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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 18 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: 21702–21707
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Tunable microwave-photonic filter using frequency-to-time mapping-based delay lines

Arash Mokhtari, Kambiz Jamshidi, Stefan Preußler, Avi Zadok, and Thomas Schneider  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 18, pp. 21702-21707 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.021702


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Abstract

A new implementation of microwave-photonic filters (MPFs) based on tunable optical delay lines is proposed and demonstrated. The variable delay is based on mapping of the spectral components of an incoming waveform onto the time domain, the application of linearly-varying temporal phase offsets, and an inverse mapping back to the frequency domain. The linear phase correction is equivalent to a frequency offset, and realized though suppressed-carrier single-sideband modulation by a radio-frequency sine wave. The variable delay element, controlled by the selected frequency, is used in one arm of a two-tap MPF. In a proof-of-concept experiment, the free spectral range (FSR) of the MPF was varied by over a factor of four: between 1.2 GHz and 5.3 GHz.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The processing of radio-frequency (RF) and microwave signals using optical means, or microwave photonics, has drawn much attention in recent years. Microwave photonics provides numerous potential advantages, such as low propagation loss in optical fibers, ultra-broad transmission bandwidth, immunity to electro-magnetic interference, availability of high-bandwidth electro-optic modulators and detectors, and potential for light-weight and small-footprint modules [1

1. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

4

4. A. Mokhtari and M. Akbari, “Two building blocks of microwave photonics filters in the presence of group delay ripple: a comparative survey,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(8-9), 403–414 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. One potential application of microwave photonics is the implementation of broadband tunable filters in arbitrary waveform generation [5

5. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], radio over fiber systems [6

6. J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. Yao, “All-optical microwave bandpass filters implemented in a radio-over-fiber link,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1737–1739 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and wireless access networks and radars [7

7. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

Many microwave photonic filter (MPF) architectures rely on splitting an RF-modulated optical signal among multiple paths of different lengths, and their recombining prior to detection [1

1. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

7

7. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Tuning the free spectral range (FSR) of such delay-and-sum filters requires optical delay variations. Several mechanisms for tunable optical delay lines have been proposed in the literature. Examples include switching among fiber paths of different lengths [8

8. L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1723–1725 (2010). [CrossRef]

], dispersive elements in conjunction with variable wavelength sources [9

9. J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 545–546 (1997). [CrossRef]

], and combinations of the above methods [10

10. N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, and S. A. Khan, “Hybrid analog-digital variable fiber-optic delay line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 619–624 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Other techniques employ reconfigurable integrated devices [11

11. M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(2), 887–899 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and group velocity modifications (‘slow light’) [12

12. A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 462–464 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1753–1755 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In [14

14. M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express 16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], delays were implemented through optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation, together with cascaded, phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). In another demonstration [15

15. S. C. Chan, Q. Liu, Z. Wang, and K. S. Chiang, “Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12045–12052 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], large FSR variations were obtained though sliding a couple of bare fibers within a cladding-mode coupler. ‘Slow light’ delay variations based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) [16

16. S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and reflections from multiple, movable dynamic Brillouin gratings [17

17. J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6157–6162 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were also employed within tunable MPFs. However, the above methods either require specialty photonic devices and complicated setups [14

14. M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express 16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. S. C. Chan, Q. Liu, Z. Wang, and K. S. Chiang, “Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12045–12052 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and / or involve high power levels and provide a restricted tuning of the FSR [16

16. S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6157–6162 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Tunable delay line

A tunable group delay is analogous to a spectral phase modification that scales linearly with frequency. However, the realization of this transfer function directly in the frequency domain is susceptible to severe delay-bandwidth product limitations. Here, tunable optical delays are achieved through phase variations in the time domain instead [5

5. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Highly tunable delay line with linear phase modulation and optical filtering,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics, 2012, p. ITu3C.3.

20

20. K. Jamshidi, A. Wiatrek, C. Bersch, G. Onishchukov, G. Leuchs, and T. Schneider, “Widely tunable optical delay generator,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3592–3594 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (see Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Basic sketch of the tunable optical delay line.
). First, the different spectral components of the processed waveform are spread in time through propagation in a second-order dispersive medium. A one-to-one linear frequency-to-time conversion (FTTC) is obtained. Then, a phase correction that is linear in time is implemented. Finally, the waveform is recompressed in a time-to-frequency conversion (TTFC) step, carried out in propagation through a medium of opposite dispersion. The process is analogous to the spatial Fourier-domain processing that is commonplace in free-space optics [21

21. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 161–237 (1995). [CrossRef]

].

In principle, ramp-shaped signals can be used in temporally-linear phase modulation [5

5. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Tunable delay line based on Fourier-transformation and linear phase modulation with high time-bandwidth product,” ITG-Fachbericht-Photonische Netze, 2012.

]. However, the bandwidth of such waveforms is restricted, eventually limiting FSR variations of the MPF [5

5. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this work, following the FTTC block the signal is amplitude-modulated by a sine wave of radio-frequency Ω [18

18. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Highly tunable delay line with linear phase modulation and optical filtering,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics, 2012, p. ITu3C.3.

]. The modulation introduces multiple sideband replicas of the signal spectrum, which are separated by Ω. A tunable optical band pass filter is used to select either the upper or the lower first-order spectral sideband. At the output of the filter, the time-mapped signal is effectively multiplied by exp(±jΩt), where t stands for time. The combined transfer through modulator and filter is therefore analogous to a frequency offset by ± Ω, or a linearly-varying temporal phase of ± Ωt.

Following TTFC, the reconstructed waveform is relatively delayed or advanced by ±τ=β2LΩ, where β2 is the group velocity dispersion parameter of the TTFC medium [ps2/km] and L is its length. Therefore, a primary requirement of the TTFC module is a β2L product that is as large as possible. In addition, in order to avoid distortions of the delayed signal, the dispersions of the FFTC and TTFC modules should cancel out each other as fully as possible. We therefore chose modules with large β2L values that are equal in magnitude and of opposite signs. The proper filtering of a single sideband requires that Ω must exceed twice the bandwidth of the incoming waveform. If a suppressed carrier single sideband modulation (SCSSM) is used instead of the AM in Fig. 1, the tunable optical filter is not required and there is no lower limit for Ω. However, a SCSSM modulator was not available for the experiments. The upper limit on modulation frequency is set by the microwave generator and the electro-optic modulator. Unlike ramp waveforms [18

18. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Highly tunable delay line with linear phase modulation and optical filtering,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics, 2012, p. ITu3C.3.

, 20

20. K. Jamshidi, A. Wiatrek, C. Bersch, G. Onishchukov, G. Leuchs, and T. Schneider, “Widely tunable optical delay generator,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3592–3594 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], sine-wave modulation frequencies readily reach tens of GHz [19

19. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Tunable delay line based on Fourier-transformation and linear phase modulation with high time-bandwidth product,” ITG-Fachbericht-Photonische Netze, 2012.

].

3. Experiments

A two-tap MPF structure shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The implemented setup for a 2-tap tunable MPF. The green box (Tunable Delay Line) corresponds to the setup of Fig. 1 (b): FSR of a two-tap MPF as a function of the relative delay or advancement in one of the arms; predicted FSR value (blue dashed line) are compared against measured ones (red circles).
was realized in a proof-of-concept experiment. The MPF consisted of two optical paths. Delay in the lower arm was fixed, whereas that of theupper branch was tuned as described above. Each path was connected to the output of a separate laser diode source. Light in both branches was modulated by a separate electro-optic modulator. Both modulators were driven together by the RF output of a vector network analyzer (VNA). Following the fixed or variable delay, the two paths were combined by an optical coupler and connected to a photo-detector. The wavelengths of the laser diodes were 1 nm apart, to guarantee incoherent summation of the two paths upon detection [1

1. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The output of the detector was connected to the VNA input port, for the analysis of the MPF transfer function. Within the tunable delay element, the FTTC and TTFC blocks consisted of a 75 km long standard fiber and a dispersion compensating module, respectively, both having |β2|L.~1590 ps2.

With no frequency modulation taking place in the tunable delay element, the delay imbalance between the two arms was about 500 ps, corresponding to a FSR of approximately 2 GHz at the MPF output. The 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF periodic pass bands was 1.33 GHz, as expected in a two-tap filter. The FSR can be tuned by changing τ in the upper branch. Figure 2(b) shows the expected and measured FSR for different relative delays or advancements. The maximal modulation frequency Ω achievable with our equipment was 38 GHz, corresponding to delay variations of more than ± 300 ps. As can be seen from Fig. 2(b), the corresponding FSR tuning range was between 5.291 GHz (or + 164%) for maximum advancement and 1.218 GHz (or −39%) for the maximum delay. The frequencies of the electrical signal at the MPF input varied between 0 and 10 GHz. Correspondingly, the frequency modulation Ω was restricted to at least 20 GHz or higher. The lower frequency limit in the practical setup was 22 GHz, due to the finite transition bandwidth of the optical band pass filter used inside the tunable delay element. Therefore, delay or advancements of less than 200 ps could not be obtained, and not all FSR values could be reached. Given the bandwidth of the input RF signal and the initial path difference between the two arms in our setup, a 1.5 GHz-wide range of FSR values could not be implemented (see Fig, 2(b)). This range of unattainable FSRs decreases with the bandwidth of the input RF waveforms and with the initial path difference between the arms. Please note that with a SCSSM instead of the AM and the optical filter in Fig. 1 there would be no gap in the delay and all FSR values could be reached.

Lastly, the RF transfer functions of the MPF, for the maximum and minimum delay and advancement values, are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated (dashed) and experimental (solid) results for the MPF transfer function for several different FSR adjustments. (a) Ω = 22 GHz, red:{FSR = 1.462 GHz, FSR change = −27% for delay} and blue:{FSR = 3.105 GHz, FSR change = + 51% for advancement}, (b) Ω = 38 GHz, brown:{FSR = 1.218 GHz, FSR change = −39% for delay} and green:{FSR = 5.291 GHz, FSR change = + 164% for advancement}, The black trace shows the MPF transfer function without either delay or advancement { FSR = 2 GHz }.
. The experimental transfer functions agree well withthe expected form of two-tap filters. The differences between calculation and experiment are attributed to the frequency response of the amplitude modulators, and thermal variations of the long FTTC fiber path length.

The proposed MPF architecture is scalable to a larger number of taps. Each additional tap would require its own laser light source, RF sine-wave generator and electro-optic modulator. However, different taps can share common FTTC and TTFC modules. An illustration of a higher-order filter is provided in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic illustration of an N-tap Microwave-Photonic filter.
. The cost of components and power consumption of the MPF would scale linearly with the number of taps. Increase in footprint could be marginal, depending on implementation.

4. Conclusions

A 2-tap MPF with a FSR that is tunable between 1.2 GHz and 5.3 GHz was demonstrated experimentally. Compared with other MPF implementations, the proposed setup is simple, based on readily available standard components, and allows for a broad tuning range of the FSR. The upper limits of the delay or advancement, and therefore the MPF tuning range, are defined by the bandwidth of available equipment. The use of an optical bandpass filter to select only a single modulation sideband results in a power loss. Careful adjustment of the modulator driving voltage, or choice of a single-sideband modulator, would reduce this loss. Relative drawbacks of the proposed architecture are the relatively large size of the FTTC and TTFC fiber-based modules, and the relatively high propagation losses associated with them. The electrical power consumption of the filter is elevated by the need for optical amplification. However, other methods such as chirped FBG’s, arrayed waveguide gratings, photonic crystal structures, or coupled ring-resonators which produce a high dispersion can be used for the FTTC and TTFC modules instead of fibers. Some of these methods have much lower power loss and footprint, which could open the way to a possible integration. The architecture is scalable to the implementation of finite impulse response MPF with a larger number of taps.

References and links

1.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

A. Mokhtari and M. Akbari, “Two building blocks of microwave photonics filters in the presence of group delay ripple: a comparative survey,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(8-9), 403–414 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. Yao, “All-optical microwave bandpass filters implemented in a radio-over-fiber link,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1737–1739 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1723–1725 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 545–546 (1997). [CrossRef]

10.

N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, and S. A. Khan, “Hybrid analog-digital variable fiber-optic delay line,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 619–624 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(2), 887–899 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 462–464 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

J. Sancho, S. Chin, M. Sagues, A. Loayssa, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, L. Thévenaz, and J. Capmany, “Dynamic microwave photonic filter using separate carrier tuning based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1753–1755 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Sagues, R. García Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Multi-tap complex-coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering,” Opt. Express 16(1), 295–303 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. C. Chan, Q. Liu, Z. Wang, and K. S. Chiang, “Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12045–12052 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Sancho, N. Primerov, S. Chin, Y. Antman, A. Zadok, S. Sales, and L. Thévenaz, “Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6157–6162 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Highly tunable delay line with linear phase modulation and optical filtering,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics, 2012, p. ITu3C.3.

19.

A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Tunable delay line based on Fourier-transformation and linear phase modulation with high time-bandwidth product,” ITG-Fachbericht-Photonische Netze, 2012.

20.

K. Jamshidi, A. Wiatrek, C. Bersch, G. Onishchukov, G. Leuchs, and T. Schneider, “Widely tunable optical delay generator,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3592–3594 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 161–237 (1995). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(070.1170) Fourier optics and signal processing : Analog optical signal processing
(130.2035) Integrated optics : Dispersion compensation devices
(070.2615) Fourier optics and signal processing : Frequency filtering
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fourier Optics and Signal Processing

History
Original Manuscript: May 20, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 29, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 5, 2013
Published: September 6, 2013

Citation
Arash Mokhtari, Kambiz Jamshidi, Stefan Preußler, Avi Zadok, and Thomas Schneider, "Tunable microwave-photonic filter using frequency-to-time mapping-based delay lines," Opt. Express 21, 21702-21707 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-18-21702


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References

  1. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Mokhtari and M. Akbari, “Two building blocks of microwave photonics filters in the presence of group delay ripple: a comparative survey,” J. Opt. Quantum Electron.44(8-9), 403–414 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Mokhtari, S. Preußler, K. Jamshidi, M. Akbari, and T. Schneider, “Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions,” Opt. Express20(20), 22728–22734 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Wang, F. Zeng, and J. Yao, “All-optical microwave bandpass filters implemented in a radio-over-fiber link,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett.17(8), 1737–1739 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Yaron, R. Rothman, S. Zach, and M. Tur, “Photonic beamformer receiver with multiple beam capabilities,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(23), 1723–1725 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. J. L. Cruz, B. Ortega, M. Andres, B. Gimeno, D. Pastor, J. Capmany, and L. Dong, “Chirped fibre Bragg gratings for phased-array antennas,” Electron. Lett.33(7), 545–546 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, and S. A. Khan, “Hybrid analog-digital variable fiber-optic delay line,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(2), 619–624 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martínez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galière, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J.-L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, J. H. Moon-Soon Choi, F. M. den Besten, M. K. Soares, Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 887–899 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Zadok, O. Raz, A. Eyal, and M. Tur, “Optically controlled low-distortion delay of GHz-wide radio-frequency signals using slow light in fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 462–464 (2007). [CrossRef]
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