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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 2 — Jan. 28, 2013
  • pp: 1547–1554
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Per-symbol-based digital back-propagation approach for PDM-CO-OFDM transmission systems

Wei-Ren Peng, Hidenori Takahashi, Itsuro Morita, and Takehiro Tsuritani  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 1547-1554 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.001547


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Abstract

For polarization-division-multiplexing coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-CO-OFDM) systems, we propose a per-symbol-based digital back-propagation (DBP) approach which, after cyclic prefix removal, conducts DBP for each OFDM symbol. Compared with previous DBP, this new proposal avoids the use of inefficient overlap-and-add operation and saves one fast Fourier transform (FFT) module, therefore simplifying the hardware implementation. Transmitting a 16-QAM, 42.8-Gb/s PDM-CO-OFDM signal over 960-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF), we compare the previous and the proposed DBP approaches with different receiver’s sampling rates and different step lengths in each DBP iteration, and found that the proposed DBP can achieve a similar performance as that of the previous DBP while enjoying a simpler implementation. We have also specifically introduced a small self-phase modulation (SPM) model for DBP and demonstrated its feasibility with the same experimental setup.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Technology revolution in the field of optical communications began years ago with the first introduction of the digital signal processing (DSP) [1

1. M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 674–676 (2004). [CrossRef]

], which enabled the technologies of 1) dispersion-unmanaged link, 2) coherent detection, and 3) polarization division multiplexing (PDM). Since then coherent detection with DSP soon became almost invincible in the world of linear transmissions because of its great ability to compensate for both the chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD). However, simply handling the linear impairments is insufficient for guaranteeing the receiving performance because the fiber nonlinearities would also play a significant role especially in a long-distance transport system. Therefore, one of the remaining issues in the coherent receiving would be the lack of an efficient nonlinear compensation scheme, preferably implemented with DSP.

The rest part of this paper is organized as follows: in Section 2 the working principle for the proposed pre-symbol-based DBP method is described and the small SPM model for NLC is introduced; in Section 3 the experimental setup is detailed and in Section 4 the results are presented and discussed. Finally, Section 5 concludes this paper.

2. Working principle

Cpro{NFFTlog2(NFFT)+52NFFT}M+NFFT2log2(NFFT)
(4)

Since in Eq. (3) NU is always smaller than NFFT [10

10. L. R. Rabiner and B. Gold, Theory and application of digital signal processing, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1975.

], i.e. Cpre > Cpro, we conclude that the proposed DBP method should demand for a lower computational complexity.

3. Experimental setup

4. Results and discussions

In Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optimum Q vs. step length for the proposed DBP with the regular and small SPM models.
we examine the appropriateness of the small SPM model given in Eq. (2). The optimum Q (at the optimum launch power of ~0 dBm) with the regular and the small SPM model, i.e. with Eqs. (1) and (2), respectively, as a function of the step length are presented for the proposed DBP method. With reasonable step lengths, from 80~480 km per step, the small SPM model is found to be able to yield comparable performance to the regular model, which demonstrates the feasibility of the small SPM model Eq. (2) with current experimental conditions (960 km with EDFA only amplification). However, it is expected that, also verified by our observations, a higher launch power would destroy the low power assumption for Eq. (2) and cause this small SPM model to fail to accurately estimate the real SPM, therefore diminishing its compensation efficiency. Therefore, the use of the small SPM model would be more suitable for medium transmission distance.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

This work was partly supported by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan.

References and links

1.

M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 674–676 (2004). [CrossRef]

2.

X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(2), 880–888 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. Ip, “Nonlinear compensation using back-propagation for polarization-multiplexed transmission” IEEE/OSA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(6), 939–951 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber nonlinearity using a digital coherent receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1217–1226 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

L. Du, B. Schmidt, and A. J. Lowery, “Efficient digital backpropagation for PDM-CO-OFDM optical transmission systems,” in Proceedings of OFC’2010, paper OTuE2 (2010).

6.

W.-R. Peng, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and T. Tsuritani, “Per-symbol-based digital back propagation approach for PDM-CO-OFDM transport systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC’12, paper Th2A6 (2012).

7.

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001).

8.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 6–15 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. R. Rabiner and B. Gold, Theory and application of digital signal processing, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1975.

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation

ToC Category:
Subsystems for Optical Networks

History
Original Manuscript: October 2, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 3, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 3, 2012
Published: January 15, 2013

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Wei-Ren Peng, Hidenori Takahashi, Itsuro Morita, and Takehiro Tsuritani, "Per-symbol-based digital back-propagation approach for PDM-CO-OFDM transmission systems," Opt. Express 21, 1547-1554 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-2-1547


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References

  1. M. G. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(2), 674–676 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, and G. Li, “Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing,” Opt. Express16(2), 880–888 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ip, “Nonlinear compensation using back-propagation for polarization-multiplexed transmission” IEEE/OSA,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(6), 939–951 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Millar, S. Makovejs, C. Behrens, S. Hellerbrand, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Mitigation of fiber nonlinearity using a digital coherent receiver,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1217–1226 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. L. Du, B. Schmidt, and A. J. Lowery, “Efficient digital backpropagation for PDM-CO-OFDM optical transmission systems,” in Proceedings of OFC’2010, paper OTuE2 (2010).
  6. W.-R. Peng, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and T. Tsuritani, “Per-symbol-based digital back propagation approach for PDM-CO-OFDM transport systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC’12, paper Th2A6 (2012).
  7. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001).
  8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4,160-km SSMF,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 6–15 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. R. Rabiner and B. Gold, Theory and application of digital signal processing, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, 1975.

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