fourier transform of J(T) against the delay time T yields
J(ω)eμN(ω)E(ω),
(3)
which is proportional to the spectrum of the electric field of the near-infrared pulse, where ω is the angular frequency. By substituting the Fourier spectra of the carrier decay and the incident laser pulse envelope (we used Gaussian envelope), we can calculate the sensitivity of photoconductive antenna as shown in Fig. 1(a).

2. Experiment

To experimentally demonstrate the high-frequency detection process outlined above, we used difference frequency generation in a DAST crystal with the thickness of 150 μm to generate strong near-infrared pulses [17

17. I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010) [CrossRef] .

]. Figure 1(b) shows our experimental setup. The output of sub-5-fs laser was irradiated onto a DAST crystal, which was tilted in order to increase the efficiency of generation of high-frequency phase-locked infrared pulses. The polarization of the incident laser was set parallel to the b-axis of DAST crystal (with s–polarization), and the angle of incidence was 40 degrees from the normal. The generated terahertz wave had p-polarization (parallel to the a–axis of DAST crystal). The phase matching condition for the generation of 180-THz component at normal incidence is satisfied at the edge of laser spectrum as shown in the reference [17

17. I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010) [CrossRef] .

]. The tilting of the DAST crystal moves the phase matching frequency to lower energy where the intensity of the laser is higher, because the effective refractive index of generated light decreases as the angle is tilted from the a–axis. Si with 10-μm Ge on top was placed after the DAST crystal to cut the excitation laser above 200 THz. We used the detection antenna (Hamamatsu photonics) in reflection geometry in order to reduce the influence of absorption as well as group velocity dispersion in the substrate. In this setup, the excited carriers in the antenna substrate were accelerated by the electric field of phase-locked pulses to yield observable dc current.. The penetration depth of the laser to the GaAs substrate is about 1.6 μm [20

20. O. Madelung, Semiconductors: Data Handbook (Springer, 2004) [CrossRef] .

], which is sufficiently thin compared with the coherent length of near-infrared detection. The current is amplified using current and lock-in amplifiers and collected with an analog-to-digital converter implemented in a computer.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2 summarizes the obtained results. In the inset of Fig. 2(a), we can clearly observe extremely fast oscillations as a function of time delay as shown. The Fourier transformed spectrum of the waveform ranges to nearly 180 THz, demonstrating the responsibility of the PC antenna up to the frequency (corresponding to a wavelength of 1666 nm). The sensitivity of the photoconductive antenna gated with a 5-fs laser can be estimated by comparing the obtained Fourier transform spectrum with the intensity-calibrated spectrum of the generated infrared pulses. The result (shown in Fig. 1) indicates close agreement with the calculated sensitivity of the photoconductive antenna gated with 4- to 5-fs laser pulses, while the decaying sensitivity above 180 THz makes the spectral portion currently unusable for the spectroscopy applications. It is noteworthy that the simple assumptions made in the calculation of sensitivity hold even at such extremely high frequencies.

Fig. 2 (a) Observed waveform of a near-infrared pulse generated from a DAST crystal and detected with a photoconductive antenna. Inset shows a magnification of the oscillatory component. (b) Fourier transform of the obtained waveform. The spectrum extending up to 180 THz can be seen. A sharp absorption due to the CO2 in air is also observed at 70 THz.

The obtained experimental results demonstrate that photoconductive antennas are promising devices for future applications based on electric field detection of infrared pulses, and might be used as infrared oscilloscopes. If we use shorter pulses, which have become available recently [5

5. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

], the detection of higher-frequency component, even in the visible region, will be possible in principle.

Using this setup, near-infrared time-domain spectroscopy as well as phase control of infrared pulses can be easily demonstrated. Here, we measure the transmission spectrum of a polystylene film, which is a standard material for the calibration of Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. From the results summarized in Fig. 3, we can observe absorption lines that correspond closely to those obtained with conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (see Fig. 3(a)). The results confirm that the observed terahertz waveform is in fact proportional to the electric field of the generated infrared pulses. The difference in the depth of the absorption lines is probably due to the limited dynamic range of our setup compared with the FTIR instruments. Slight shift of the peak frequencies might originate from the precision of the delay stage, which could be calibrated by this kind of absorption measurements.

Fig. 3 (a) Measured electric field waveform transmitted through a polystyrene film with a thickness of 40 μm and the reference waveform. (b) Intensity transmittance spectrum (time domain) calculated from the ratio of Fourier transforms of observed waveforms shown in (a). The result observed using a conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is also shown. (c) The time-frequency image obtained from the windowed Fourier transform of the waveform transmitted through polystyrene film shown in (a). The window function is a Hanning function with a window size of 300 fs, scanned at 10-fs steps. The solid and dotted lines represent the peak positions of the sample and reference time-frequency images, respectively.

The phase-sensitive property of the demonstrated infrared time-domain spectrometer is an important advantage over conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. To obtain phase information, we applied windowed Fourier transform to the observed terahertz waveform (Fig. 3(b)). The reference waveform already exhibits a chirp due to the group velocity dispersion in DAST, Si and Si:Ge. Upon inserting the polystyrene film (Fig. 3(b)), all the frequency components of the pulse are delayed due to finite refractive indices (>1) of the film.

Characterization and manipulation of chirp are key to achieving coherent control of photoinduced phenomena, such as attosecond pulse generation [1

1. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013) [CrossRef] .

, 4

4. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000) [CrossRef] .

]. In the infrared frequency range, the chirp of the light pulses can be controlled using materials with either negative or positive group velocity dispersion. As fused silica has negative group velocity dispersion in this frequency range, we can control the pulse durations of the waveforms simply by changing the thickness of fused silica plates through which the light pulses are transmitted (see Fig. 4(a)). The time-windowed Fourier transform images shown in Fig. 4(a) demonstrate the control of phase profiles (chirping) with the use of fused silica plates, illustrating the pulse monitoring capability of our setup. The pulse duration was compressed down to about 20 fs, which could be made even shorter by using a wedged pair of fused silica plates or a pulse shaping technique. Naturally, the waveforms shown in Fig. 4 provide information about the refractive index dispersion of fused silica [21

21. Refractive index database (http://refractiveindex.info/).

]. We show the obtained refractive index dispersion as well as the extinction coefficients in Fig. 4(b), demonstrating the capabilities of this near-infrared time-domain spectrometer. Note that in the calculation of the refractive index dispersion, we assumed n = 1.4251 at 110 THz.

Fig. 4 (a) Time-frequency images obtained from the windowed Fourier transform of observed waveforms transmitted through two fused silica plates, a single fused silica plate, and no fused silica plates. Dotted curves represent the peak positions of the time-frequency images. (b) The corresponding waveforms. Note that each spectrum in (a) and each waveform in (b) are shifted by 2.4 ps per fused silica plate. (c) Obtained complex refractive index dispersion of the fused silica plate. Real and imaginary parts are shown in red and orange dots, respectively. Dashed curve represents the Sellmeier equation for fused silica take from the reference [21].

4. Conclusions

In summary, we observed the electric field waveforms of infrared pulses by using a photoconductive antenna gated with 5-fs laser pulses. The observed waveforms demonstrate the phase-sensitive detection of electromagnetic fields of infrared pulses for frequencies up to 180 THz. The demonstrated capabilities of pulse monitoring and near-infrared time-domain spectroscopy suggest the possibility for a wide range of applications in optics and photonics. Since the sensitivity of detection of electric fields is predicted to be smooth over a broad frequency range, this method could evolve into a powerful technique for observing the electric fields of phase-locked light pulses, possibly including the visible or ultraviolet regions as well.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, for their support through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research 25800177, 23104713 and 20104007. I. K. also thanks Kazuki Osada of Yokohama National University for his assistance in analyzing the experimental data.

References and links

1.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493, 70–74 (2013) [CrossRef] .

2.

H. Katsuki, H. Chiba, B. Girard, C. Meier, and K. Ohmori, “Visualizing picometric quantum ripples of ultrafast wave-packet interference,” Science 311, 1589–1592 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

3.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

4.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545–591 (2000) [CrossRef] .

5.

A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

6.

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrafast Laser Pulses (2000) [CrossRef] .

7.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1314–1316 (1999) [CrossRef] .

8.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284–286 (1984) [CrossRef] .

9.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011–1013 (1990) [CrossRef] .

10.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006) [CrossRef] .

11.

I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 097401 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

12.

M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 231105 (2009) [CrossRef] .

13.

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011) [CrossRef] .

14.

A. Doi, F. Blanchard, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Near-field THz imaging of free induction decay from a tyrosine crystal,” Opt. Exp. 18, 18419–18424 (2010) [CrossRef] .

15.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360–3362 (2004) [CrossRef] .

16.

A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251107 (2008) [CrossRef] .

17.

I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, H. Shimosato, K. Miyamoto, H. Ito, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband terahertz generation using 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 021105 (2010) [CrossRef] .

18.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012) [CrossRef] .

19.

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001) [CrossRef] .

20.

O. Madelung, Semiconductors: Data Handbook (Springer, 2004) [CrossRef] .

21.

Refractive index database (http://refractiveindex.info/).

OCIS Codes
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
(320.7150) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast spectroscopy
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: April 1, 2013
Revised Manuscript: June 8, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: June 13, 2013
Published: July 1, 2013

Citation
I. Katayama, R. Akai, M. Bito, E. Matsubara, and M. Ashida, "Electric field detection of phase-locked near-infrared pulses using photoconductive antenna," Opt. Express 21, 16248-16254 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-14-16248


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References

  1. A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature493, 70–74 (2013). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Katsuki, H. Chiba, B. Girard, C. Meier, and K. Ohmori, “Visualizing picometric quantum ripples of ultrafast wave-packet interference,” Science311, 1589–1592 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier,” Science291, 1923–1927 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, “Intense few-cycle laser fields: Frontiers of nonlinear optics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.72, 545–591 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Wirth, M. T. Hassan, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized light transients,” Science334, 195–200 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrafast Laser Pulses (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett.24, 1314–1316 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.45, 284–286 (1984). [CrossRef]
  9. X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, “Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56, 1011–1013 (1990). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 241104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Katayama, H. Aoki, J. Takeda, H. Shimosato, M. Ashida, R. Kinjo, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, M. Nagai, and K. Tanaka, “Ferroelectric soft mode in a SrTiO3thin film impulsively driven to the anharmonic regime using intense picosecond terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 097401 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. C. Hoffmann, N. C. Brandt, H. Y. Hwang, K.-L. Yeh, and K. A. Nelson, “Terahertz Kerr effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 231105 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics5, 31–34 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Doi, F. Blanchard, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Near-field THz imaging of free induction decay from a tyrosine crystal,” Opt. Exp.18, 18419–18424 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: Approaching the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 3360–3362 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Sell, R. Scheu, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Field-resolved detection of phase-locked infrared transients from a compact Er:fiber system tunable between 55 and 107 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 251107 (2008). [CrossRef]
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