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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 19 — Sep. 23, 2013
  • pp: 23001–23006
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Advanced radio over fiber network technologies

Dalma Novak and Rod Waterhouse  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 19, pp. 23001-23006 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.023001


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Abstract

The evolution of wireless communication networks supporting emerging broadband services and applications offers new opportunities for realizing integrated optical and wireless network infrastructures. We report on some of our recent activities investigating advanced technologies for next generation converged optical wireless networks. Developments in Active Antenna Systems, mobile fronthaul architectures, and 60 GHz fiber distributed wireless networks are described. We also discuss the potential for analog radio over fiber distribution links as a viable solution for meeting the capacity requirements of new network architectures.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Active Antenna Systems (AAS)

One emerging architecture concept attracting significant interest for meeting the growing capacity and traffic demands of wireless networks is the selective deployment of smaller sized cells that would coexist with, and complement larger macro-cells. As part of this trend, the cell site hardware is also becoming more advanced. Active antenna systems (AASs) are key examples of this technology innovation; an extension of the distributed base station concept in which the RRH functionality is now directly integrated with the antenna elements [3]. The active antenna is also becoming more ‘intelligent’ since its radiation patterns can be adapted to accommodate changing capacity demands and even multiple wireless standards in the one cell. Recent network trials have demonstrated the energy efficiency improvements and base station performance benefits (capacity, coverage) of AAS technology [46].

3. Integration with optical networks

4. 60 GHz small cells

The unlicensed and globally available 60 GHz frequency region for wireless communications is currently attracting much interest worldwide because of the huge bandwidth it can provide. The 7 – 8 GHz of bandwidth available between 57 and 66 GHz enables multi-Gb/s data rates to be supported for a diversity of applications. A 60 GHz WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network) is a type of small cell featuring lower transmission power and reduced coverage area that has the potential to meet the growing capacity demands of wireless networks. Integrating a 60 GHz small cell with a fiber-optic distribution network would allow the efficient delivery of the high data rate signals to a large number of RRHs ensuring optimized radio coverage [16

16. R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, M. Alemohammad, S. Hobbs, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, J. A. Nanzer, P. Callahan, M. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, “RF Over fiber distribution schemes for 60 GHz Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs),” in IEEE Proceedings of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, (2011).

,17

17. J. A. Nanzer, P. T. Callahan, M. L. Dennis, T. R. Clark, D. Novak, and R. B. Waterhouse, “Millimeter-wave wireless communication using dual-wavelength photonic signal generation and photonic upconversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 59(12), 3522–3530 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The fiber remoted RRH of a 60 GHz small cell requires an efficient radiating solution where the antenna is capable of providing both high gain as well as the typical radiation pattern required in a cellular infrastructure. The radiator structure such as that shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Multiple beam lens based radiator structure created for 60 GHz small cells
has the potential to satisfy both requirements [9

9. D. Di Mola and A. Lometti, “Photonic integrated technologies for optical backhauling,” in Proc. International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (2011).

]. In this approach, we utilize a printed antenna lens configuration due to its low feed loss, ease of construction and overall small form factor, to achieve high gain. Our novel radiating structure incorporates a feed array of printed antennas with an extended hemispherical lens to achieve the appropriate radiation pattern, with the dielectric layers used to create the antenna optimized to ensure maximum radiation efficiency.

The lens excitation radiator developed for the 60 GHz RRH antenna was a uni-planar quasi-Yagi printed antenna, shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Photograph and (b) Measured reflection coefficient of the developed uni-planar quasi-Yagi 60 GHz printed antenna
. Here all the conductors, including the reflector element, were developed on a single layer and no broadband balun was used. The measured reflection coefficient of the quasi-Yagi printed antenna is shown in Fig. 5(b). Good return loss performance was achieved over a wide bandwidth, from 57 to 64 GHz, using this novel structure. The gain of the single printed antenna was around 4 dBi.

Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Photograph and (b) Measured reflection coefficient for different excitation element positions of the developed multiple beam 60 GHz lens antenna
shows a photograph of the 60 GHz multiple beam lens antenna that we developed based on the concept depicted in Fig. 4. The extended hemispherical lens was made from polyethelyne; the radius of the hemispherical part of the lens was 25 mm and the extension was 17 mm. We expected this combination should yield a maximum gain of approximately 20 dBi. To accommodate multiple quasi-Yagi antennas within the lens, slots were formed in the material. The extension of the lens was increased by 5.3 mm to allow for the quasi Yagi antennas to reside within the lens. A total of nine slots were cut at a spacing of 3.5 mm to allow for wide beam coverage and minimal gain undulation between the beams.

The photograph in Fig. 6(a) shows the lens with three quasi-Yagi antennas located in several of the slot positions. The measured return loss of the developed 60 GHz multiple beam lens antenna with the quasi-Yagi feed antenna located in different slot positions in shown in Fig. 6(b). This graph shows the return loss of the lens antenna when the quasi-Yagi radiator is located in all nine slot positions; the center position is labeled as number 5. As can be seen from this plot the multiple beam lens antenna meets the bandwidth requirements for a 60 GHz small cell and any change in impedance as the feed position is varied is small. The slight variation observed is due to the elements seeing a slightly different surrounding as the location of the quasi-Yagi antenna is shifted.

Figure 7
Fig. 7 Examples of radiation patterns of the 60 GHz multiple beam lens antenna; (a) Slot position 5 and (b) Slot position 7
shows several examples of the radiation patterns of the 60 GHz multiple beam lens antenna in the upper hemisphere when the quasi-Yagi feed antenna is located in different slot positions; Figs. 7(a) and 7(b) correspond to the fifth and the seventh slot positions, respectively. These plots highlight the multi-beam nature of the 60 GHz antenna and its usefulness for a fiber distributed 60 GHz RRH.

7. Conclusions

We have also described the development of a new type of antenna structure that may be suitable for future fiber distributed 60 GHz small cells supporting large data transmission rates. The antenna can satisfy both bandwidth and coverage requirements in a small form factor.

References and links

1.

J. Cooper, “'Fibre/Radio' for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett. 26(24), 2054–2056 (1990). [CrossRef]

2.

D. M. Fye, “Design of fiber optic antenna remoting links for cellular radio applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference,622 – 625, (1990). [CrossRef]

3..

4G Americas MIMO and Smart Antennas for Mobile Systems, (October 2012).

4.

www.commscope.com

5.

www.den-gyo.com

6.

www.lgsinnovations.com

7.

M. W. Elsallal and D. H. Schaubert, “On the performance trade-offs associated with modular element of single- and dual-polarized DmBAVA,” in Proc. Antennas Applications Symposium,166 – 187, (2006).

8.

D. Novak and R. Waterhouse, “Emerging disruptive wireless technologies – Prospects and challenges for integration with optical networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2013). [CrossRef]

9.

D. Di Mola and A. Lometti, “Photonic integrated technologies for optical backhauling,” in Proc. International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (2011).

10.

A. Pizzinat, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, F. Le Clech, and B. Landousies, “An opportunity for access network convergence and consolidation: Digital radio over fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2012).

11.

A. Nirmalathas, P. A. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized radio-over-fiber technologies for converged optical wireless access network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2366–2375 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Wake, S. Pato, J. Pedro, E. Lopez, N. Gomes, and P. Monteiro, “A comparison of remote radio head optical transmission technologies for next generation wireless systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting,442 – 443, (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Alemohammad, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Ka-band RF photonic link with optimized performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

R. Sadhwani and B. Jalali, “Adaptive CMOS predistortion linearizer for fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3180–3193 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

S. R. O’Connor, T. R. Clark, and D. Novak, “Wideband adaptive feedforward photonic link,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2810–2816 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, M. Alemohammad, S. Hobbs, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, J. A. Nanzer, P. Callahan, M. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, “RF Over fiber distribution schemes for 60 GHz Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs),” in IEEE Proceedings of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, (2011).

17.

J. A. Nanzer, P. T. Callahan, M. L. Dennis, T. R. Clark, D. Novak, and R. B. Waterhouse, “Millimeter-wave wireless communication using dual-wavelength photonic signal generation and photonic upconversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 59(12), 3522–3530 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
High Speed Radio Over Fiber Systems

History
Original Manuscript: August 16, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 12, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2013
Published: September 23, 2013

Virtual Issues
Microwave Photonics (2013) Optics Express

Citation
Dalma Novak and Rod Waterhouse, "Advanced radio over fiber network technologies," Opt. Express 21, 23001-23006 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-19-23001


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References

  1. J. Cooper, “'Fibre/Radio' for the provision of cordless/mobile telephony services in the access network,” Electron. Lett.26(24), 2054–2056 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. D. M. Fye, “Design of fiber optic antenna remoting links for cellular radio applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference,622 – 625, (1990). [CrossRef]
  3. 4G Americas MIMO and Smart Antennas for Mobile Systems, (October 2012).
  4. www.commscope.com
  5. www.den-gyo.com
  6. www.lgsinnovations.com
  7. M. W. Elsallal and D. H. Schaubert, “On the performance trade-offs associated with modular element of single- and dual-polarized DmBAVA,” in Proc. Antennas Applications Symposium,166 – 187, (2006).
  8. D. Novak and R. Waterhouse, “Emerging disruptive wireless technologies – Prospects and challenges for integration with optical networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. D. Di Mola and A. Lometti, “Photonic integrated technologies for optical backhauling,” in Proc. International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, (2011).
  10. A. Pizzinat, F. Bourgart, P. Chanclou, B. Charbonnier, F. Le Clech, and B. Landousies, “An opportunity for access network convergence and consolidation: Digital radio over fiber,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2012).
  11. A. Nirmalathas, P. A. Gamage, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, and Y. Yang, “Digitized radio-over-fiber technologies for converged optical wireless access network,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(16), 2366–2375 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Wake, S. Pato, J. Pedro, E. Lopez, N. Gomes, and P. Monteiro, “A comparison of remote radio head optical transmission technologies for next generation wireless systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Society Annual Meeting,442 – 443, (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Alemohammad, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Ka-band RF photonic link with optimized performance,” in Proceedings of IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. R. Sadhwani and B. Jalali, “Adaptive CMOS predistortion linearizer for fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3180–3193 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. S. R. O’Connor, T. R. Clark, and D. Novak, “Wideband adaptive feedforward photonic link,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2810–2816 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. R. B. Waterhouse, D. Novak, M. Alemohammad, S. Hobbs, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, J. A. Nanzer, P. Callahan, M. Dennis, and T. R. Clark, “RF Over fiber distribution schemes for 60 GHz Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs),” in IEEE Proceedings of Asia Pacific Microwave Conference, (2011).
  17. J. A. Nanzer, P. T. Callahan, M. L. Dennis, T. R. Clark, D. Novak, and R. B. Waterhouse, “Millimeter-wave wireless communication using dual-wavelength photonic signal generation and photonic upconversion,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.59(12), 3522–3530 (2011). [CrossRef]

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