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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 17 — Aug. 26, 2013
  • pp: 19762–19767
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Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by tunable optical frequency comb

Yu Xiang, Ning Jiang, Chen Chen, Chongfu Zhang, and Kun Qiu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 17, pp. 19762-19767 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.019762


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Abstract

In this paper, a novel wired/wireless access integrated radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system that utilizes scalable multiple-frequency millimeter-wave (MF-MMW) generation based on tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC) is proposed. The TOFC is performed by cascading a phase modulator (PM) and two intensity modulators (IMs), and with proper selection of the peak-to-peak voltage of the PM, a flat and effective optical comb with tens of frequency lines is achieved. The MF-MMWs are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs with an interval about 60GHz. The feasibility and scalability of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON scheme are confirmed by the simulations of simultaneous distribution of wired and wireless data with the proposed multiple frequency MMW generation technology.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Radio over fiber (RoF) system has been widely studied for the ability of seamlessly integrating the broadband optical fiber communication with the highly-mobile wireless radio communication [1

1. C. H. Chang, H. H. Lu, H. S. Su, C. L. Shih, and K. J. Chen, “A broadband ASE light source-based full-duplex FTTX/ROF transport system,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22246–22253 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2456–2464 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In last decade, the study on photonic generation of 60GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) and its application in the access network has attracted great attention. Up to present, several RoF passive optical network (RoF-PON) schemes based on the photonic generation of MMW technologies, such as optical heterodyne, four wave mixing, optical injection, etc., have been reported [3

3. T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-Duplex 1.0 Gbit/s Data Transmission Over 60 GHz Radio-on-Fiber Access System Based on the Loop-Back Optical Heterodyne Technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1765–1776 (2008). [CrossRef]

6

6. K. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, Y. A. Leem, and K. H. Park, “Harmonic millimeter-wave generation and frequency up-conversion using a passively mode-locked multisection DFB laser under external optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 161–163 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. While most of these schemes work at a single or fixed frequency, which may cause crosstalk between different optical network units (ONUs), therefore the development of multiple-frequency RoF-PON is highly desirable and valuable.

Photonic generation of multiple-frequency MMW (MF-MMW) is a good candidate for the application of multiple-frequency RoF-PON, since that it can provide different optical MMWs for different ONUs. Several optical MF-MMW generation approaches have recently been developed. J. Li et al. proposed an ultra-wideband MF-MMW generation using fiber optical parametric amplifier [7

7. L. Jia and L. Yu, “Millimeter-Wave UWB Signal Generation Via Frequency Up-Conversion Using Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. M. Mohamed and colleagues proposed an OFDM MMW ultra-wideband generation scheme by optical frequency quadrupling technology [8

8. M. Mohamed, X. Zhang, B. Hraimel, and K. Wu, “Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Multiband OFDM Ultra-Wideband Wireless Signal and Distribution Over Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1180–1182 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. J. Yu and associates demonstrated a novel MF-MMW generation scheme using multichannel recirculating frequency shifter loop [9

9. J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, Y. Shao, and L. Tao, “Multichannel optical frequency-locked multicarrier source generation based on multichannel recirculation frequency shifter loop,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4714–4716 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In our recent works, we have proposed to use the FWM effects in SOA and the polarization demultiplexing/multiplexing technology to generate MF-MMWs, and used the MF-MMWs to achieve a multiple frequency RoF-PON [10

10. C. Zhang, L. Wang, and K. Qiu, “Proposal for all-optical generation of multiple-frequency millimeter-wave signals for RoF system with multiple base stations using FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13957–13962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. Y. Xiang, C. Chen, C. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by polarization multiplexed FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1218–1225 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this work, we propose and demonstrate a novel wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON system with scalable MF-MMWs around the radio frequency of 60GHz, in virtue of a tunable optical frequency comb (TOFC) generator which has been extensively applied in the wideband optical communication in recent years [12

12. X. Yi, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2054–2061 (2010). [CrossRef]

,13

13. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “5-THz wide, 175 mode optical comb source,”in Proceedings of OFC’07, paper: OWJ3. [CrossRef]

]. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the principle and theoretical analysis of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON. In section 3, the investigations on the properties of TOFC and the performance of the RoF-PON are presented. Finally, a conclusion is given in section 4.

2. Principle and theoretical analysis of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON system based on TOFC

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed wired/wireless integrated RoF-PON using TOFC generator.
presents the schematic architecture of the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON system. The multi-frequency MMW is generated by a TOFC generator which is shown in the inset (a). The TOFC generator is composed of one laser diode, RF source, a phase modulator (PM), two intensity modulators (IMs), and two power control modules. Here, a distributed-feedback (DFB) laser is used as the optical source, and a sinusoidal RF source is applied to drive the cascaded PM and IMs. A tunable electrical amplifier and electric attenuator are employed to control the input RF signal voltage of the PM, so as to dynamically revise the scalability of the advanced TOFC generator. A phase shifter (PS) is adopted to adjust the phase of the input electrical signal of the two IMs. Under these conditions, optical comb lines generated by the TOFC generator are used as the source for the proposed multiple-frequency RoF-PON system. The output of optical comb lines [see the inset (b)] is injected into a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with the center frequency of f0. Consequently, the comb line at the frequency of f0 is reflected and then modulated by the wired signal with one IM [see the inset (c)]. The rest of comb lines passing through the FBG are modulated by wireless signal with other IMs [see the inset (d)]. After that, the modulated optical signals including both wired and wireless messages [see the inset (e)] are combined and transmitted to the optical distribution network (ODN) through standard single mode fiber (SSMF). In the ODN, an arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) is utilized to filter out the signals on different comb lines and an optical splitter is used to divide the wired signal for different terminal nodes. The wired signal from optical splitter and a pair of wireless signal on the two comb lines are delivered to the terminal node. The grid of the two wireless signal comb lines is chosen according to the need of the terminal, which determinates the user’s MMW frequency. The wired signal and the pairs of comb lines with wireless signal [see the insert (f)] are simultaneously sent to different terminal. The RF signal is generated by using a linear photodiode (PD) to perform the optical heterodyning from the wireless signal [see the insert (g)]. The baseband wired signal is directly obtained from the optical signal.

In the TOFC generator, the DFB laser works in a CW mode, and its output can be described as Ec(t)=Ecexp(jωct), where Ecis the envelope of intensity and ωcis the operation angular frequency. Considering the successive modulations at the PM and IMs, the output comb of TCG can be expressed as:
E(t)=14Ecn={Jn(mPMπ)+2exp(jβ)Jn[(mPM+mIM)π]+exp(j2β)Jn[(mPM+2mIM)π]}×jnexp[j(ωc+nω)t],
(1)
where ω is the angular frequency of the sinusoidal RF signal, mPM is the PM electrical input voltage normalized by its half-wave voltage, while mIM and β are the IM electrical input voltages and the IM bias voltages normalized by their half-wave voltages, respectively. In addition, n is the comb line index and Jn(x) is the first kind Bessel function of nth order.

In order to effectively generate the multiple-frequency MMWs, two wireless bands are selected from the multiple wireless bands: one is selected from the left part, while the other is selected from the right part. We assume that the ith band in the left is selected where –nin and it can be given as
ELeft(t)=Acos{[ωc+2π×fd(15+i)]t+ϕ0],
(2)
where A is the amplitude of the optical comb line generated by TOFC generator, ϕ0is phase, fd=2GHz is the frequency interval of the wireless bands. Similarly, the jth band in the right region can be written as
ERight(t)=Acos{[ωc+2π×fd(15+j)]t+ϕ0}.
(3)
Subsequently, these two bands are taken to perform the optical heterodyning in a PD and the output current of the PD within its limited bandwidth can be described as
I(t)=R|ELeft(t)+ERight(t)|2=2RA2cos{[ωc+2π×2×109(15+j)]t[ωc2π×2×109(15i)]t+ϕ0ϕ0}=2RA2{1+cos{2π×109[60+2(ji)]t}},
(4)
where R is the responsivity of PD. As can be seen from Eq. (4), a MMW signal with a frequency around 60GHz has been generated. The frequency range of the MF-MMW is [60-2nfd, 60 + 2nfd]GHz with a frequency grid of 2GHz. Thus totally 4n + 1 MMWs with different frequency can be generated.

3. Results and discussion

In our scheme, the wavelength of the DBF laser is set at 1552.52nm, and the RF signal is a sinusoidal signal with a frequency of 2GHz. The half-wave voltages of the PM and two IMs are 3.2V and 4.6V, respectively. The PPV of PM driving signal is controlled at 6V. The IMs are of identical single-arm chirp-free LiNbO3 type. Under these conditions, tens of flat f0-centered frequency lines can be obtained by the TOFC generator. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Flatness contour plot with comb lines generated by advanced TCG
shows the flatness contour plot for the 39 f0-centered comb lines as a function of the indices mIM and β. Here the electrical normalized input voltage applied to the PM is set tomPM=3. It is obvious that there is an optimize point with mIM=0.54 and β = 0.52, where the flatness of the obtained central 39 comb lines is less than 0.1 dB, i.e., the frequency lines are highly flat [see the red point]. It is worth mentioning that, in the TOFC generator adopted here, about 12dB insertion loss would be induced by the cascade of PM and IMs, and moreover, the number of comb lines would be less and the range of bandwidth would be comparatively narrower with respect to those of the TOFC generators used in [12

12. X. Yi, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2054–2061 (2010). [CrossRef]

,13

13. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “5-THz wide, 175 mode optical comb source,”in Proceedings of OFC’07, paper: OWJ3. [CrossRef]

]. However, it hardly affects the application in the proposed RoF-PON, since that it not only can provide sufficient flexibility and stability, but also can satisfy the demands of frequency bands around 60GHz. For the sake of better performance, in the following investigations the values of mIM and β are set to the optimize values.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Output optical comb spectra generated by advanced TCG, where (a) and (b) represent the theoretical analysis result and simulation result, respectively.
displays the analytical and simulation spectra for the output optical comb generated by the advanced TOFC generator. It is indicated that the simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis well, even though the flatness of the simulation result (0.4dB) is a little larger than that of the theoretical calculation result (0.1dB). We attribute this deterioration in flatness to the intrinsic difference of the two IMs, while in the theoretical calculation we set the IMs to identical.

To get rid of the affection of the signals outside of the flat region, a band-pass filter is adopted, and then the spectrum of the TOFC becomes as shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Optical comb spectrum after rectangular filter, (b) Modulated optical comb spectrum by wired data and wireless data.
. The optical comb lines are then modulated with wired and wireless signal. The spectra for the modulated signals are shown in Fig. 4(b), where the blue curve represents the spectrum for the modulated wireless signal, while the green one represents that for the modulated wired signal. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Optical comb spectrum modulated wired data and wireless data after combiner, (b) Electrical spectra of generated MMWs near 60GHz
shows the spectrum of modulated wired and wireless signals after optical coupler. We can see that the power difference between wired signal and wireless signals is about 3dB. At the ODN, the pairs of wireless signal comb lines with a frequency interval around 60GHz and the wired signal are sent to different ONUs, where a linear PD is adopted to perform the optical heterodyning, to generate the MMW for wireless communication and another PD is used to drop the wired signal directly. Taking the cases of j-i = −1, 0, 1 for instance, three MMWs with frequencies of 58GHz, 60GHz and 62GHz are obtained simultaneously as shown in Fig. 5(b).

Figure 6
Fig. 6 BER performance of the 1.25Gbps wired access for the B2B and 20km SSMF transmission cases. The insets (a) and (b) denotes the corresponding eye diagrams for the cases of B2B and 20km SSMF transmission at the BER of 10−9.
depicts the bit-error rate (BER) performance of a 1.25Gbps wired access in our proposed wired/wireless integrated ROF-PON system for both back-to-back (B2B) and 20km SSMF transmission cases. It is indicated that the power penalty at a BER of 10−9 is 0.55 dB after transmission over 20km SSMF. The insets (a) and (b) show the eye diagrams for B2B and 20km SSMF transmission cases, which indicates that a geed performance is maintained. Similarly, Fig. 7
Fig. 7 BER performance of the 1.25Gbps wireless access at 58GHz, 60GHz and 62GHz for the B2B and 20km SSMF transmission cases. The insets (a)-(f) denotes the corresponding eye diagrams at the BER of 10−9.
shows the BER performance for a 1.25Gbps wireless access, where the 58GHz, 60GHz and 62GHz MMWs in Fig. 5(b) are adopted to investigate the performance of wireless access. It is demonstrated that the performance variations for all MMW channels are similar. The power penalties at a BER of 10−9 after 20km SSMF transmission are 0.3dB, 0.4dB and 0.3dB for 58GHz, 60GHz and 62GHz, respectively, and the communication performance is not greatly deteriorated with respect to that of the B2B case, as shown in the insets Figs. 7(a)-7(f).

4. Conclusion

We have proposed a novel integrated RoF-PON system for both wired and wireless access, by utilizing multiple-frequency millimeter generation based on an advanced TOFC generator. By properly selecting operation conditions of the TOFC generator, a flat TOFC with 39 frequency lines is achieved, and then a set of MF-MMWs around 60GHz are generated by beating the optical comb line pairs. Based on this, a simulation utilizing the MF-MMWs to distribute a wired and a wireless signal simultaneously demonstrate that the proposed wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON is achievable, and a prominent performance can be maintained. The proposed RoF-PON scheme provides a potential way for the integration of optical communication and wireless communication in the next-generation broadband optical access networks.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported in part by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities No. ZYGX2011J009, the Young Scientist Fund of National Natural Science Foundation of China No. 61101095, 863 high technique program of China No. 2012AA011304 and Natural Science Foundation of China No. 61171045. The authors would also thank Dr. Feng Wen, Dr. Yun Ling, Dr. Xingwen Yi, M. E. Zhenming Yu and all anonymous reviewers for improving the clarity and quality of this paper.

References and links

1.

C. H. Chang, H. H. Lu, H. S. Su, C. L. Shih, and K. J. Chen, “A broadband ASE light source-based full-duplex FTTX/ROF transport system,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22246–22253 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2456–2464 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-Duplex 1.0 Gbit/s Data Transmission Over 60 GHz Radio-on-Fiber Access System Based on the Loop-Back Optical Heterodyne Technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1765–1776 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Hsueh, Z. Jia, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, J. Yu, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband 60-GHz wireless over fiber access system with high dispersion tolerance using frequency tripling technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(8), 1105–1111 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Wiberg, P. Pérez-Millán, M. V. Andrés, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Microwave photonic frequency multiplication utilizing optical four-wave mixing and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 329–334 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

K. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, Y. A. Leem, and K. H. Park, “Harmonic millimeter-wave generation and frequency up-conversion using a passively mode-locked multisection DFB laser under external optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 161–163 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Jia and L. Yu, “Millimeter-Wave UWB Signal Generation Via Frequency Up-Conversion Using Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Mohamed, X. Zhang, B. Hraimel, and K. Wu, “Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Multiband OFDM Ultra-Wideband Wireless Signal and Distribution Over Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1180–1182 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, Y. Shao, and L. Tao, “Multichannel optical frequency-locked multicarrier source generation based on multichannel recirculation frequency shifter loop,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4714–4716 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Zhang, L. Wang, and K. Qiu, “Proposal for all-optical generation of multiple-frequency millimeter-wave signals for RoF system with multiple base stations using FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express 19(15), 13957–13962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Y. Xiang, C. Chen, C. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by polarization multiplexed FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1218–1225 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

X. Yi, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2054–2061 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “5-THz wide, 175 mode optical comb source,”in Proceedings of OFC’07, paper: OWJ3. [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: April 29, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 11, 2013
Published: August 15, 2013

Citation
Yu Xiang, Ning Jiang, Chen Chen, Chongfu Zhang, and Kun Qiu, "Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by tunable optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 21, 19762-19767 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-17-19762


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References

  1. C. H. Chang, H. H. Lu, H. S. Su, C. L. Shih, and K. J. Chen, “A broadband ASE light source-based full-duplex FTTX/ROF transport system,” Opt. Express17(24), 22246–22253 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Wake, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Radio over fiber link design for next generation wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(16), 2456–2464 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Taniguchi, N. Sakurai, K. Kumozaki, and T. Imai, “Full-Duplex 1.0 Gbit/s Data Transmission Over 60 GHz Radio-on-Fiber Access System Based on the Loop-Back Optical Heterodyne Technique,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(13), 1765–1776 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Hsueh, Z. Jia, H. Chien, A. Chowdhury, J. Yu, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband 60-GHz wireless over fiber access system with high dispersion tolerance using frequency tripling technique,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(8), 1105–1111 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Wiberg, P. Pérez-Millán, M. V. Andrés, and P. O. Hedekvist, “Microwave photonic frequency multiplication utilizing optical four-wave mixing and fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 329–334 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. K. H. Lee, W. Y. Choi, Y. A. Leem, and K. H. Park, “Harmonic millimeter-wave generation and frequency up-conversion using a passively mode-locked multisection DFB laser under external optical injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(3), 161–163 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Jia and L. Yu, “Millimeter-Wave UWB Signal Generation Via Frequency Up-Conversion Using Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(17), 1172–1174 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Mohamed, X. Zhang, B. Hraimel, and K. Wu, “Optical Generation of Millimeter-Wave Multiband OFDM Ultra-Wideband Wireless Signal and Distribution Over Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1180–1182 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, Y. Shao, and L. Tao, “Multichannel optical frequency-locked multicarrier source generation based on multichannel recirculation frequency shifter loop,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4714–4716 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Zhang, L. Wang, and K. Qiu, “Proposal for all-optical generation of multiple-frequency millimeter-wave signals for RoF system with multiple base stations using FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express19(15), 13957–13962 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Xiang, C. Chen, C. Zhang, and K. Qiu, “Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by polarization multiplexed FWM in SOA,” Opt. Express21(1), 1218–1225 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Yi, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, and S. J. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(14), 2054–2061 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “5-THz wide, 175 mode optical comb source,”in Proceedings of OFC’07, paper: OWJ3. [CrossRef]

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