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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: 20529–20543
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Performance analysis for IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems

Yuting Fan, Jianqiang Li, Kun Xu, Hao Chen, Xun Lu, Yitang Dai, Feifei Yin, Yuefeng Ji, and Jintong Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 20529-20543 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.020529


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Abstract

In this paper, we analyze the performance of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in simulcast radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems (RoF-DASs) where multiple remote antenna units (RAUs) are connected to one wireless local-area network (WLAN) access point (AP) with different-length fiber links. We also present an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of the systems in the presence of both the inter-RAU hidden-node problem and fiber-length difference effect. In the model, the unequal delay induced by different fiber length is involved both in the backoff stage and in the calculation of Ts and Tc, which are the period of time when the channel is sensed busy due to a successful transmission or a collision. The throughput performances of WLAN-RoF-DAS in both basic access and request to send/clear to send (RTS/CTS) exchange modes are evaluated with the help of the derived model.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

To the best of our knowledge, no one has presented an analytical model to predict the throughput of IEEE 802.11 DCF in a simulcast RoF-DAS in the presence of both the fiber-length difference effect and the inter-RAU HN problem. In this paper, we derive an analytical model to evaluate the throughput of IEEE 802.11 DCF in a simulcast RoF-DAS where multiple distributed RAUs are connected to a single WLAN AP with different-length fiber links. The developed model allows for a quick and accurate prediction on the throughput performance of an IEEE 802.11 DCF simulcast RoF-DAS, which facilitates the design of practical WLAN-RoF-DASs. In addition, we analyze the performance of DCF in both basic access and RTS/CTS exchange modes with the help of the derived model.

2. Simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS architecture and assumptions in the theoretical analysis

In the theoretical analysis, we assume the following conditions:

  • (a). Ideal channel condition, i.e., no capture effect.
  • (b). No timing boundary. In a WLAN-RoF system, a fast decline of the throughput happens when the inserted fiber delay exceeds the MAC timing boundary commonly determined by the Acknowledgment (ACK) timeout and CTS timeout values. Usually, the ACK timeout and CTS timeout values are set to 316 μs [8

    8. S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Analysis of the MAC performances in 802.11g radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, Nov. 2011. [CrossRef]

    ], but most WLAN product vendors always set them configurable according to the users’ specific requests. In our analysis, we assume that the ACK and CTS timeout are both 100 μs which are sufficient to cover the involved fiber delay in our investigations (i.e. no timing boundary for all RAUs). This ensures that the transmit failure is solely induced by the packet collisions.
  • (c). Saturated load: there is always a packet in the buffer waiting for transmitting after a successful transmission.
  • (d). Dual-RAU configuration: two RAUs are involved in our analysis for convenience. We further assume that a short length (e.g. 100m fiber only leads to a 0.5 μs delay which can be ignored in the analysis comparing to the typical wireless propagation delay 1 μs) to one RAU (say RAU-A) and a variable large length to the other RAU (say RAU-B). The one-way differential fiber delay between RAU-A and RAU-B is denoted as F slots (1 slot = 9 μs for IEEE 802.11g).

3. Theoretical analysis

3.1 Inter-RAU HN problem in a simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS

In the mechanism of IEEE 802.11 DCF, the stations under different RAUs which are distributed in different locations cannot hear from each other and thereby access the channel blindly. Enormous collisions might occur during the transmission and a backoff stage starts in each station’s MAC layer after the collisions. As Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Backoff stage of two stations in different RAU with differential fiber delay.
shows, transmissions of the stations under one RAU have high probability to impact transmissions of stations in other RAUs, which results in so-called inter-RAU HN problem. The inter-RAU HN problem can be defined as coupling effect, which has been investigated in [19

19. T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 13(3), 175–177 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

3.2 The performance of the basic access and RTS/CTS exchange mechanisms in a simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS

The RTS/CTS exchange mechanism adopts the reservation method to against HN problems at the cost of a decrease of the average throughput. Many reports have proved that the RTS/CTS exchange mechanism is effective to mitigate the HN problem in both traditional WLAN and WLAN-RoF-DASs with uniform-length fiber links. However, as explained above, the situation of unbalance throughput performance may occur in a simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS. Therefore, in the presence of inter-RAU HN problem, we here discuss how much the fiber-length difference effect impact the throughput unfairness among RAUs in both the basic access and RTS/CTS exchange modes.

We define a vulnerable period Tv which is the interval between the time a station in one RAU starting its transmission and the time other stations in the other RAU receiving an ACK or a CTS frame from the AP. A collision among the stations in different RAUs tends to happen during the vulnerable period. We can define Tv in two modes as:
Tvbasic=DATA+ACK+SIFS+F
(1)
TvRTS=RTS+CTS+SIFS+F
(2)
where DIFS and SIFS is the DCF interframe space and short interframe space respectively. In Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The vulerable period in basic access and RTS/CTS exchange modes.
, a frame is transmitted after the backoff counter finishes. In the RTS/CTS exchange mode, the stations can identify if other stations in the other RAU have occupied the channel after receiving a CTS frame, while the stations only know the channel state after an ACK frame in basic access mode. As a RTS frame length is much shorter than a maximum data frame, the vulnerable period in RTS/CTS mode is much shorter than the basic access mode. Therefore, the collision probability caused by the HN problem in the basic access mode is much higher than that in the RTS/CTS exchange mode. Especially when the number of stations increases, the impact of the inter-RAU HN problem is stronger in the basic access mode. Hence, the RTS/CTS exchange mode is supposed to perform better against the HN problem. Additionally, the period of RTS frame transmission including waiting F slots is still averagely shorter than the data frame transmission period in the basic access mode in the same network. Therefore, the fiber delay may impact less the RTS/CTS exchange mode than the basic access mode.

3.3 Theoretical throughput model considering fiber length difference

As show in Fig. 2, as fiber delay F increases, a settled delay exists for the stations under RAU-B. Even though the backoff procedures of the stations in RAU-B have finished the countdown, it should take another F slots to contend for the channel. So we reconsider the two-dimensional Markov chain model as Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Markov Chain Model considering fiber delays.
illustrates. Let W0 and m be the minimum contention window and the maximum backoff stage, respectively. The backoff range changes to [F, F + Wi −1] instead of [0, Wi −1], where Wi = 2iW0 represents the contention window of i-th backoff stage.

Absence of inter-RAU HN problem

Firstly, we discuss the situation when a transmitting station is not interfered by the inter-RAU HNs. We define thatσ is the system slot time and h is the number of slots to transmit the packet. Let L = hσbe the packet size and l be the minimum backoff stage which satisfies 2lW0 + F−1≥h. If the backoff counter of a station in HN-group is bigger than h, then there is no interference between the groups. We denote δdR as the probability that a HN backoff counter is bigger than h. As there is no interference in this situation, we can assume that the HN’s backoff stage is independent on the transmitting station’s one approximately. Hence, the stationary probability τR that a station transmits a packet in a randomly chosen time slot and the RAU-R’s conditional collision probability pR can be represented as:
τR=i=0mbi,0R=2(12pR)pRW0(1(2pR)m)+(1+W0)(12pR)
(3)
pR=1(1τR)(nR1)gRo
(4)
Furthermore, we calculategR=(δR)nRqR, and we calculate δR and qR as follows:
δdR=k=hWi+F1bm,kR=b0,0R2{W0[(2pR)l(2pR)m12pR+(2pR)m1pR]+(2F2h+1)pl1pR+(F2+h2+2Fh+F+h)W0[(pR2)l(pR2)m1pR2+(pR2)m1pR]}
(5)
b0,0R=2(12pR)(1pR)pRW0(1(2pR)m)+(1+W0)(12pR)
(6)
qR=σ(1PtrR)σ+PtrRPSRTS+PtrR(1PSR)TC
(7)
where bi,kR is the probability that the station is in the i-th backoff stage and k-th backoff counter. We denote gR as the probability that a transmitting station in RAU-R (trans-group) does not suffer from an interference with the stations in the other RAU-Ro which could be taken as HN-group (if R = A, Ro = B, for example). And we define qR is the probability that a station in HN-group starts to transmit on the generic slot timing of the HN-group.

Moreover, we need to obtain PtrR (the probability of at least one transmission in each slot time) and PsR (the probability of a successful transmission in each slot time):
PtrR=1(1τR)(nR1)
(8)
PsR=nRτR(1τRo)(nRo1)gRoPtrR
(9)
As a result, qA, qB and δdA, δdB can be given by Eq. (3)-(9) using numerical methods with the corresponding parameterF.

Presence of inter-RAU HN problem

In this part, we investigate the inter-RAU problem between the two groups (i.e. trans-group and HN groups) based on our model. It is difficult to make the model completely accurate. Thus, we only consider the primary situations involved in our discussion. We partition the Markov chain into two parts, the front part (back stage 0 to m-1) and the rear part (back stage m). As we aforementioned, we assume that the backoff stages of the station in one RAU are dependent upon that of other stations in different RAUs when there is an inter-RAU HN problem. However, more specifically in our discussion, they are dependent in the front part and almost independent in the rear part.

Hence, under this approximation, the transmission probability and conditional collision probability τfR, pfR in the front part and τrR, prR in the rear part can be represented as:
τfR=i=0m1pfRibi,0cR=b0,0cR1pfRm1pfR
(10)
τrR=prRmbm,0cR=b0,0cRprRm1prRm
(11)
Withb0,0cR=2W0(1(2pfR)m12pfR+(2pfR)m1prR)+1pfRm1pfR+pfRm1prR
(12)
pfR=1(1τcR)nR1(δcRO)nRoqRO
(13)
prR=1(1τcR)nR1(δdRO)nRoqRO
(14)
where δcR represents the probability that the transmitting station does not suffer HN’s interference which is in a high backoff stage (we assume2tom) and it can be calculated as:

δcR=δdR1b0,0RW+1+2F2pRb0,0R2W+1+2F2
(15)

The equations from Eq. (8)-(13) represent a nonlinear relation among unknowns pfA, prA, τcA, pfA, prA, τcA, which can be solved using numerical methods. In addition, we obtain PtrR and PsR as:

PtrR=1(1τcR)nR
(16)
PsR=nR(1τcR)(nR1)(τfRO(δcRO)(nRo1)qRo+τrRO(δdRO)(nRo1)qRo)PtrR
(17)

A successful transmission in a slot time occurs with the probability of PtrRPsR. The normalized system throughput SRcan be calculated based on Eq. (16) and (17):

SR=2PsRPtrRER[packet](1PtrR)σ+PtrRPsRTs+PtrR(1PsR)Tc
(18)

And the throughput of system will be obtained by:

S=SA+SB
(19)

The packet payload size in bit is ER[packet]. For the basic access mode and RTS/CTS exchange mode, Tsmode and Tcmode can be calculated respectively by:

Tsbasic=DIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling(ER[packet]+Trail)+SIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling(ACK+Trail)+2×2(ν+F)
(20)
Tcbasic=DIFS+PLCP+H+Ceiling(ER[packet]+Trail)+2(ν+F)+ACKtimeout
(21)
TsRTS=DIFS+4×PLCP+4×H+4×2(ν+F)+3×SIFS+Ceiling(RTS+Trail)+Ceiling(CTS+Trail)+Ceiling(ER[packet]+Trail)+Ceiling(ACK+Trail)
(22)
TcRTS=DIFS+PLCP+2(ν+F)+Ceiling(RTS+Trail)+CTStimeout
(23)

We define PLCP and H as the time of physical layer (PHY) preamble and PHY header. The ceiling function is to make sure the number of the symbols transmitted is an integer and Trail is the trail bits after the OFDM symbol. The wireless delay here is represented by v.

4. Simulations and discussion

4.1 The performance in basic access mode

We set nA = nB = n to reduce the complexity in our simulations. The simulation parameters are listed in Table 1

Table 1. System Parameters

table-icon
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. Then, we take F = 0 which represents no consideration of optical delay effect in backoff stage as the reference. Firstly, we validated the normalized throughput of our analytical model with the Matlab results in the basic mode to show the severe inter-RAU HN problem in the presence of the fiber delay difference effect.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 Fiber effect via different number of stations: the solid lines represent the model calculations, the asterisks which have the same color with the line express the simulation results of it.
shows the detrimental effect of HNs on the throughput of system as the number of stations grows. The solid lines represent the model calculations, the asterisks which have the same color with the line express the simulation results of it. As F goes up, we can see the gradual increase of throughput given the same n. We can imagine that if F goes to infinite, inter-RAU HN problem will disappear and thereby the throughput in RAU-B is zero. At this time, the system throughput is contributed only by RAU-A. It is equal to the throughput in typical WLANs where all the stations are in the carrier sensing range and no HNs exist. Furthermore, the system throughput is composed of two parts which we can see in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized throughput in different RAU versus Fiber delay when n = 5.
when n = 5 for example. It has a general meaning to reflect the unfairness of different group’s throughput owing to the fiber delay difference. As the simulation results proved, the RAU with larger fiber delay has little chance to occupy the channel.

4.2 The performance in RTS/CTS exchange mode

As we have discussed in the former parts, the basic access mode is shown to have a degressive tendency of system throughput with the increase of the station number. Also, the results indicated two detrimental effects from both the inter-RAU HN problem and the different-fiber-length distribution. We know that the RTS/CTS mode has become a feasible method to address the HN problem in both traditional WLAN and WLAN-RoF-DAS with uniform-length fiber links. Here, we discuss the performance of the RTS/CTS mode considering fiber-length difference effect. We assumed a saturated payload and each packet with equal maximum frame length. A RTS/CTS exchange happens before every packet transmits. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of fiber effect via different number of stations. Solid lines represent basic access mode and dashed lines represent RTS/CTS exchange mode.
.

By comparing the throughput performances of the RTS/CTS exchange mode and basic access mode in Fig. 8, it can be seen that the RTS/CTS exchange mode is more effective against both inter-RAU HN problem and fiber-length difference effect. Similar to basic mode, as the inserted delay increases, the interval between a station successfully transmitting a RTS packet and other stations in the other RAU receiving a CTS packet from AP is gradually rising. Then, the stations in a RAU with longer fiber length induced are more difficult to occupy the channel than the shorter-employed ones. From Fig. 8, we can see that the maximum throughput difference between RAU-A and RAU-B is 87% in basic access mode and 56.9% in RTS/CTS exchange mode. As the fiber length increases, the difference in throughput between the two RAUs is significantly reduced as compared to the basic access mode. The results have the same trend with the analysis in part 3.2. In summary, the RTS/CTS exchange mode performs better than the basic access mode against inter-RAU HN problem and fiber-length difference effect, when saturated load is assumed in the systems.

5. Experimental results

5.1 Experimental setup

5.2 Experimental results

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we take into account the inter-RAU HN problem and different fiber length effect in the performance analysis of a simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS and derive an analytical model to evaluate the IEEE 802.11 DCF performance in terms of network throughput. It is shown that the inter-RAU HN problem could result in unbalanced throughput performance among RAUs with different-length fiber links. We also prove that the RTS/CTS exchange mode is still effective in a simulcast WLAN-RoF-DAS in the presence of inter-RAU HN problem and fiber length difference effect. With the developed model, detailed analysis has been conducted for the performance of DCF in both basic access and RTS/CTS exchange modes. Extensive numerical and experimental investigations show a good agreement with the derived model.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by National 973 Program (2012CB315705), National 863 Program (2011AA010306), NSFC Program (61271042, 61107058 and 61120106001), the Cooperation Project between Province and Ministries (2011A090200025), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2013RC1203).

References and links

1.

C. Liu, N. Cvijetic, K. Sundaresan, M. Jiang, S. Rangarajan, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel in-building small-cell backhaul architecture for cost-efficient multi-operator multi-service coexistence,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTh4A.4.

2.

M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Proceedings of OFC2007, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2007, paper JThA81.

3.

N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 130–137 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 30(4), 675–683 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Kalantarisabet and J. E. Mitchell, “MAC constraints on the distribution of 802.11 using optical fibre,” in Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, Manchester, United Kingdom, Sep.2006, 238–240. [CrossRef]

6.

A. Das, M. Mjeku, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Effects on IEEE 802.11 MAC throughput in wireless LAN over fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3321–3328 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

B. Kalantari-Sabet, M. Mjeku, N. J. Gomes, and J. E. Mitchell, “Performance impairments in single-mode radio-over-fiber systems due to MAC constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2540–2548 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Analysis of the MAC performances in 802.11g radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, Nov. 2011. [CrossRef]

9.

S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Impact of the slottime parameter value on the MAC performances in IEEE 802.11 wireless systems using radio-over-fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Enschede, Netherlands, Nov. 2010. [CrossRef]

10.

G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 18(3), 535–547 (2000). [CrossRef]

11.

I. Tinnirello, S. Choi, and Y. Kim, “Revisit of RTS/CTS exchange in high speed IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Int. Conf. World of Wireless, Mobile, Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Taormina, Italy, Jun. 2005, 240–248. [CrossRef]

12.

C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 53(4), 1235–1246 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

X. Wang, P. H. J. Chong, and L. W. Yie, “Evaluation of performance on random back-off interval and multi-channel CSMA/CA protocols,” in Proceedings of TENCON 2009 -IEEE Region 10 Conference, 2009, pp. 1–5.

14.

N. Wattanamongkhol, W. Srichavengsup, S. Nakpeerayuth, and L. Wuttisiittikulkij, “Performance analysis of modified backoff algorithm in IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/IFIP International Conference in Central Asia on Internet, Tashkent, Sep.2007. [CrossRef]

15.

Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(8), 608–610 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

F.-Y. Hung and I. Marsic, “Access delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the presence of hidden stations,” in Proceedings of GLOBECOM 2007, Washington, DC, United State, Nov. 2007.

17.

A. Pal and A. Nasipuri, “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in presence of hidden stations under non-saturated conditions with infinite buffer in radio-over-fiber wireless LANs,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 2011. [CrossRef]

18.

M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Analysis of the request to send/clear to send exchange in WLAN over fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2531–2539 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 13(3), 175–177 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.4254) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, combinatorial network design
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: June 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 16, 2013
Published: August 26, 2013

Citation
Yuting Fan, Jianqiang Li, Kun Xu, Hao Chen, Xun Lu, Yitang Dai, Feifei Yin, Yuefeng Ji, and Jintong Lin, "Performance analysis for IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in radio-over-fiber-based distributed antenna systems," Opt. Express 21, 20529-20543 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-18-20529


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References

  1. C. Liu, N. Cvijetic, K. Sundaresan, M. Jiang, S. Rangarajan, T. Wang, and G.-K. Chang, “A novel in-building small-cell backhaul architecture for cost-efficient multi-operator multi-service coexistence,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC2013, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2013, paper OTh4A.4.
  2. M. J. Crisp, S. Li, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Demonstration of radio over fibre distributed antenna network for combined in-building WLAN and 3G coverage,” in Proceedings of OFC2007, Anaheim, California, United States, Mar.2007, paper JThA81.
  3. N. Wei and I. B. Collings, “Indoor wireless networks of the future: adaptive network architecture,” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(3), 130–137 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-Z. Wang, H.-L. Zhu, and N. J. Gomes, “Distributed antenna systems for mobile communications in high speed trains,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.30(4), 675–683 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kalantarisabet and J. E. Mitchell, “MAC constraints on the distribution of 802.11 using optical fibre,” in Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wireless Technology, Manchester, United Kingdom, Sep.2006, 238–240. [CrossRef]
  6. A. Das, M. Mjeku, A. Nkansah, and N. J. Gomes, “Effects on IEEE 802.11 MAC throughput in wireless LAN over fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(11), 3321–3328 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. B. Kalantari-Sabet, M. Mjeku, N. J. Gomes, and J. E. Mitchell, “Performance impairments in single-mode radio-over-fiber systems due to MAC constraints,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2540–2548 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Analysis of the MAC performances in 802.11g radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Ghent, Belgium, Nov. 2011. [CrossRef]
  9. S. Deronne, V. Moeyaert, and S. Bette, “Impact of the slottime parameter value on the MAC performances in IEEE 802.11 wireless systems using radio-over-fiber technology,” in Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology in the Benelux (SCVT), Enschede, Netherlands, Nov. 2010. [CrossRef]
  10. G. Bianchi, “Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.18(3), 535–547 (2000). [CrossRef]
  11. I. Tinnirello, S. Choi, and Y. Kim, “Revisit of RTS/CTS exchange in high speed IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Int. Conf. World of Wireless, Mobile, Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), Taormina, Italy, Jun. 2005, 240–248. [CrossRef]
  12. C.-G. Wang, B. Li, and L. Li, “A new collision resolution mechanism to enhance the performance of IEEE 802.11 DCF,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol.53(4), 1235–1246 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Wang, P. H. J. Chong, and L. W. Yie, “Evaluation of performance on random back-off interval and multi-channel CSMA/CA protocols,” in Proceedings of TENCON 2009 -IEEE Region 10 Conference, 2009, pp. 1–5.
  14. N. Wattanamongkhol, W. Srichavengsup, S. Nakpeerayuth, and L. Wuttisiittikulkij, “Performance analysis of modified backoff algorithm in IEEE 802.11 networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE/IFIP International Conference in Central Asia on Internet, Tashkent, Sep.2007. [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-S. Kim, J.-Y. Yu, S.-Y. Choi, and K.-H. Jang, “A novel hidden station detection mechanism in IEEE 802.11 WLAN,” IEEE Commun. Lett.10(8), 608–610 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. F.-Y. Hung and I. Marsic, “Access delay analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the presence of hidden stations,” in Proceedings of GLOBECOM 2007, Washington, DC, United State, Nov. 2007.
  17. A. Pal and A. Nasipuri, “Performance analysis of IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function in presence of hidden stations under non-saturated conditions with infinite buffer in radio-over-fiber wireless LANs,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE Workshop on Local & Metropolitan Area Networks (LANMAN), Chapel Hill, NC, Oct. 2011. [CrossRef]
  18. M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Analysis of the request to send/clear to send exchange in WLAN over fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2531–2539 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Kim and J. T. Lim, “Throughput analysis considering coupling effect in IEEE 802.11 networks with hidden stations,” IEEE Commun. Lett.13(3), 175–177 (2009). [CrossRef]

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