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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 16 — Aug. 12, 2013
  • pp: 19180–19186
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Quantum cascade laser in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration with Watt-level optical output power

Borislav Hinkov, Mattias Beck, Emilio Gini, and Jérôme Faist  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 16, pp. 19180-19186 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.019180


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Abstract

We present the design and realization of short-wavelength (λ = 4.53 μm) and buried-heterostructure quantum cascade lasers in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration. Watt-level, singlemode peak optical output power is demonstrated for typical non-tapered 4 μm wide and 5.25 mm long devices. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 25° and 27° in and perpendicular to growth direction, respectively. We demonstrate singlemode tuning over a range of 7.9 cm−1 for temperatures between 263K and 313K and also singlemode emission for different driving currents. The side mode suppression ratio is measured to be higher than 20 dB.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Since the first demonstration of distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade (QC) lasers in 1997 [1

1. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillaergeion, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997). [CrossRef]

], tremendous progress has been made in the development of singlemode emitting QC lasers [2

2. A. Wittmann, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, S. Blaser, D. Hofstetter, and E. Gini, “Room temperature, continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with widely spaced operation frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141116 (2006). [CrossRef]

4

4. B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Singlemode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1W,” El. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Such devices are of particular interest because prominent molecules like CO2, N2O, CH4 and many more have their fundamental roto-vibrational absorptions in the mid-infrared (3–12 μm) spectral region. Pulsed and continuous wave DFB-QC laser based trace gas sensors could already show detection levels in the parts-per-billion range or better, proving the excellent suitability of such systems for high-resolution spectroscopy [5

5. E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 461–466 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. As has also been shown recently [9

9. J. R. Köster, R. Well, B. Tuzson, R. Bol, K. Dittert, A. Giesemann, L. Emmenegger, A. Manninen, L. Cádenas, and J. Mohn, “Novel laser spectroscopic technique for continuous analysis of N2O isotopomers - application and intercomparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry,” Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom. 27, 216–222 (2013). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. P. Wunderlin, M. F. Lehmann, H. Siegrist, B. Tuzson, A. Joss, L. Emmenegger, and J. Mohn, “Isotope signatures of N2O in a mixed microbial population system: constraints on N2O producing pathways in wastewater treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 1339–1348 (2013).

] pulsed, singlemode QC laser sources emitting in the wavelength range around 2200 cm−1 are of particular interest in meteorological science e.g. for the isotope-specific spectroscopy of N2O [10

10. P. Wunderlin, M. F. Lehmann, H. Siegrist, B. Tuzson, A. Joss, L. Emmenegger, and J. Mohn, “Isotope signatures of N2O in a mixed microbial population system: constraints on N2O producing pathways in wastewater treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 1339–1348 (2013).

].

In order to overcome limitations in wavelength-tuning of typical DFB QC lasers, widely tunable external-cavity QC laser systems have been developed in the past couple of years [11

11. A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103 (2009). [CrossRef]

] as well as very recently in-situ tunable DFB QC laser devices, where only the applied current has to be varied [12

12. T. S. Mansuripur, S. Menzel, R. Blanchard, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers using sampled grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 20, 23339–23348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261112 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Another issue, besides increasing the spectral tuning range, which concerns singlemode devices is increasing the emitted optical output power. To account for this different approaches have been proposed. The most obvious approach is to increase the length of a normal DFB device [3

3. Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98,181106 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore the coupling strength κ=1ΛΔnneff[14

14. J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford University, 2013) [CrossRef]

] of the grating has to be reduced accordingly, where L is the periodicity of the grating and Dn and neff are the refractive index step and effective refractive index of the mode, respectively. Otherwise the κ · l (l = device length) product is too high which leads to a reduced optical output power [15

15. A. Wittmann, “High-performance quantum cascade laser sources for spectroscopic applications,” PhD. thesis 18363, ETH Zürich (2009).

]. On the contrary, a too low κ · l value results in a bad mode discrimination.

Fig. 1 Transmission curve (left-hand scale) and modal losses (right-hand scale) of a 5.25 mm long (a) DFB and (b) MOPA device. The periodicity of the grating sections is 717 nm for a spectral emission around 2210 cm−1. (a) The grating coupling coefficient for the DFB device with and without perturbation (green/black) is 1.4 cm−1. As can be seen already very small fluctuations of the ridge width are enough to completely eliminate the effect of the grating. (b) The DFB section of the MOPA device comprises a grating with a coupling strength of 35 cm−1 and is 1.25 mm long whereas the FP cavity has a length of 4 mm. An AR-coating is added to the front-facet. The perturbation shows barely any effect on the mode discrimination of this geometry.

To simulate the robustness of such an approach towards fabrication fluctuations, a perturbation of the effective refractive index with a Gaussian distribution was included every 10 μm along the waveguide (green curve). This perturbation represents small laser ridge width fluctuations on the order of 130 nm of a 4 μm wide laser ridge which can easily occur during device fabrication. As can be seen such a small perturbation completely washes out the stopband and removes any singlemode behavior.

An important parameter in designing DFB lasers is the spectral gain margin for singlemode emission. It indicates the maximum spectral distance from the gain peak for which singlemode emission can still be realized by e.g. designing a DFB grating at this wavelength. Going beyond this spectral position will lead to multimode emission because the FP modes reach their lasing threshold before the DFB mode does. The gain margin is of particular interest when different wavelengths have to be realized within one process. One good example for this is the high power array by Rauter et al. where each individual device within the array is addressing a different wavelength [16

16. P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. W. Turner, and F. Capasso, “High-power arrays of quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 4518–4530 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Another approach for increasing the optical output power is to build a two-section cavity. One section consists of a DFB waveguide which acts as a singlemode seed. The second part is a FP cavity which acts as an amplifier and which can be scaled up in length to increase the optical output power without influencing the spectral purity of the emission. The mayor advantage of such a configuration is, that it improves the mode discrimination significantly. This is due to the use of a short DFB section with strong grating coupling coefficient which is more robust towards defects and fabrication fluctuations. An additional positive side-effect of such a two-section geometry is that spatial hole burning, which is one of the main reasons for multimode emission in QC lasers [17

17. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Cozine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008). [CrossRef]

], is reduced significantly. Therefore an anti-reflection (AR) coating is put at the end-facet of the FP section. This transforms the standing wave in the FP amplifier to a traveling mode suppressing spatial hole burning in this section. The AR-coating is also needed to suppress self-lasing of the FP cavity and additional FP modes which are present within the stopband region of this two-section configuration as can be seen in Fig. 1(b).

Such so-called master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) devices have been demonstrated based on a QC laser first by Troccoli et al. [18

18. M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (lambda ∼ 7.4 μ m) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4103–4105 (2002). [CrossRef]

] in 2002. Recently, results have been published for single emitters without AR-coating which can be tuned quasi-continuously with mode-hopes on the FP modes of the amplifier section [19

19. P. Fuchs, J. Friedl, S. Höfling, J. Koeth, A. Forchel, L. Worschech, and M. Kamp, “Single mode quantum cascade lasers with shallow-etched distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 20, 3890–3897 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and arrays, which by tapering the amplifier section up to >100 μm ridge width, result in Watt-level peak optical output power at a low duty-cycle of 0.025% [16

16. P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. W. Turner, and F. Capasso, “High-power arrays of quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 4518–4530 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Sample fabrication

Fig. 2 Picture of a fabricated MOPA device mounted on a gold-coated copper heatsink. The shown device consists of a 2.5 mm long DFB section (upper part) and a 4 mm long FP cavity (lower part).

A single-layer Al2O3-coating (refractive index n = 1.647 at 4.5 μm [24

24. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1998).

]) with a thickness of 687 nm was put as AR-coating on the front-facet. This results in a simulated residual front-facet reflectivity of 0.4% which was measured to be 0.6% on the final devices. This value is low enough to eliminate lasing from the FP-cavity.

3. Sample characterization

A typical device with 4 μm wide front-facet and 1.25 mm long DFB seeding section followed by a 4 mm long straight FP amplifier is presented in this section.

Figure 3 shows the symmetric and single-lobe farfield of the MOPA QC laser in TM00-mode along and perpendicular to the growth direction of the device. For this measurement a pyro-electric detector mounted on a 2-axis goniometer was used, which can move in a half-sphere around the front-facet of the device. The MOPA was driven at its peak optical output power, i.e. at 1500 mA by 50 ns long current pulses at 1% duty cycle and the temperature was fixed to 293K. The full width at half maximum is measured to be 25° in growth direction and 27° perpendicular to that direction.

Fig. 3 Typical farfield of a 4 μm wide and 5.25 mm long device measured at a driving current of 1500 mA and a temperature of 293K. The divergence of the device is measured to be 25° along the growth direction and 27° perpendicular to that direction.

Figure 4 shows the light-current-voltage characteristics of this device for 100 ns long pulses at 1% duty cycle measured between 313K and 263K. A peak optical output-power ranging from 0.6 W up to 1 W is obtained for this temperature range. Note that Watt-level optical output power could be achieved for non-tapered devices in this case.

Fig. 4 Typical light-current-voltage characteristics of a 4 μm × 5.25 mm MOPA QC laser with front-facet AR-coating and a 1.25 mm long DFB section. Between 0.6 and 1 W of peak optical output power are extracted for 100 ns long pulses at 1% duty cycle in the temperature range between 313K and 263K.

Figure 5(a) shows the spectral emission for different driving currents at a constant temperature of 293K and a pulselength of 50 ns at 1% duty cycle. Depending on the current applied to the device the emission wavelength can be tuned between 2208.9 cm−1 and 2209.8 cm−1. For values close to the lasing threshold Ith, i.e. 700 mA and 800 mA corresponding to 1.05*Ith and 1.2*Ith, the wavelength stays constant at 2209.8 cm−1. Further increasing the current up to 1500 mA (= 2.25*Ith) leads to singlemode tuning due to intra-pulse thermal heating of the device with a total tuning range of about 1 cm−1. The side-mode surpression-ratio is better than 23 dB. Figure 5(b) shows the spectral emission for a constant injection current of 1500 mA (50 ns, 1% duty cycle), which is at the peak optical output power and varied temperatures between 263K and 313K. The total singlemode tuning spans a range of 7.9 cm−1 between 2206 cm−1 and 2213.9 cm−1.

Fig. 5 (a) Typical singlemode spectral tuning for 50 ns long driving pulses (1% duty cycle) at a fixed temperature of 293K by varying the driving current. (b) Singlemode tuning spectra also measured for 50 ns current pulses (1% duty cycle). In this case the driving current was fixed to 1500 mA and the temperature was varyied between 263K and 313K leading to a total spectral tuning of 7.9 cm−1.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion the design, fabrication and characterization of buried-heterostructure and short-wavelength MOPA QC lasers is presented together with a simulation-based discussion and comparison with standard DFB QC lasers. Typical narrow and long (4 μm × 5.25 mm) devices, show a symmetric TM00 farfield and singlemode peak optical output power of up to 1 W. The devices were singlemode in the entire investigated temperature range between 263K and 313K with a side-mode suppression-ratio of better than 20 dB.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank P. Jouy, A. Bismuto and Y. Bonetti for fruitful discussions and the help in process development and M. Ebnöther for expert technical assistance. Financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) within the framework of the NCCR Quantum Photonics project is gratefully acknowledged.

References and links

1.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillaergeion, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670–2672 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Wittmann, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, S. Blaser, D. Hofstetter, and E. Gini, “Room temperature, continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with widely spaced operation frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141116 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98,181106 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Singlemode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1W,” El. Lett. 48, 646–647 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 16–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3329–3334 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” J. Quantum Electron. 38, 582–591 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 461–466 (2012). [CrossRef]

9.

J. R. Köster, R. Well, B. Tuzson, R. Bol, K. Dittert, A. Giesemann, L. Emmenegger, A. Manninen, L. Cádenas, and J. Mohn, “Novel laser spectroscopic technique for continuous analysis of N2O isotopomers - application and intercomparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry,” Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom. 27, 216–222 (2013). [CrossRef]

10.

P. Wunderlin, M. F. Lehmann, H. Siegrist, B. Tuzson, A. Joss, L. Emmenegger, and J. Mohn, “Isotope signatures of N2O in a mixed microbial population system: constraints on N2O producing pathways in wastewater treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 1339–1348 (2013).

11.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

T. S. Mansuripur, S. Menzel, R. Blanchard, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers using sampled grating reflectors,” Opt. Express 20, 23339–23348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261112 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford University, 2013) [CrossRef]

15.

A. Wittmann, “High-performance quantum cascade laser sources for spectroscopic applications,” PhD. thesis 18363, ETH Zürich (2009).

16.

P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. W. Turner, and F. Capasso, “High-power arrays of quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21, 4518–4530 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Cozine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053804 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (lambda ∼ 7.4 μ m) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4103–4105 (2002). [CrossRef]

19.

P. Fuchs, J. Friedl, S. Höfling, J. Koeth, A. Forchel, L. Worschech, and M. Kamp, “Single mode quantum cascade lasers with shallow-etched distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 20, 3890–3897 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. Bismuto, R. Terazzi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Fully automatized quantum cascade laser design by genetic optimization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 021103 (2012). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Bismuto, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable high performance quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 141105 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Manne, A. Lim, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, “Sensitive detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 441–447 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 166–176 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1998).

OCIS Codes
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 17, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 16, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 19, 2013
Published: August 5, 2013

Citation
Borislav Hinkov, Mattias Beck, Emilio Gini, and Jérôme Faist, "Quantum cascade laser in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration with Watt-level optical output power," Opt. Express 21, 19180-19186 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-16-19180


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References

  1. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillaergeion, and A. Y. Cho, “Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70, 2670–2672 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Wittmann, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, S. Blaser, D. Hofstetter, and E. Gini, “Room temperature, continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with widely spaced operation frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 141116 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Y. Lu, Y. Bai, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “2.4 W room temperature continuous wave operation of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98,181106 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. B. Hinkov, A. Bismuto, Y. Bonetti, M. Beck, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Singlemode quantum cascade lasers with power dissipation below 1W,” El. Lett.48, 646–647 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Normand, M. McCulloch, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “Fast, real-time spectrometer based on a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett.28, 16–18 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, M. P. Fraser, and F. K. Tittel, “Monitoring of ethylene by a pulsed quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Opt.43, 3329–3334 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. A. Kosterev and F. K. Tittel, “Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers,” J. Quantum Electron.38, 582–591 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Manninen, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, Y. Bonetti, and L. Emmenegger, “Versatile multipass cell for laser spectroscopic trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B109, 461–466 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. Köster, R. Well, B. Tuzson, R. Bol, K. Dittert, A. Giesemann, L. Emmenegger, A. Manninen, L. Cádenas, and J. Mohn, “Novel laser spectroscopic technique for continuous analysis of N2O isotopomers - application and intercomparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry,” Rapid Comm. Mass Spectrom.27, 216–222 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Wunderlin, M. F. Lehmann, H. Siegrist, B. Tuzson, A. Joss, L. Emmenegger, and J. Mohn, “Isotope signatures of N2O in a mixed microbial population system: constraints on N2O producing pathways in wastewater treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol.47, 1339–1348 (2013).
  11. A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95, 061103 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. T. S. Mansuripur, S. Menzel, R. Blanchard, L. Diehl, C. Pflügl, Y. Huang, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Widely tunable mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers using sampled grating reflectors,” Opt. Express20, 23339–23348 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Slivken, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Tsao, S. Nida, Y. Bai, Q. Y. Lu, and M. Razeghi, “Sampled grating, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers with broad tunability and continuous operation at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100, 261112 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford University, 2013) [CrossRef]
  15. A. Wittmann, “High-performance quantum cascade laser sources for spectroscopic applications,” PhD. thesis 18363, ETH Zürich (2009).
  16. P. Rauter, S. Menzel, A. K. Goyal, C. A. Wang, A. Sanchez, G. W. Turner, and F. Capasso, “High-power arrays of quantum cascade laser master-oscillator power-amplifiers,” Opt. Express21, 4518–4530 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Gordon, C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, F. X. Kärtner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Cozine, G. Höfler, H. C. Liu, H. Schneider, T. Maier, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, and F. Capasso, “Multimode regimes in quantum cascade lasers: From coherent instabilities to spatial hole burning,” Phys. Rev. A77, 053804 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Troccoli, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “Mid-infrared (lambda ∼ 7.4 μ m) quantum cascade laser amplifier for high power single-mode emission and improved beam quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 4103–4105 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. P. Fuchs, J. Friedl, S. Höfling, J. Koeth, A. Forchel, L. Worschech, and M. Kamp, “Single mode quantum cascade lasers with shallow-etched distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express20, 3890–3897 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Bismuto, R. Terazzi, B. Hinkov, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Fully automatized quantum cascade laser design by genetic optimization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 021103 (2012). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Bismuto, R. Terazzi, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Electrically tunable high performance quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96, 141105 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. J. Manne, A. Lim, J. Tulip, and W. Jäger, “Sensitive detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B107, 441–447 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B90, 166–176 (2008). [CrossRef]
  24. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic, 1998).

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