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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 19 — Sep. 23, 2013
  • pp: 22862–22867
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Microwave Photonics: Current challenges towards widespread application

José Capmany, Guifang Li, Christina Lim, and Jianping Yao  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 19, pp. 22862-22867 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.022862


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Abstract

Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Microwave photonics (MWP) [1

1. A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]

4

4. “See special Technology Focus on Microwave Photonics,” Nat. Photonics 1, 723–736 (2011).

] is a multidisciplinary field that brings together the worlds of radiofrequency engineering and optoelectronics. MWP brings a considerable added value to traditional microwave and RF systems as photonics allows the realization of key functionalities in these systems which are either are very complex or even not directly possible in the radiofrequency domain. Furthermore, it has succeeded in creating new opportunities for information and communication (ICT) systems and networks benefiting from the symbiosis of the optics and radiofrequency fields. This added value has been instrumental in attracting an increasing interest from both the research community and the industry over the last two decades.

While initially the research activity in this field was focused towards defense applications, MWP has expanded to address a considerable number of civil applications, including cellular [5

5. H. Al-Raweshidi and S. Komaki, eds., Radio Over Fiber Technologies for Mobile Communications Networks, Artech House, Boston (2002).

], wireless [6

6. M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Performance analysis of 802.11e transmission bursting in fiber-fed networks,” in Radio and Wireless Symp., 133–136 (2008).

], and satellite [7

7. M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave Photonic Technologies for Flexible Satellite Telecom Payloads” in Proc. 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09. 1–4, Vienna (2009).

] communications, cable television [8

8. W. I. Way, Broadband Hybrid Fiber/Coax Access System Technologies, Artech House, San Diego, (1998).

], distributed antenna systems [9

9. M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. Bell, “Wideband Radio over Fiber Distributed Antenna Systems for Energy Efficient In-Building Wireless Communications,” In Proc. 2010 IEEE 71st Vehicular Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]

], optical signal processing [10

10. J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Microwave Photonic signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 571–586 (2013). [CrossRef]

] and medical imaging systems using terahertz (THz) waves [4

4. “See special Technology Focus on Microwave Photonics,” Nat. Photonics 1, 723–736 (2011).

] and optical coherence tomography techniques [11

11. R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, and C. A. Villarruel, “Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5371–5378 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Arbitrary microwave waveform generation and signal processing

Microwave arbitrary waveforms are widely used in radar, communications, imaging, and warfare systems [14

14. A. M. Weiner, “Ultrafast optical pulse shaping: A tutorial review,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3669–3692 (2011). [CrossRef]

,15

15. J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of microwave arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3723–3736 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. These are usually generated in the electrical domain using digital electronics. Due to the limited sampling rate, the generation of a microwave arbitrary waveform in the electrical domain is limited to a small time bandwidth product (TBWP). The challenge is to increase this figure. For many applications, however, microwave waveforms with a large TBWP are needed. Thanks to the high speed and broad bandwidth offered by optics, the generation of a large TBWP microwave waveforms in the optical domain has been considered a solution to this challenge. In general, photonic generation of microwave arbitrary waveforms can be implemented based on free-space optics [16

16. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1345–1347 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003). [CrossRef]

], fiber optics [18

18. H. Chi and J. P. Yao, “All-fiber chirped microwave pulses generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(9), 1958–1963 (2007). [CrossRef]

,19

19. C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 542–553 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and integrated optics [20

20. M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

,21

21. P. Samadi, L. R. Chen, C. L. Callender, P. Dumais, S. Jacob, and D. Celo, “RF arbitrary waveform generation using tunable planar lightwave circuits,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3737–3741 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. In a free-space-based system, a spatial light modulator (SLM), as a temporal or spectral shaper, is usually used. The advantage of using an SLM is the real-time updatability, which allows the generation of fast updatable microwave arbitrary waveforms. The limitation of a free-space-based system is the relatively large size and high loss, which could be avoided by using fiber optics. Fiber optics based microwave arbitrary waveform generation systems have been demonstrated with different architectures. One important component in a fiber-optic-based system is a fiber Bragg grating [22

22. C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 882–884 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which can be designed to have an arbitrary spectral response, allowing the generation a microwave arbitrary waveform. Recently, the generation of microwave arbitrary waveforms based on photonic integrated circuits (PICs) has been a topic of interest. Compared with a free-space or fiber-optics-based system, a PIC-based system has a much smaller size and better stability. For example, a microwave arbitrary waveform generator based on a silicon-photonic chip was demonstrated. The silicon-photonic chip consists of multiple ring resonators as a spectral shaper. The spectrum of the shaper could be controlled by means of thermal tuning of the embedded micro-heaters and frequency-chirped and other microwave waveforms were generated.

Photonic processing of microwave signals has also been a topic of interest and has been intensively investigated. The challenge here is to implement versatile, tunable and reconfigurable multiband structures featuring small size and low power consumption. The key advantages of processing a microwave signal in the optical domain are the high speed, wideband width and large tuning range, which may not be achievable by digital or analog electronics. Microwave signal processing functions implemented in the optical domain usually include filtering [23

23. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

,24

24. R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(2), 832–846 (2006). [CrossRef]

], differentiation [25

25. M. Li, D. Janner, J. P. Yao, and V. Pruneri, “Arbitrary-order all-fiber temporal differentiator based on a fiber Bragg grating: design and experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19798–19807 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and integration [26

26. M. Ferrara, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1028 (2010), doi:. [CrossRef]

], Hilbert transformation [27

27. M. H. Asghari and J. Azaña, “All-optical Hilbert transformer based on a single phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating: design and analysis,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 334–336 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], mixing [28

28. A. C. Lindsay, G. A. Knight, and S. T. Winnall, “Photonic mixers for wide bandwidth RF receiver applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2311–2317 (1995). [CrossRef]

], and phase shifting [29

29. H. Shahoei and J. P. Yao, “Tunable microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow and fast light effects in a tilted fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14009–14014 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These functions can be implemented based on free-space optics, fiber optics and integrated optics. For example, a microwave photonic filter can be implemented using an all-fiber [23

23. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, “Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 702–723 (2005). [CrossRef]

,24

24. R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(2), 832–846 (2006). [CrossRef]

] or an integrated [30

30. J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat Commun 3, 1075 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] delay-line module with a finite impulse response. A differentiator and a Hilbert transformer can be implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) [25

25. M. Li, D. Janner, J. P. Yao, and V. Pruneri, “Arbitrary-order all-fiber temporal differentiator based on a fiber Bragg grating: design and experimental demonstration,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19798–19807 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. M. Ferrara, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1, 1028 (2010), doi:. [CrossRef]

]. Recently, an all-optical integrator implemented based on a silicon photonic chip was demonstrated.

3. High speed mm-wave and radio over fiber systems

To meet this future demand of multi-gigabits wireless data transmission, there are many different strategies that are being looked into for mm-wave radio-over-fiber scheme. The two main approaches to augment wireless data capacity are to increase the wireless spectral efficiency and to move to higher frequency wireless windows. Recently a lot of research on mm-wave fiber-wireless has targeted the W-band (75-110 GHz) to harvest the large amount bandwidth for meeting the high capacity wireless demand [42

42. X. Pang, A. Caballero, A. Dogadeev, V. Arlunno, L. Deng, R. Borkowski, J. S. Pederson, D. Zibar, X. Yu, and I. T. Monroy, “25 Gb/s QPSK hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the W-band (75-110 GHz) with remote antenna unit for in-building wireless networks,” IEEE Photonics Journal 4(3), 691–698 (2012). [CrossRef]

49

49. Z. Dong, J. Yu, X. Li, G. K. Chang, and Z. Cao, “Integration of 112 Gb/s PDM-16QAM wireline and wireless data delivery in millimeter wave RoF system,” Proc. OFC2013, Anaheim, USA, 2013, OM3D.2. [CrossRef]

]. The transmission of 10 Gb/s on 120 GHz wireless signal, using simple amplitude-shift-keying (ASK) modulation has been demonstrated [44

44. A. Hirata, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Transmission characteristics of 120-GHz band wireless link using radio-over-fiber technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2338–2344 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and the capacity was further quadrupled by using advanced modulation format [46

46. A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75-110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 19(26), B56–B63 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The race to push through the 100 Gb/s barrier for wireless data transmission has seen many different strategies being introduced. These schemes rely heavily on advanced modulation format with optical polarization multiplexing with MIMO configuration [47

47. X. Li, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, Y. Shao, and G. K. Chang, “Fiber wireless transmission system of 108 Gb/s data over 80 km fiber and 2x2 MIMO wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5106–5108 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,48

48. J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, and G. K. Chang, “Multichannel 120 Gb/s data transmission over 2x2 MIMO fiber-wireless link at W-band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 780–783 (2013). [CrossRef]

] to increase the degrees of freedom for transporting wireless data. The introduction of optical polarization multiplexing and MIMO has made truly ultra-broadband mm-wave radio-over-fiber technology feasible, which has seen demonstrations of >100 Gb/s wireless data transmission in the W-band in the recent times [47

47. X. Li, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, Y. Shao, and G. K. Chang, “Fiber wireless transmission system of 108 Gb/s data over 80 km fiber and 2x2 MIMO wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5106–5108 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

49

49. Z. Dong, J. Yu, X. Li, G. K. Chang, and Z. Cao, “Integration of 112 Gb/s PDM-16QAM wireline and wireless data delivery in millimeter wave RoF system,” Proc. OFC2013, Anaheim, USA, 2013, OM3D.2. [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, the use of optical polarization multiplexing the needs for coherent detection to be implemented within the antenna base stations, which may increase the cost and complexity of the base station architecture. Nevertheless the 100 Gb/s wireless data transmission breakthrough has opened up a new era for ultra broadband mm-wave radio-over-fiber technology with many issues to be solved and investigated.

4. Integrated circuits for microwave photonics

IMWP is still in its infancy with sparse contributions being reported only recently which address either a very particular functionality or a limited set of devices. More specifically, efforts on the integration of MWP functionalities have been reported by several groups spanning III-V semiconductors [51

51. E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable photonic microwave filters monolithically integrated in InPInGaAsP,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1611–1619 (2011). [CrossRef]

], hybrid [52

52. H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated Microwave Photonic Filter on a Hybrid Silicon Platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010). [CrossRef]

], silicon [53

53. P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23784–23789 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,54

54. J. Lloret, J. Sancho, M. Pu, I. Gasulla, K. Yvind, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12402–12407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Si3N4 (TripleX) [55

55. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] technologies. In the context of filtering applications, most of the reported approaches are based on single and multiple cavity ring resonators. Other MWP functionalities have also been demonstrated by partially using integrated circuits. For example, broadband tunable phase shifters and true time delay lines have been reported based on cascaded SOA devices [56

56. W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Wideband 360 ° microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6156–6163 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,57

57. P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, and M. Alouini, “Time delay generation at high frequency using SOA based slow and fast light,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21180–21188 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], passive silicon on insulator [58

58. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Si3N4 [59

59. M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] optical rings, and passive III-V photonic crystal waveguides [60

60. S. Combrié, P. Coman, N. V. Q. Tran, M. Patterson, G. Demand, S. Hughes, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouren, J. Bourderionnet, and A. De Rossi, “Toward a miniature optical true-time delay line”, SPIE Newsroom, (2010).

]. Primary attempts for arbitrary waveform generators have been recently reported in CMOS compatible silicon [61

61. M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Wiener, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectralshaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

As a summary of the current state-of-the-art of integrated microwave photonics, the following limitations and challenges can be identified in this area:

  • a) The complete integration of any MWP functionality on a photonic chip has not yet been achieved or reported. This feature is highly desirable to benefit from the SWAP and cost advantages that integrated optics brings.
  • b) The implementation of the main MWP functionalities is contingent on the use of tunable dispersive optical delay lines, which are currently limited to optical fiber coils or Bragg gratings. A major scientific challenge is to design and fabricate integrated tunable MWP delay lines with the required low loss and high delay values. Some preliminary progress using Photonic Crystal waveguides has been recently reported [30

    30. J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat Commun 3, 1075 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    ,60

    60. S. Combrié, P. Coman, N. V. Q. Tran, M. Patterson, G. Demand, S. Hughes, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouren, J. Bourderionnet, and A. De Rossi, “Toward a miniature optical true-time delay line”, SPIE Newsroom, (2010).

    ], but a considerable work is still required.
  • c) The different applications demonstrated so far are generally based on very different circuit architectures with ad hoc designs, meaning that a particular circuit layout is designed for a particular functionality. A common architecture or MWP transistor with programmable functionalities would open the path towards medium and large-scale integration with unprecedented applications.

5 Concluding remarks

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

A. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

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M. Mjeku and N. J. Gomes, “Performance analysis of 802.11e transmission bursting in fiber-fed networks,” in Radio and Wireless Symp., 133–136 (2008).

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M. Sotom, B. Bénazet, A. Le Kernec, and M. Maignan, “Microwave Photonic Technologies for Flexible Satellite Telecom Payloads” in Proc. 35th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009. ECOC '09. 1–4, Vienna (2009).

8.

W. I. Way, Broadband Hybrid Fiber/Coax Access System Technologies, Artech House, San Diego, (1998).

9.

M. Crisp, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. Bell, “Wideband Radio over Fiber Distributed Antenna Systems for Energy Efficient In-Building Wireless Communications,” In Proc. 2010 IEEE 71st Vehicular Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Capmany, J. Mora, I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Microwave Photonic signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 571–586 (2013). [CrossRef]

11.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, and C. A. Villarruel, “Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5371–5378 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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15.

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16.

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1345–1347 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Chou, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(4), 581–583 (2003). [CrossRef]

18.

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C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56(2), 542–553 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

P. Samadi, L. R. Chen, C. L. Callender, P. Dumais, S. Jacob, and D. Celo, “RF arbitrary waveform generation using tunable planar lightwave circuits,” Opt. Commun. 284(15), 3737–3741 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

C. Wang and J. P. Yao, “Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 882–884 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

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T. Ismail, C.-P. Liu, J. E. Mitchell, and A. J. Seeds, “High-dynamic-range wireless-over-fiber link using feedforward linearization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3274–3282 (2007). [CrossRef]

38.

S. H. Lee, J. M. Kang, Y. Y. Won, H. C. Kwon, and S. K. Han, “Linearization of RoF optical source by using light-injected gain modulation,” Proc. of Microwave Photonics, 265–268. Seoul, Korea (2005).

39.

D. Novak, T. Clark, S. O’Connor, D. Oursler, and R. Waterhouse, “High performance, compact RF photonic transmitter with feedforward linearization,” Proc. Military Communication Conference 2010 (Milcom2010), 880–884 (2010). [CrossRef]

40.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. S. Tucker, and R. B. Waterhouse, “Technique for increasing optical spectral efficiency in millimeter-wave WDM fiber-radio,” Electron. Lett. 37(16), 1043–1045 (2001). [CrossRef]

41.

H. Toda, T. Yamashita, K.-I. Kitayama, and T. Kuri, “A DWDM mm-wave fiber-radio system by optical frequency interleaving for high spectral efficiency,” Proc. of Microwave Photonics (MWP), 85–88, Long Beach, USA (2001)

42.

X. Pang, A. Caballero, A. Dogadeev, V. Arlunno, L. Deng, R. Borkowski, J. S. Pederson, D. Zibar, X. Yu, and I. T. Monroy, “25 Gb/s QPSK hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the W-band (75-110 GHz) with remote antenna unit for in-building wireless networks,” IEEE Photonics Journal 4(3), 691–698 (2012). [CrossRef]

43.

D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. Caballero, J. Herrera, U. Westergren, A. Walber, J. B. Jensen, J. Marti, and I. T. Monroy, “High-capacity wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75- to 110-GHz band employing all-optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(12), 810–812 (2011). [CrossRef]

44.

A. Hirata, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, T. Kosugi, K. Murata, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Transmission characteristics of 120-GHz band wireless link using radio-over-fiber technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2338–2344 (2008). [CrossRef]

45.

F.-M. Kuo, C.-B. Huang, J.-W. Shi, N. Chen, H.-P. Chuang, J. E. Bowers, and C. Pang, “Remotely up-converted 20-Gbit/s error-free wireless on-off-keying data transmission at W-band using an ultra-wideband photonic transmitter-mixer,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3(2), 209–219 (2011). [CrossRef]

46.

A. Kanno, K. Inagaki, I. Morohashi, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuri, I. Hosako, T. Kawanishi, Y. Yoshida, and K. Kitayama, “40 Gb/s W-band (75-110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission,” Opt. Express 19(26), B56–B63 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

47.

X. Li, Z. Dong, J. Yu, N. Chi, Y. Shao, and G. K. Chang, “Fiber wireless transmission system of 108 Gb/s data over 80 km fiber and 2x2 MIMO wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency,” Opt. Lett. 37, 5106–5108 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

48.

J. Zhang, J. Yu, N. Chi, Z. Dong, X. Li, and G. K. Chang, “Multichannel 120 Gb/s data transmission over 2x2 MIMO fiber-wireless link at W-band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(8), 780–783 (2013). [CrossRef]

49.

Z. Dong, J. Yu, X. Li, G. K. Chang, and Z. Cao, “Integration of 112 Gb/s PDM-16QAM wireline and wireless data delivery in millimeter wave RoF system,” Proc. OFC2013, Anaheim, USA, 2013, OM3D.2. [CrossRef]

50.

C. Marpaung, R. Roeloffzen, A. Heideman, S. Leinse, Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated MicrowavePhotonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013). [CrossRef]

51.

E. J. Norberg, R. S. Guzzon, J. Parker, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Programmable photonic microwave filters monolithically integrated in InPInGaAsP,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1611–1619 (2011). [CrossRef]

52.

H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated Microwave Photonic Filter on a Hybrid Silicon Platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3213–3219 (2010). [CrossRef]

53.

P. Dong, N. N. Feng, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, B. J. Luff, T. Banwell, A. Agarwal, P. Toliver, R. Menendez, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “GHz-bandwidth optical filters based on high-order silicon ring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23784–23789 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

54.

J. Lloret, J. Sancho, M. Pu, I. Gasulla, K. Yvind, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12402–12407 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

55.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

56.

W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Wideband 360 ° microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6156–6163 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

57.

P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, and M. Alouini, “Time delay generation at high frequency using SOA based slow and fast light,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21180–21188 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

58.

M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

59.

M. Burla, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

60.

S. Combrié, P. Coman, N. V. Q. Tran, M. Patterson, G. Demand, S. Hughes, R. Gabet, Y. Jaouren, J. Bourderionnet, and A. De Rossi, “Toward a miniature optical true-time delay line”, SPIE Newsroom, (2010).

61.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Wiener, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectralshaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

History
Original Manuscript: September 12, 2013
Published: September 23, 2013

Virtual Issues
Microwave Photonics (2013) Optics Express

Citation
José Capmany, Guifang Li, Christina Lim, and Jianping Yao, "Microwave Photonics: Current challenges towards widespread application," Opt. Express 21, 22862-22867 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-19-22862


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  38. S. H. Lee, J. M. Kang, Y. Y. Won, H. C. Kwon, and S. K. Han, “Linearization of RoF optical source by using light-injected gain modulation,” Proc. of Microwave Photonics, 265–268. Seoul, Korea (2005).
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  43. D. Zibar, R. Sambaraju, A. Caballero, J. Herrera, U. Westergren, A. Walber, J. B. Jensen, J. Marti, and I. T. Monroy, “High-capacity wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75- to 110-GHz band employing all-optical OFDM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 810–812 (2011). [CrossRef]
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  52. H. W. Chen, A. W. Fang, J. D. Peters, Z. Wang, J. Bovington, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated Microwave Photonic Filter on a Hybrid Silicon Platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(11), 3213–3219 (2010). [CrossRef]
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  55. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  56. W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Wideband 360 ° microwave photonic phase shifter based on slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Express18(6), 6156–6163 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, F. Bretenaker, D. Dolfi, and M. Alouini, “Time delay generation at high frequency using SOA based slow and fast light,” Opt. Express19(22), 21180–21188 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Xue, Y. Ding, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator,” Opt. Express18(6), 6172–6182 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  61. M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Wiener, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectralshaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

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