OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 2 — Jan. 28, 2013
  • pp: 2369–2377
« Show journal navigation

Optimization of an optical wireless nanolink using directive nanoantennas

Diego M. Solís, José M. Taboada, Fernando Obelleiro, and Luis Landesa  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 2369-2377 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.002369


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1817 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Optical connects will become a key point in the next generation of integrated circuits, namely the upcoming nanoscale optical chips. In this context, nano-optical wireless links using nanoantennas have been presented as a promising alternative to regular plasmonic waveguide links, whose main limitation is the range propagation due to the metal absorption losses. In this paper we present the complete design of a high-capability wireless nanolink using matched directive nanoantennas. It will be shown how the use of directive nanoantennas clearly enhances the capability of the link, improving its behavior with respect to non-directive nanoantennas and largely outperforming regular plasmonic waveguide connects.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

With the great advances in nanotechnology, plasmonic integrated circuits (ICs) using sub-diffraction propagation plasmonic waveguides have been proposed to achieve nanoscale integration in upcoming optical ICs. Plasmonic guiding provides highly confined propagation compared with the usual dielectric photonic guides, thereby enabling miniaturization of future optical chips [1

1. L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13, 6645–6650 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. G. Veronis, Z. Yu, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 302–308 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, it is also well known that plasmonic waveguides suffer from metal absorption and, consequently, they do not provide long propagation distances, thus being limited to communications in reduced ranges in terms of wavelength. One alternative could be to revert to the use of dielectric photonic guides, but this would be at the expense of greatly increasing the footprint of transmission lines due to the diffraction optics.

2. Numerical results

Fig. 1 Sketch of the proposed optical wireless interconnect using directive nanoantennas; (a) Transmitting side: Yagi-Uda nanoantenna driven by a coplanar MIM waveguide. All metallic structures are made of silver, with εr = −19.4397 − 0.4606 j at λ0 = 650 nm (ejωt convention for time-harmonic variation), and embedded in glass, with refractive index ng = 1.451. An impedance matching dielectric nanoparticle is included at the gap of the feed element. (b) Receiving side: Yagi-Uda nanoantenna and impedance matching nanoparticle (same design as in Tx) connected to the receiving MIM, which is terminated with a matched load. Upper-right inset: detailed image of the Rx waveguide matched load termination. Lower inset: proposed layout.

Fig. 2 (a) Linear cut of the electric field strength on the gap of a 6 μm MIM waveguide terminated by an open end and a matched load; (b) Linear cut of the electric field strength on the gap of the transmitting waveguide of Fig. 1(a) connected to the nanoantenna without impedance matching nanoparticle, and with impedance matching nanoparticle. Respective best fits are shown in dashed lines.

Next, appropriate directive Yagi-Uda antennas are designed. The optimization of a plasmonic Yagi-Uda antenna is a challenging task, since performance strongly depends on the lengths of the elements, the inter-element distances and the nearfield mutual couplings, which must be accurately handled [17

17. M. G. Araújo, D. M. Solís, J. Rivero, J. M. Taboada, F. Obelleiro, and L. Landesa, “Design of optical nanoantennas with the surface integral equation method of moments,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Cape Town, 2012).

]. The optimization process was performed using the standard genetic algorithm (GA) explained in [18

18. D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989).

]. The number of antenna elements was set to four, consisting of a feed element and three parasitic directors. The lengths of the elements and the inter-element distances were simultaneously optimized to maximize the antenna directivity D0[19

19. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).

]. The range of possible values was set from 0.1 to 0.5 λg both for lengths and distances. The SIE-MoM analysis technique was applied for the accurate evaluation of D0 (which constitutes the GA fitness function) for each of the individuals in each generation of the GA. The final design achieved after 82 generations (starting with a random population of 64 individuals and considering mutation and crossover probabilities of 0.01 and 0.6 respectively) is shown in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b) for the transmitting and receiving sides. Through reciprocity, the same design is used for the transmit and the receive antenna. The length of the feed element is 96.4 nm, and the lengths of the successive directors are 51.2 nm, 50.9 nm, and 51.9 nm (0.215 λg, 0.114 λg, 0.114 λg, and 0.116 λg respectively). The distance between the feed element and the first director is 64.3 nm and the successive distances between directors are 81.4 nm and 121.4 nm (0.144 λg, 0.182 λg, and 0.271 λg respectively.) The attained directivity with this design is D0 = 3.471 n.u. or 5.4 dBi (dB with respect to an isotropic theoretical antenna).

So far, the designed Yagi-Uda nanoantennas were excited either by nearfield coupling with a quantum dot in [11

11. H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9, 207 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or by lasing radiation [12

12. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” Nat. Photon. 4, 312–315 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In the framework of nano-optical ICs, however, Yagi-Uda antennas must be coupled to MIM waveguides. In this case, looking for a realistic design we opted for a coplanar configuration, as shown in Fig. 1. This prevents the inclusion of the usual reflector element of the Yagi-Uda design, which indeed means some sacrifice of maximum attainable directivity, but in return simplifies fabrication. Otherwise, much like in RF or microwave regimes, in order to maximize the power transfer between Tx and Rx, we must match the nanoantenna input impedance to the MIM waveguide impedance Z0, which can be achieved by means of a properly designed matching network. For this, we first calculate the reflection coefficient for fields at the antenna connection point, Γ = |Γ|e. Figure 2(b) shows the standing wave pattern of the electric field on a linear path along the gap of the transmitting waveguide. The reflection coefficient can be determined by curve fitting of this standing wave pattern. We only consider the fundamental mode for the fitting procedure, since other higher order modes are negligible in comparison with the fundamental one. The field amplitude for this mode at position x in the waveguide can be described as E = E0eγx(1 + Γe2γx), with the reflection plane (antenna connection point) located at x = 0. E0 is the field amplitude of the wave in the forward direction (direction from the source to the antenna) and γ is the propagation constant. The reflection coefficient so determined for the nanoantenna alone, without matching network, is Γ = 0.6362ej1.4343, meaning that 40.5% of the power available on the waveguide is reflected and only 59.5% is accepted by the antenna. Similarly as done in [6

6. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the power transmission is improved by including a dielectric nanoparticle filling the gap of the feed element (see Fig. 1). This nanoparticle acts as a lumped element constituting the actual matching network nanocircuit. Changing the value of the relative dielectric permittivity εr of this nanoparticle the impedance matching can be achieved, obtaining the point of minimum reflection (maximum transmission) for εr = 3.1, with Γ = 0.1919ej0.3473. This means a reflection below 3.7 % of the available power and 96.3 % of power accepted by the nanoantenna. The input impedance of the nanoantenna with the matching network can be obtained from the reflection coefficient and the waveguide characteristic impedance as Zin = Z0(1 + Γ)/(1 − Γ), leading to Zin = 283.5 − 40.306 jΩ. The standing wave pattern and the best fit for this case are also collected in Fig. 2(b). Now, by computing a line integral over the electric field from one arm to the other at each point along the waveguide, we obtain a standing wave pattern for the voltage (not shown since it is analogous to the electric field pattern of Fig. 2(b)). Applying the fitting procedure described above to this voltage pattern we determine the amplitude of the voltage wave flowing in the forward direction. Taking the value of this voltage at the antenna connection point, V, and the characteristic impedance, Z0, we can calculate the power available at the antenna feeding point as Ptx=12|V|2/Re(Z0), so the power accepted by the nanoantenna (or input power) can be obtained as Pin = (1 − |Γ|2)Ptx. On the other hand, the power being effectively radiated by the nanoantenna, Prad, can be calculated by computing the flux of the Poynting vector across a closed surface containing both the antenna and the waveguide [19

19. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).

]. The efficiency of the transmit antenna can then be obtained as the ratio η = Prad/Pin, leading to η = 0.412, which, by reciprocity, will be also the efficiency of the receiving antenna.

We then simulated a complete wireless link, consisting of the previously designed Tx and Rx nanoantennas, matched to their respective MIM waveguides, looking toward one another and separated by a distance (defined as the distance between the feed elements) of d = 17.92 μm (40 λg); the sketch is depicted in the lower inset of Fig. 1. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) illustrate the electric near field amplitude on transverse planes to the transmit and receive nanoantennas respectively. Looking at Fig. 3(a) and the respective line cut in Fig. 2(b), we can observe that the amplitude of the field is almost constant on the gap of the transmitting waveguide, showing a smooth standing wave pattern. This is due to the good impedance match between the antenna and the waveguide. Similarly, we observe in Fig. 3(b) that the amplitude of the field is almost constant in the gap of the receiving waveguide. In this case, this is due to the effect of the matched load termination, absorbing almost all the energy. The power balance (ratio of the received power at the output of the Rx nanoantenna, Prx, to the available power at the feeding point of the Tx nanoantenna, Ptx) obtained from this full-wave simulation is Prx/Ptx = 6.9948 · 10−6 (−51.55 dB).

Fig. 3 Electric near field distribution (V/m) on transverse planes to the (a) transmit, and (b) receive nanosystems as described in Fig. 1, respectively.

Fig. 4 Power transfer for MIM plasmonic waveguide connect, broadcast wireless connect using matched dipole nanoantennas, and directive wireless connect using matched directive Yagi-Uda nanoantennas.

All the designs in this paper have been carried out using a very efficient and accurate frequency-domain surface integral equation-method of moments software [22

22. J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, F. Obelleiro, M. G. Araújo, and L. Landesa, “Method of moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1341–1348 (2011). [CrossRef]

24

24. L. Landesa, M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, L. Bote, and F. Obelleiro, “Improving condition number and convergence of the surface integral-equation method of moments for penetrable bodies,” Opt. Express 20, 17237–17249 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. SIE formulations solved by MoM have demonstrated to be very accurate, robust and versatile for the analysis of conductors and dielectrics in RF and microwave domains [25

25. S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, h-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics 10, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]

27

27. P. Yla-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Although not yet widespread in optics, they bring important advantages for the rigorous analysis of penetrable plasmonic bodies compared with volumetric approaches [22

22. J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, F. Obelleiro, M. G. Araújo, and L. Landesa, “Method of moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1341–1348 (2011). [CrossRef]

24

24. L. Landesa, M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, L. Bote, and F. Obelleiro, “Improving condition number and convergence of the surface integral-equation method of moments for penetrable bodies,” Opt. Express 20, 17237–17249 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3d simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 732–740 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Otherwise, the latest advances in fast integral equation solvers [29

29. J. Song, C.-C. Lu, and W. C. Chew, “Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for electromagnetic scattering by large complex objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1488–1493 (1997). [CrossRef]

33

33. M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, D. M. Solís, and F. Obelleiro, “Solution of large-scale plasmonic problems with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 416–418 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], together with the vast computational capabilities of modern high performance computing (HPC) computers, have allowed us to use this precise SIE-MoM software as the basic electromagnetic analysis tool underlying the hard optimizations used for our design purposes. For the optimization procedures, we developed a C++ routine based on the standard GA explained in [18

18. D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989).

] with non-overlapping populations. This routine was integrated with the SIE-MoM software and parallelized with message passing interface (MPI) to take advantage of massively parallel computers.

3. Conclusions

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Spanish Government and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), under projects TEC2011-28784-C02-01, TEC2011-28784-C02-02, CONSOLIDER-INGENIO 2010 CSD2008-00068, and by ERDF and the Galician Regional Government under project CN 2012/260. The authors thank CénitS and CESGA Spanish supercomputing centers for their support to run the simulations. The authors also thank Kathryn Williams at Northeastern University (Boston, USA) for carefully reviewing the English in this paper.

References and links

1.

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13, 6645–6650 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3359–3361 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

G. Veronis, Z. Yu, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 7, 302–308 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).

8.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4, 957–961 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308, 1607–1608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photon. 5, 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9, 207 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” Nat. Photon. 4, 312–315 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Klemm, “Directional plasmonic nanoantennas for wireless links at the nanoscale,” in Proceedings of Antennas and Propagation Conference, (Loughborough, 2011).

15.

J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett. 9, 1897–1902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. M. Rao, D. R. Wilton, and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 409–418 (1982). [CrossRef]

17.

M. G. Araújo, D. M. Solís, J. Rivero, J. M. Taboada, F. Obelleiro, and L. Landesa, “Design of optical nanoantennas with the surface integral equation method of moments,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Cape Town, 2012).

18.

D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989).

19.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).

20.

Z. Cui, Nanofabrication: Principles, Capabilities and Limits (Springer, New York, 2008).

21.

B. D. Gates, Q. Xu, M. Stewart, D. Ryan, C. G. Willson, and G. M. Whitesides, “New approaches to nanofabrication: Molding, printing, and other techniques,” Chem. Rev. 105, 1171–1196 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, F. Obelleiro, M. G. Araújo, and L. Landesa, “Method of moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 1341–1348 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, D. M. Solís, J. Rivero, L. Landesa, and F. Obelleiro, “Comparison of surface integral equation formulations for electromagnetic analysis of plasmonic nanoscatterers,” Opt. Express 20, 9161–9171 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

L. Landesa, M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, L. Bote, and F. Obelleiro, “Improving condition number and convergence of the surface integral-equation method of moments for penetrable bodies,” Opt. Express 20, 17237–17249 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, h-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics 10, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]

26.

P. Yla-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Jarvenpaa, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci. 40, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]

27.

P. Yla-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]

28.

A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3d simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26, 732–740 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

J. Song, C.-C. Lu, and W. C. Chew, “Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for electromagnetic scattering by large complex objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 45, 1488–1493 (1997). [CrossRef]

30.

O. Ergul and L. Gurel, “A hierarchical partitioning strategy for an efficient parallelization of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 57, 1740–1750 (2009). [CrossRef]

31.

J. Taboada, M. Araújo, J. Bértolo, L. Landesa, F. Obelleiro, and J. Rodríguez, “MLFMA-FFT parallel algorithm for the solution of large-scale problems in electromagnetics,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 105, 15–20 (2010). [CrossRef]

32.

J. Taboada, M. Araújo, F. Obelleiro, J. Rodríguez, and L. Landesa, “MLFMA-FFT parallel algorithm for the solution of extremely large problems in electromagnetics,” Proceedings of the IEEE PP(99), 1–14 (2013).

33.

M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, D. M. Solís, and F. Obelleiro, “Solution of large-scale plasmonic problems with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 416–418 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(260.2110) Physical optics : Electromagnetic optics
(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 20, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: January 4, 2013
Published: January 23, 2013

Citation
Diego M. Solís, José M. Taboada, Fernando Obelleiro, and Luis Landesa, "Optimization of an optical wireless nanolink using directive nanoantennas," Opt. Express 21, 2369-2377 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-2-2369


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express13, 6645–6650 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film,” Opt. Lett.30, 3359–3361 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 131102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B73, 035407 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. G. Veronis, Z. Yu, S. E. Kocabas, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and S. Fan, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguide devices for manipulating light at the nanoscale,” Chin. Opt. Lett.7, 302–308 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Wireless at the nanoscale: optical interconnects using matched nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 213902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2007).
  8. D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single bowtie nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett.4, 957–961 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1608 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photon.5, 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, and Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” New J. Phys.9, 207 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, and H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical yagi-uda antenna,” Nat. Photon.4, 312–315 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Klemm, “Directional plasmonic nanoantennas for wireless links at the nanoscale,” in Proceedings of Antennas and Propagation Conference, (Loughborough, 2011).
  15. J.-S. Huang, T. Feichtner, P. Biagioni, and B. Hecht, “Impedance matching and emission properties of nanoantennas in an optical nanocircuit,” Nano Lett.9, 1897–1902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. M. Rao, D. R. Wilton, and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.30, 409–418 (1982). [CrossRef]
  17. M. G. Araújo, D. M. Solís, J. Rivero, J. M. Taboada, F. Obelleiro, and L. Landesa, “Design of optical nanoantennas with the surface integral equation method of moments,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, (Cape Town, 2012).
  18. D. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1989).
  19. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design (Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982).
  20. Z. Cui, Nanofabrication: Principles, Capabilities and Limits (Springer, New York, 2008).
  21. B. D. Gates, Q. Xu, M. Stewart, D. Ryan, C. G. Willson, and G. M. Whitesides, “New approaches to nanofabrication: Molding, printing, and other techniques,” Chem. Rev.105, 1171–1196 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, F. Obelleiro, M. G. Araújo, and L. Landesa, “Method of moments formulation for the analysis of plasmonic nano-optical antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28, 1341–1348 (2011). [CrossRef]
  23. M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, D. M. Solís, J. Rivero, L. Landesa, and F. Obelleiro, “Comparison of surface integral equation formulations for electromagnetic analysis of plasmonic nanoscatterers,” Opt. Express20, 9161–9171 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L. Landesa, M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, L. Bote, and F. Obelleiro, “Improving condition number and convergence of the surface integral-equation method of moments for penetrable bodies,” Opt. Express20, 17237–17249 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. S. M. Rao and D. R. Wilton, “E-field, h-field, and combined field solution for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional dielectric bodies,” Electromagnetics10, 407–421 (1990). [CrossRef]
  26. P. Yla-Oijala, M. Taskinen, and S. Jarvenpaa, “Surface integral equation formulations for solving electromagnetic scattering problems with iterative methods,” Radio Sci.40, RS6002 (2005). [CrossRef]
  27. P. Yla-Oijala and M. Taskinen, “Application of combined field integral equation for electromagnetic scattering by dielectric and composite objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.53, 1168–1173 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. A. M. Kern and O. J. F. Martin, “Surface integral formulation for 3d simulations of plasmonic and high permittivity nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A26, 732–740 (2009). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Song, C.-C. Lu, and W. C. Chew, “Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for electromagnetic scattering by large complex objects,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.45, 1488–1493 (1997). [CrossRef]
  30. O. Ergul and L. Gurel, “A hierarchical partitioning strategy for an efficient parallelization of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.57, 1740–1750 (2009). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Taboada, M. Araújo, J. Bértolo, L. Landesa, F. Obelleiro, and J. Rodríguez, “MLFMA-FFT parallel algorithm for the solution of large-scale problems in electromagnetics,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.105, 15–20 (2010). [CrossRef]
  32. J. Taboada, M. Araújo, F. Obelleiro, J. Rodríguez, and L. Landesa, “MLFMA-FFT parallel algorithm for the solution of extremely large problems in electromagnetics,” Proceedings of the IEEEPP(99), 1–14 (2013).
  33. M. G. Araújo, J. M. Taboada, J. Rivero, D. M. Solís, and F. Obelleiro, “Solution of large-scale plasmonic problems with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm,” Opt. Lett.37, 416–418 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited