## A simple optical encryption based on shape merging technique in periodic diffraction correlation imaging |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 16, pp. 19395-19400 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.019395

Acrobat PDF (920 KB)

### Abstract

In Periodic diffraction correlation imaging (PDCI), the images of several objects located in different spatial positions can be integrated into one image following certain rules, which is named shape merging. In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated this new technique. It can be realized without SLM or beam-splitter. And this effect can find novel application in optical encryption, enabling transmission of object information to a remote place secretly.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of Two-Photon “Ghost” Interference and Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **74**(18), 3600–3603 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A **76**(4), 043828 (2007). [CrossRef]

6. Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A **81**(4), 043831 (2010). [CrossRef]

7. R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and H. C. Kandpal, “Ghost Imaging Experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A **77**(4), 041801 (2008). [CrossRef]

9. L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudoth-ermal light,” Opt. Commun. **283**(13), 2657–2661 (2010). [CrossRef]

10. H. Li, Z. P. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. H. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express **20**(3), 2956–2966 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. X. B. Song, J. Xiong, X. D. Zhang, and K. G. Wang, “Second –order Talbot self-imaging with pseudother- mal,” Phys. Rev. A **82**(3), 033823 (2010). [CrossRef]

12. K. H. Luo, X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, and L. A. Wu, “Nonlocal Talbot self-imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A **82**(3), 033803 (2010). [CrossRef]

13. J. Cheng, “Ghost imaging through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express **17**(10), 7916–7921 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A **79**(5), 053840 (2009). [CrossRef]

10. H. Li, Z. P. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. H. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express **20**(3), 2956–2966 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*Nth*-order ghost imaging without a beam-splitter and correlation microscopy.

17. P. Clemente, V. Durán, V. Torres-Company, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. **35**(14), 2391–2393 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. **20**(7), 767–769 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on co-mputational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **101**(10), 101108 (2012). [CrossRef]

## 2. Shape merging technique

*T*in the periodic intensity pattern is named a NDP. As mentioned above, the image of the object in the PDCI reappears in the image plane with a period of

*T*. If the size of the object is larger than that of a NDP, and the components of the object have a relative position relation with each other, then a shape-merged image which is different from the original objects is obtained in each NDP, this is named shape merging technique.

*a*= 50μm. We use a transmission object which was placed after the array board, shown in the Fig. 3(a) .This object has an English letter ‘c’ at upper left corner, another ‘c’ at upper right corner and an English letter ‘s’ at lower right corner. The three letters ‘c’, ‘c’ and ‘s’ have a relative position relation with each other. Then the transmitted light was collected by a CCD of size 1392 × 1040 pixels which has a distance

*z*= 410 mm with the array board. By using correlation measurement, a shape-merged ‘ccs’ which is the logotype of our lab was retrieved, shown in Fig. 3(b), the function of image is given bywhere

*R*is the radius of the source,

*t*(

*x*) denotes the transmission function of the object, function

*sinc*(

*x*) =

*sin*(

*x*)/

*x*and

*T*and the size of the CCD.

## 3. Optical encryption

*T*with the Fig. 3(b).

*a*, the distance along the transmission axis

*z*and the size of the detection area of the CCD, the number of images appearing in the image plane will also change. Hence this mechanism is controllable; the sender can change the parameters with the receiver to improve the confidentiality of the system. What’s more, in the encryption method based on CGI mentioned above, the reference intensity pattern has to be computed according to the phase distribution modulated on the SLM for each iteration. Therefore the computation complexity of the encryption based on CGI is remarkably high. Whereas, in the encryption based on PDCI, the reference intensity patterns are measured directly. Consequently, its computation complexity is smaller than that of former.

## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of Two-Photon “Ghost” Interference and Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

2. | O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

3. | Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A |

4. | J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A |

5. | Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A |

6. | Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A |

7. | R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and H. C. Kandpal, “Ghost Imaging Experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A |

8. | N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by mea- suring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Engineer. |

9. | L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudoth-ermal light,” Opt. Commun. |

10. | H. Li, Z. P. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. H. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express |

11. | X. B. Song, J. Xiong, X. D. Zhang, and K. G. Wang, “Second –order Talbot self-imaging with pseudother- mal,” Phys. Rev. A |

12. | K. H. Luo, X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, and L. A. Wu, “Nonlocal Talbot self-imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A |

13. | J. Cheng, “Ghost imaging through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express |

14. | P. Zhang, W. Gong, X. Shen, and S. Han, “Correlated imaging through atmospheric turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A |

15. | Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A |

16. | J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A |

17. | P. Clemente, V. Durán, V. Torres-Company, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett. |

18. | M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on co-mputational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

19. | E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt. |

20. | P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. |

**OCIS Codes**

(030.1670) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherent optical effects

(110.1650) Imaging systems : Coherence imaging

**ToC Category:**

Imaging Systems

**History**

Original Manuscript: April 26, 2013

Revised Manuscript: June 23, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: June 26, 2013

Published: August 8, 2013

**Citation**

Mengjie Sun, Jianhong Shi, Hu Li, and Guihua Zeng, "A simple optical encryption based on shape merging technique in periodic diffraction correlation imaging," Opt. Express **21**, 19395-19400 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-16-19395

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### References

- D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “Observation of Two-Photon “Ghost” Interference and Diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(18), 3600–3603 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Katz, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Compressive ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 131110 (2009).
- Y. F. Bai and S. S. Han, “Ghost imaging with thermal light by third-order correlation,” Phys. Rev. A76(4), 043828 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. B. Liu and Y. H. Shih, “Nth-order coherence of thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A79(2), 023819 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Q. Liu, X. H. Chen, K. H. Luo, W. Wu, and L. A. Wu, “Role of multiphoton bunching in high-order ghost imaging with thermal light sources,” Phys. Rev. A79(5), 053844 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Y. Zhou, J. Simon, J. B. Liu, and Y. H. Shih, “Third-order correlation function and ghost imaging of chaotic thermal light in the photon counting regime,” Phys. Rev. A81(4), 043831 (2010). [CrossRef]
- R. Meyers, K. S. Deacon, and H. C. Kandpal, “Ghost Imaging Experiment by measuring reflected photons,” Phys. Rev. A77(4), 041801 (2008). [CrossRef]
- N. S. Bisht, E. K. Sharma, and H. C. Kandpal, “Experimental observation of lensless ghost imaging by mea- suring reflected photons,” Opt. Lasers Engineer.48, 671C675 (2010).
- L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “Diffuse-reflection ghost imaging from a double-strip illuminated by pseudoth-ermal light,” Opt. Commun.283(13), 2657–2661 (2010). [CrossRef]
- H. Li, Z. P. Chen, J. Xiong, and G. H. Zeng, “Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter,” Opt. Express20(3), 2956–2966 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X. B. Song, J. Xiong, X. D. Zhang, and K. G. Wang, “Second –order Talbot self-imaging with pseudother- mal,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033823 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. H. Luo, X. H. Chen, Q. Liu, and L. A. Wu, “Nonlocal Talbot self-imaging with pseudo-thermal light,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033803 (2010). [CrossRef]
- J. Cheng, “Ghost imaging through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express17(10), 7916–7921 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Zhang, W. Gong, X. Shen, and S. Han, “Correlated imaging through atmospheric turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A82(033817), 1–4 (2010).
- Y. Bromberg, O. Katz, and Y. Silberberg, “Ghost imaging with a single detector,” Phys. Rev. A79(5), 053840 (2009). [CrossRef]
- J. H. Shapiro, “Computational ghost imaging,” Phys. Rev. A78(061802), 1–4 (2008).
- P. Clemente, V. Durán, V. Torres-Company, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, “Optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging,” Opt. Lett.35(14), 2391–2393 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Tanha, R. Kheradmand, and S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, “Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on co-mputational ghost imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(10), 101108 (2012). [CrossRef]
- E. Tajahuerce and B. Javidi, “Encrypting three-dimensional information with digital holography,” Appl. Opt.39(35), 6595–6601 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett.20(7), 767–769 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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