OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 19 — Sep. 23, 2013
  • pp: 22441–22452
« Show journal navigation

Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization

Pei-Hsun Wang, Yi Xuan, Li Fan, Leo Tom Varghese, Jian Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaoxiao Xue, Daniel E. Leaird, Minghao Qi, and Andrew M. Weiner  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 19, pp. 22441-22452 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.022441


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1531 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We use a drop-port geometry to characterize frequency combs generated from silicon nitride on-chip microresonators in the normal group velocity regime. In sharp contrast with the traditional transmission geometry, we observe smooth output spectra with comparable powers in the pump and adjacent comb lines. The power transfer into the comb may be explained to a large extent by the coupling parameters characterizing the linear operation of the resonances studied. Furthermore, comparison of thru- and drop-port spectra shows that much of the ASE noise is filtered out by transmission to the drop-port. Autocorrelation measurements are performed on the drop-port output, without the need to filter out or suppress the strong pump line as is necessary in thru-port experiments. Passively mode-locked pulses with low background are observed in a normal dispersion microcavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In the following we would like here to briefly discuss recent literature which bears on the form of the comb field expected in the microresonator. This is especially relevant to the data we will present on low background level pulse generation.

Most theories discussing conditions for comb formation are based on a modulational instability analysis assuming a microresonator characterized by anomalous dispersion, e.g [12

12. T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Both analytical and simulation studies identify operating regimes consistent with formation of single soliton coupled to a continuous background field inside the resonator [14

14. T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv: 1211.0733v3 (2013).

, 16

16. A. Coillet, I. Balakireva, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, L. Larger, J. Dudley, C. Menyuk, and Y. Chembo, “Azimuthal turing patterns, bright and dark cavity solitons in Kerr combs generated with whispering-gallery mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6100409 (2013). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053852 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. An analytical investigation of mode-locked Kerr combs also predicts a large continuous-wave (CW) background at the thru-port associated with a strong residual pump [23

23. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2845–2847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; the solutions presented explicitly include a CW component internal to the microresonator. Experiments demonstrating generation of soliton-like ultrashort pulses from anomalous dispersion microresonators are reported in [14

14. T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv: 1211.0733v3 (2013).

, 15

15. K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1335–1343 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the existence of a continuous background field inside the cavity has not been verified. Although experimental spectra do exhibit a strong pump line, this may be associated with the strong pump field transmitted directly from the input waveguide in the thru-port configuration. Time-domain measurements performed at the thru-port do reveal short pulses with low background; however, these experiments rely on filtering out the copropagating pump which inherently eliminates any background field present.

Microresonator-assisted mode-locked lasers, in which a microring is incorporated inside the laser cavity in a drop-port geometry, have been reported in [24

24. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27355–27362 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In these studies the microresonator is also described as having anomalous dispersion. Under stable operating conditions, these systems produced smooth but narrow comb spectra, without evidence of a markedly stronger pump line. However, because the microresonator is seeded by the full multiplicity of intracavity comb lines, the operating regime is rather different than that of usual micro-comb generation studies in which the microresonator is seeded by a single pump line.

In our present work, we have observed direct generation of ultrashort pulses from microresonators believed to be in the normal dispersion regime. By performing measurements at the drop-port, no attenuation of the pump or other spectral shaping is required. Both spectral data and time-domain data provide clear indication of an operating regime corresponding to ultrashort pulses generated on low or zero background.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a brief overview of the experimental setup. Section 3 compares comb spectra at thru- and drop-ports and investigates power transfer. Time-domain measurements are presented in Section 4. In Section 5, we conclude.

2. Experimental setup

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Microscope image of a 100 μm radius silicon nitride microring with coupling region. (b) Image of a U-groove. (c) Experimental setup for time-domain characterization.
shows a microscope image of the silicon nitride microring resonator with 2 µm × 550 nm waveguide cross-section and 100 µm radius. The gaps between the resonator and the thru-port and drop-port coupling waveguides are both 700 nm. For stable coupling on- and off-chip, lensed single mode fibers are placed into U-grooves as shown in Fig. 1(b) and aligned with the waveguide. We note that although in the current experiments, the thru- and drop-port coupling are symmetric, asymmetric designs with weaker drop-port coupling are also possible. This would lessen the effect on the loaded Q, at the cost of reduced power transfer to the drop-port, which is appropriate if the primary aim is to provide a monitor for the internal comb field.

3. Comb spectra and power transfer

A tunable CW laser is amplified and launched into the ring resonator. For our study of comb spectra and power transfer, we investigate two TM resonances, for which the electric field is predominantly polarized perpendicular to the plane of the wafer. The first resonance (TM1) is a doublet centered at ≈1558.4 nm [Fig. 3(a) inset], has intrinsic quality factor (Q) approximately 3.1 × 106 for each of the individual lines, and belongs to a mode family with 1.84 nm average free spectral range (FSR). This splitting of the resonant peak may result from a backward propagating wave induced by scattering from the coupling regions [28

28. J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide-coupled ring microresonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(9–11), 781–797 (2010).

] or surface roughness [29

29. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 4–6 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The second resonance [Fig. 3(b) inset] occurs near 1558.7 nm, has intrinsic Q around 1.0 × 106, and belongs to mode TM2 with 1.76 nm average FSR. The modes here are identified by simulating the group index for different modes [30

30. S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and comparing the estimated FSR with the experimental one.

To generate a frequency comb, the laser is tuned to a resonance from the short wavelength side to achieve a “soft thermal lock” [4

4. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 5

5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 32

32. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pump linewidth is estimated narrower than 20 MHz by beating with a fiber comb source (Menlo Systems). It’s at least three times narrower than the ≈64 MHz linewidth of the higher-Q TM1 resonance. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Measured optical spectra of generated combs from both the thru- (blue trace) and drop-port (red trace) with input power (a) 430 mW at around 1558.5 nm (TM1 mode) and (b) 680 mW at around 1558.8 nm (TM2 mode). The insets show the corresponding transmission spectra with low input power; the vertical scale on the left axis of (a) inset shows the drop-port transmission.
shows the optical spectra observed both from the thru- (blue trace) and drop-port (red trace) at the highest input powers studied: (a) 430 mW at around 1558.5 nm (TM1 mode) and (b) 680 mW at around 1558.8 nm (TM2 mode). Here the input power is defined as the power in the input waveguide before the microring. We estimated the power in the waveguide by measuring the input- to thru-port fiber to fiber loss, typically 3~5 dB, and assigning half of this loss to the input side. For the resonances studied here, frequency combs are observed to generate lines spaced by 3 FSRs for the TM1 mode and 5 FSRs for the TM2 mode. Both resonances are red-shifted around 0.1 nm due to the thermal nonlinearity under the pumping conditions quoted above.

Note that aside from the pump line, the output comb lines from the thru- and drop-ports in Fig. 3 exhibit close to the same power levels, except the drop-port lines are reduced by an average of 2.5 dB relative to the thru-port. Since with symmetrical coupling, the comb lines from thru- and drop-ports should have the same power, this implies either the coupling is unintentionally slightly different or the output drop guide has larger loss. To account for this difference, we adjust the estimated drop-port powers upwards by 2.5 dB in the output vs. input power data presented later as Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The detected output power of the pump (black trace) and the comb lines other than the pump (blue trace) versus input power, corresponding to the (a) thru- and (b) drop-port at 1558.4 nm (TM1) resonance while (c) and (d) represent the analogous results from the thru- and drop-port at 1558.7 nm (TM2) resonance. The red traces in (b) and (d) stand for the total power including both pump and comb lines.
.

Since the large fraction of pump power that emerges from the thru-port is attributed to the coupling conditions, it is interesting to consider the coupling effects quantitatively. Following the theory proposed in [33

33. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10553–10561 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the coupling parameters could be extracted by fitting the thru-port transmission spectra which can be written as:
Tthru=(λλ0)2+(FSR4π)2(κd2+κp2κe2)2(λλ0)2+(FSR4π)2(κd2+κp2+κe2)2
(1)
where Tthru is the power transmission response at the thru-port, and FSR is the free spectral range in the resonators in wavelength units. κe2 and κd2 are dimensionless coefficients characterizing the power coupled into and out of the microring from the input and drop waveguide per round trip, respectively, while κp2 is the dimensionless power loss per round trip due to intrinsic loss in the resonator. The fitting results for the two resonances investigated are shown in Table 1

Table 1. Coupling and Transmission Parameters

table-icon
View This Table
. Note that for the TM1 resonance, the κ coefficients are calculated using the linewidth of a single resonance (short wavelength side) making up the doublet. For both resonances symmetrical coupling is assumed. The power transmission response of the drop-port Tdrop may be calculated based on the parameters extracted from Eq. (1) and is written as:

Tdrop=4×(FSR4π)2(κd2×κe2)(λλ0)2+(FSR4π)2(κd2+κp2+κe2)2
(2)

As shown in Table 1, the Tthru/Tdrop values from Eq. (1) and (2) are in close agreement with those observed experimentally, giving confidence in the parameters extracted. We note that for both resonances, the loss in the microring is significantly larger than the waveguide couplings. Hence, the resonances are under-coupled. In this under-coupled regime, the introduction of a drop-port has relatively weak impact on the loaded Q. We also note that the intrinsic loss for the 1558.7 nm (TM2) resonance is approximately three times higher than that for the 1558.4 nm (TM1) resonance, consistent with the fact that the fundamental mode usually has lowest intrinsic loss. Finally, from the parameters shown in the Table, we observe that the under-coupling is much more severe for the TM1 resonance.

We have studied the power distribution in the combs observed at thru- and drop-ports with varying input power. To account for thermo-optically induced resonance shifts, at each input power the pump wavelength is tuned carefully into resonance, which we have defined as the wavelength yielding minimum power transmission from the thru-port (maximum transmission from the drop-port). Figure 4(a) shows the output pump power (black trace) and comb power (blue trace) at the thru-port versus input power for the TM1 resonance. The input and output powers refer to on-chip powers estimated before and after the microring, respectively. The comb power is obtained by integrating the measured optical spectrum excluding the pump line, while the pump power is determined by integrating over a 1 nm range centered on the pump. Both pump and comb power increase with input power, with the comb showing a threshold effect. The corresponding drop-port results are shown in Fig. 4(b). Unlike the nearly linear pump power curve measured at the thru-port, at the drop-port the pump power clearly saturates (although not abruptly) above the threshold for comb generation.

The TM2 resonance furnishes another example of pump saturation. Figures 4(c) and 4(d) show the detected output power at the thru- and drop-port versus the input power. Clamping of the pump power in the microring above the comb generation threshold is again observed. Any further increase in the input power beyond threshold leads to an approximately linear rise – at least initially – in the parametric signals (i.e., the frequency combs). This observation suggests saturation of the parametric gain analogous to gain saturation observed in conventional parametric oscillators above threshold [34

34. M. Ebrahimzadeh, G. A. Turnbull, T. J. Edwards, D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, and M. H. Dunn, “Intracavity continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(9), 1499–1511 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 35

35. F. G. Colville, M. H. Dunn, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant, intracavity parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 75–77 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Similar saturation behavior has also been observed for microresonator frequency combs in the drop-port experiments of [5

5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and in simulation studies [6

6. Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

As a further test, we investigated a resonance belonging to the TM2 family at ≈1551.5 nm with a relatively low Q (≈6.5 × 105). For this resonance no comb was generated at up to 430 mW input power, the highest power tested. The pump power emerging from the drop-port was approximately linear with input power, with no sign of saturation. This supports our interpretation that the drop-port data of Fig. 4 provide evidence of parametric gain saturation directly connected to Kerr comb formation.

From Fig. 4 we also observe that the output power from the comb obtained by pumping at TM2 is substantially higher than that for the comb obtained by pumping at TM1. Furthermore, in both cases the output power in the comb is relatively small compared to the input power. We may understand these trends, at least in part, from the linear transmission spectra and coupling parameters. For the TM1 resonance, the total drop-port output power at the highest pump level is 9.6 mW, quite close to the 12 mW value obtained from the product of the pump power (430 mW) and the linear drop-port transmission (Tdrop = 0.028). A similar estimate for the total drop-port power for the TM2 resonance, using 680 mW pump power and Tdrop = 0.142, yields 97 mW, higher than but within a factor of two of the observed value (55 mW).

In addition to linear behavior, a saturation behavior is evident for the comb and total (comb plus pump) drop-port power data in both resonances, but most notably in Fig. 4(d). One possible explanation is that the fraction of pump power actually coupled into the microresonator is reduced above comb generation threshold. Under linear operation and at resonance, the pump power enhancement in the microring is given by [compare Eq. (2)]:
PμringPin=4κe2(κd2+κp2+κe2)
(3)
where Pμring and Pin are the resonantly enhanced pump power in the microresonator and the input power, respectively. Above threshold, power is transferred out of the internal pump field and into the comb. This effectively increases the value of κp2 that should be used in Eq. (3). For an under-coupled resonator, as in the experiments here, this means that increasing power transfer into the comb decreases the total power fraction coupled into the resonator. As a result the slope efficiency of the total (comb plus pump) power emerging from the drop-port is also reduced. Equivalently, we can also observe that gain clamping affects the ratio of the pump field inside the microresonator to the pump field in the input guide, which in turn affects the interference condition governing the power transmitted to the thru-port. For the case of under-coupling, this increases the fraction of the input power transmitted to the thru-port and decreases the fraction coupled into the microresonator and available for comb generation.

4. Time-domain characterization with drop-port geometry

We obtained more dramatic examples of a pulse-like intensity autocorrelation by pumping different resonances of the same TM1 mode family. Note that no pulse shaping is performed in these experiments. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Optical spectrum measured from the drop-port with input power of 1 W at around 1560.4 nm. (b) The corresponding optical spectrum after the EDFA. (c) Measured (blue) and calculated (green) autocorrelation traces. (d)-(e) The optical spectrum after the EDFA and the autocorrelation measurement with input power of 700 mW at around 1562.2 nm.
and 6(b) show the optical spectra at 1 W pump power around 1560.4 nm, measured respectively (a) directly after the drop-port and (b) after the EDFA. The comb is formed directly with single free spectral range (FSR) line spacing, and the RF intensity noise of the generated comb (not shown here) is low, close to the background noise of the electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA). Again, a smooth spectrum is obtained, without the need for spectral filtering or pump attenuation after the microresonator. The dramatic difference of the spectra [including different comb spacings, see Figs. 3(a) and 6(a)], obtained upon shifting the pump by only one free spectral range, is not unusual according to our experience with comb generation in normal dispersion cavities, e.g [9

9. F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Such behavior has also been observed in [27

27. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27290–27298 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and has been explained on the basis of interaction with different mode families, which can produce strong local disturbances in the dispersion. The measured autocorrelation trace, plotted as the blue line in Fig. 6(c), matches well with the trace simulated assuming flat spectral phase (green trace). The pulses have a period of 4.35 ps, corresponding to a 230 GHz repetition rate, consistent with the 1.84 nm comb spacing, with measured autocorrelation width ≈698 fs FWHM. Between peaks the autocorrelation reaches a minimum value equal to approximately 2% of the peak autocorrelation, providing direct evidence of low background intensity. A similar pulse-like intensity autocorrelation is observed at 700 mW pump power for pumping around 1562.2 nm. Figures 6(d) and 6(e) show the corresponding optical spectrum and autocorrelation results, respectively. Here the autocorrelation width is ≈1.1 ps FWHM, and the autocorrelation minimum is 4% of the peak value. In both cases, the close agreement apparent between experiment and simulation suggests passively mode-locked operation leading to nearly bandwidth-limited pulses internal to the microresonator.

5. Conclusion

We have compared comb spectra generated at the thru- and drop-ports of a silicon nitride microresonator in the normal dispersion regime. Drop-port measurements provide the ability to directly probe the field in the microresonator without the strong copropagating pump common to the usual thru-port geometry. Although otherwise similar to spectra observed at the thru-port, the drop-port spectra differ in that the intensity of the pump line is comparable to that of neighboring comb lines. Furthermore, most of the ASE background present at the input and transmitted to the thru-port is filtered out at the drop-port. Our data also provide information on saturation of the pump power and of the Kerr comb itself. The smooth spectra obtained from the drop waveguide are beneficial for the time-domain studies, allowing waveform characterization without the need to suppress the potentially large background associated with the strong residual pump in the thru-port geometry. By performing autocorrelation measurements in a spectral region spanning the pump line, we have observed passively mode-locked pulses with inherently low background in the normal dispersion microcavity.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grants ECCS-1102110 and ECCS-1126314, by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-12-1-0236, and by the DARPA PULSE program through grant W31P40-13-1-0018 from AMRDEC. We gratefully acknowledge Steven Chen for help with the dispersion measurements.

References and links

1.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

I. S. Grudinin, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Generation of optical frequency combs with a CaF2 resonator,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 878–880 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

D. V. Strekalov and N. Yu, “Generation of optical combs in a whispering gallery mode resonator from a bichromatic pump,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 041805 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Generation of near-infrared frequency combs from a MgF₂ whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2290–2292 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053833 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

I. S. Grudinin, L. Baumgartel, and N. Yu, “Frequency comb from a microresonator with engineered spectrum,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6604–6609 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21033–21043 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv: 1211.0733v3 (2013).

15.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1335–1343 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Coillet, I. Balakireva, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, L. Larger, J. Dudley, C. Menyuk, and Y. Chembo, “Azimuthal turing patterns, bright and dark cavity solitons in Kerr combs generated with whispering-gallery mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(4), 6100409 (2013). [CrossRef]

17.

W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143903 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1437–1442 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2207–2218 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007). [CrossRef]

21.

S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 760–766 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053852 (2013). [CrossRef]

23.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2845–2847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun 3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27355–27362 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Normal group-velocity dispersion Kerr frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 37(1), 43–45 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27290–27298 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide-coupled ring microresonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 38(9–11), 781–797 (2010).

29.

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22(1), 4–6 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009). [CrossRef]

32.

T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4742–4750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10553–10561 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

M. Ebrahimzadeh, G. A. Turnbull, T. J. Edwards, D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, and M. H. Dunn, “Intracavity continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(9), 1499–1511 (1999). [CrossRef]

35.

F. G. Colville, M. H. Dunn, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant, intracavity parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 22(2), 75–77 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: August 30, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 31, 2013
Published: September 16, 2013

Citation
Pei-Hsun Wang, Yi Xuan, Li Fan, Leo Tom Varghese, Jian Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaoxiao Xue, Daniel E. Leaird, Minghao Qi, and Andrew M. Weiner, "Drop-port study of microresonator frequency combs: power transfer, spectra and time-domain characterization," Opt. Express 21, 22441-22452 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-19-22441


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. S. Grudinin, N. Yu, and L. Maleki, “Generation of optical frequency combs with a CaF2 resonator,” Opt. Lett.34(7), 878–880 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. V. Strekalov and N. Yu, “Generation of optical combs in a whispering gallery mode resonator from a bichromatic pump,” Phys. Rev. A79(4), 041805 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 41–45 (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A82(3), 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Generation of near-infrared frequency combs from a MgF₂ whispering gallery mode resonator,” Opt. Lett.36(12), 2290–2292 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 770–776 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A84(5), 053833 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. I. S. Grudinin, L. Baumgartel, and N. Yu, “Frequency comb from a microresonator with engineered spectrum,” Opt. Express20(6), 6604–6609 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics6(7), 480–487 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. F. Ferdous, H. Miao, P.-H. Wang, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, L. Chen, V. Aksyuk, and A. M. Weiner, “Probing coherence in microcavity frequency combs via optical pulse shaping,” Opt. Express20(19), 21033–21043 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” arXiv: 1211.0733v3 (2013).
  15. K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express21(1), 1335–1343 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Coillet, I. Balakireva, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, L. Larger, J. Dudley, C. Menyuk, and Y. Chembo, “Azimuthal turing patterns, bright and dark cavity solitons in Kerr combs generated with whispering-gallery mode resonators,” IEEE Photon. J.5(4), 6100409 (2013). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Passively mode-locked Raman laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(14), 143903 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Microring-resonator-based add-drop filters in SiN: fabrication and analysis,” Opt. Express12(7), 1437–1442 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Barwicz, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(5), 2207–2218 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics1(8), 463–467 (2007). [CrossRef]
  21. S. T. Cundiff and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Nat. Photonics4(11), 760–766 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A87(5), 053852 (2013). [CrossRef]
  23. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett.36(15), 2845–2847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Peccianti, A. Pasquazi, Y. Park, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Demonstration of a stable ultrafast laser based on a nonlinear microcavity,” Nat Commun3, 765 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Pasquazi, M. Peccianti, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Stable, dual mode, high repetition rate mode-locked laser based on a microring resonator,” Opt. Express20(24), 27355–27362 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Normal group-velocity dispersion Kerr frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(1), 43–45 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr frequency comb generation in overmoded resonators,” Opt. Express20(24), 27290–27298 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Čtyroký, I. Richter, and M. Šinor, “Dual resonance in a waveguide-coupled ring microresonator,” Opt. Quantum Electron.38(9–11), 781–797 (2010).
  29. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett.22(1), 4–6 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express8(3), 173–190 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics3(9), 529–533 (2009). [CrossRef]
  32. T. Carmon, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Dynamical thermal behavior and thermal self-stability of microcavities,” Opt. Express12(20), 4742–4750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Modeling and measurement of losses in silicon-on-insulator resonators and bends,” Opt. Express15(17), 10553–10561 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. Ebrahimzadeh, G. A. Turnbull, T. J. Edwards, D. J. M. Stothard, I. D. Lindsay, and M. H. Dunn, “Intracavity continuous-wave singly resonant optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(9), 1499–1511 (1999). [CrossRef]
  35. F. G. Colville, M. H. Dunn, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, “Continuous-wave, singly resonant, intracavity parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett.22(2), 75–77 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited