## Dynamical characteristics and their applications of semiconductor lasers subject to both optical injection and optical feedback |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 20, pp. 23568-23578 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.023568

Acrobat PDF (1557 KB)

### Abstract

We experimentally investigate the dynamical characteristics of semiconductor lasers subject to both the optical injection (OI) and the optical feedback (OF). By coupling the OI and the OF lights into the same fiber before injecting into the slave laser (SL), the ratio between the two perturbations can be accurately determined and controlled. The frequency shifts in the cavity resonance frequency of the SL (*ν*_{SL}) induced by the OI and the OF lights are compared quantitatively. To study the competition between the OI and the OF in the SL, the mapping of the dynamical scenarios and states are plotted in the parameter space. This mapping serves as the guideline for choosing the appropriate operation conditions in various applications employing both the OI and the OF at the same time. In this paper, the suitable feedback strengths to narrow the linewidths of photonic microwave signals generated by the OI are studied. The limitation of using OI in enhancing the bandwidths of the chaos states generated by the OF is discussed. Moreover, to suppress the unwanted dynamics due to the feedback, the optimal injection parameters of the OI are shown.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. **9**, 765–784 (1997). [CrossRef]

4. T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäβer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: Bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E **67**, 066214 (2003). [CrossRef]

5. S. C. Chen, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express **15**, 14921–14935 (2007). [CrossRef]

7. Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. **3**, 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]

8. J. S. Lawrence and D. M. Kane, “Injection locking suppression of coherence collapse in a diode laser with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. **167**, 273–282 (1999). [CrossRef]

9. T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **9**, 1322–1324 (1997). [CrossRef]

12. E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H. K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. C. Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating > 100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths,” Opt. Express **16**, 6609–6618 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. J. Ohtsubo, “Feedback induced instability and chaos in semiconductor lasers and their applications,” Opt. Rev. **6**, 1–15 (1999). [CrossRef]

13. J. Ohtsubo, “Chaos synchronization and chaotic signal masking in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. **38**, 1141–1154 (2002). [CrossRef]

14. R. Vicente, J. Daudén, P. Colet, and R. Toral, “Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. **41**, 541–548 (2005). [CrossRef]

15. R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regions of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback laser,” J. Light-wave Technol. **LT-4**, 1655–1661 (1986). [CrossRef]

16. S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **10**, 1025–1032 (2004). [CrossRef]

18. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor oscillators,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **19**, 1500807 (2013). [CrossRef]

19. A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and H. C. He, “Enhancing the bandwidth of the optical chaotic signal generated by a semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. **20**, 1633–1635 (2008). [CrossRef]

20. A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and J. F. Wang, “Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection,” Opt. Lett. **34**, 1144–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. J. S. Lawrence and D. M. Kane, “Injection locking suppression of coherence collapse in a diode laser with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. **167**, 273–282 (1999). [CrossRef]

## 2. Experimental setup

*λ*

_{SL}= 1308.78 nm. The bias current of the SL is set at 8 mA (1.7

*I*

_{th}). The detuning frequency

*f*(

*f*is the difference of the cavity resonance frequencies between the ML and the SL under the free running condition) is controlled by tuning the wavelength of the injection light from the ML. The normalized injection strength

*ξ*

_{i}and feedback strength

*ξ*

_{fb}(

*ξ*is the ratio of the optical field of the injection/feedback light to the optical field of the SL output) are adjusted by the optical variable attenuators. To assure the relative values between the

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}that are injected and fed back to the SL, the OI and OF lights are first coupled into a single-mode fiber through a 50/50 polarization-maintaining coupler and then injected into the SL through exactly the same optical path. The feedback loop has a length of

*L*= 16 m, which is long enough so that the dynamics from the OF is insensitive to the feedback phase but mainly determined by the

*ξ*

_{fb}. The output of the SL is analyzed with an optical spectrum analyzer (Advantest, Q8384) and a microwave spectrum analyzer (R&S FSV30), where a 40-GHz photodetector (Discovery semiconductor, DSC-R409) is used.

## 3. Results and discussions

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}, respectively. The cavity resonance frequencies of the SL (

*ν*

_{SL}) under different conditions are marked with the red dots. As can be seen in Fig. 2(a), when

*ξ*

_{i}increases,

*ν*

_{SL}decreases and shifts toward the negative offset frequency (relative to the oscillation frequency of the free-running SL) due to the frequency-pushing effect associated with the OI light [21

21. S. C. Chan, “Analysis of an optically injected semiconductor laser for microwave generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **46**, 421–428 (2010). [CrossRef]

*ξ*

_{fb}increases. To quantitatively compare the responses of the SL to the OI and the OF lights, the shifts in the cavity resonance frequency (Δ

*f*) for different

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}are shown in Fig. 3.

*f*of the SL subject to the OI under different

*ξ*

_{i}are plotted in Fig. 3, where the solid squares, triangles, and circles are obtained with detuning frequencies of

*f*= 5.6, 9.3, and 13.7 GHz, respectively. As can be seen, the Δ

*f*decreases as the

*ξ*

_{i}increases, where the frequency-pushing effect is stronger when the detuning frequency is smaller. In another word, the pushing is more effectively if the frequency of the injection light is closer to the

*ν*

_{SL}. The open circles shown in Fig. 3 are the Δ

*f*under different

*ξ*

_{fb}when the SL is subject to the OF. Compared to the OI scheme, we found that the Δ

*f*shifts more significantly in the OF scheme when the SL is under the same injection and feedback strengths. The difference in the responses of the Δ

*f*to the injection and feedback lights is because of that, the main oscillation frequency of the feedback light constantly shifts together with the frequency-pushed

*ν*

_{SL}while the frequency of the injection light from the ML is fixed and detuned away from the

*ν*

_{SL}as it is pushed away. Moreover, although reducing the detuning frequency might increase the Δ

*f*in the OI scheme, the SL can easily get locked by the ML if the detuning frequency is too small where the

*ν*

_{SL}will be depleted by the OI light completely. As the result, the SL is expected to be more sensitive to the perturbation from the OF light than the OI light when adding both to the laser simultaneously.

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}when the SL is subject to both the OI and the OF simultaneously. The detuning frequency of the injection light is fixed at

*f*= 5.6 GHz. Different dynamical scenarios (separated with the black curves) are defined and differentiated by whether the dynamics and the characteristics frequencies originated from the OI or the OF alone are being preserved (

*P*), shifted (

*S*), or suppressed (

*S′*) after both the OI and the OF lights are simultaneously injected. The letter

*L*is used when the SL is stably locked by the OI light. In the two-letter symbols, the first and the second letters are each corresponding to the effects from the OI and the OF respectively [22

22. Y. H. Liao, J. M. Liu, and F. Y. Lin, “Dynamical characteristics of a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **19**, 1500606 (2013). [CrossRef]

*PP*occurs at the corner where both

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}are very small. In this scenario, the SL is weakly disturbed by the OI and the OF, where the P1 state with a oscillation frequency close to the relaxation oscillation frequency of the SL is observed. Scenario

*SP*is located at the region next to the left vertical axis. In this scenario, the dynamics of the SL is mainly determined by the OF light where the CO states induced by the OF occupy the region. The scenario

*PS*is located near the region on the bottom above the horizontal axis. In this scenario, the dynamics of the SL is mainly determined by the OI while the weak OF light mainly contributes in narrowing the linewidth of the oscillation frequency [17

17. J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, “Tunable photonics microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics with optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett. **38**, 344–346 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*SS*is observed around the center of the mapping. In this scenario, the dynamics of the SL are determined by the contribution from both the OI and the OF. Various dynamical states including the P1, P2, QP, and CO are found in this region. In the region where

*ξ*

_{i}is much larger than

*ξ*

_{fb}near the vertical axis on the right, the scenario

*LS′*is found. In this scenario, the SL is stably locked by the strong OI light and the perturbation from the OF is completely suppressed. As the result, the L state occupies this region. Unlike the dual-beam OI scheme discussed in [22

22. Y. H. Liao, J. M. Liu, and F. Y. Lin, “Dynamical characteristics of a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **19**, 1500606 (2013). [CrossRef]

*S′L*,

*S′S′*and

*LL*do not exist in the SL subject to both the OI and the OF since the

*ν*

_{SL}is never depleted by the OF light even with a very strong

*ξ*

_{fb}(i.e. the dynamics is not locked (

*L*) or suppressed (

*S′*) by the OF light). Using the mapping as the guideline, the optimal operation conditions in applications employing both the OI and the OF are then studied.

16. S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **10**, 1025–1032 (2004). [CrossRef]

18. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor oscillators,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **19**, 1500807 (2013). [CrossRef]

*ξ*

_{fb}for best laser stabilization under different

*ξ*

_{i}can be determined. Figures 5(a) and 5(d) show the power spectra of the P2 and P1 states when the SL is subject to only the OI with

*ξ*

_{i}= 0.21 and 0.31, respectively. Their relative locations in the parameter space are also marked in Fig. 4. When

*ξ*

_{fb}is increased to 0.008 before crossing the boundary between the

*PS*and the

*SS*scenarios, the power spectra of the P2 and P1 states with their oscillation frequencies remain unchanged are shown in Figs. 5(b) and 5(e), respectively. Compared with Figs. 5(a) and 5(d), the 3-dB linewidths of the main oscillation frequencies are narrowed from about 50 MHz to less than 1 MHz. However, if the

*ξ*

_{fb}is increased to 0.03 (about one-tenth of the

*ξ*

_{i}) crossing the boundary into the

*SS*scenario, as shown in Figs. 5(c) and 5(f), the oscillation frequencies of the P2 and P1 states are shifted and the linewidths of the main oscillation frequencies are broadened to larger than 100 MHz. As the result, to have the optimal linewidth narrowing by the OF, the

*ξ*

_{fb}has to be controlled so that the SL remains in the preferred

*PS*scenario without crossing into the

*SS*scenario.

20. A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and J. F. Wang, “Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection,” Opt. Lett. **34**, 1144–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ξ*

_{fb}= 0.06 while the

*ξ*

_{i}is increased from 0 (no injection), 0.15, to 0.21 to enhance the bandwidths, respectively. As can be seen in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), the oscillation frequency increases from about 3 GHz to 9 GHz after the SL is injected with the OI light. According to the convention of 80% total power containment [23

23. F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, “Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser subject to optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Commun. **221**, 173–180 (2003). [CrossRef]

*ξ*

_{i}to 0.21, as shown in Fig. 6(c), the bandwidth is broadened to 9.88 GHz due to the further increased oscillation frequency. (Note that, from another convention that measures only those spectral segments accounting for 80% of the total power in the chaos power spectrum [24

24. F. Y. Lin, Y. K. Chao, and T. C. Wu, “Effective bandwidths of broadband chaotic signals,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. **48**, 1010–1014 (2011). [CrossRef]

*ξ*

_{i}that can apply on the SL to increase the bandwidths of the chaos states generated can be determined from the mapping shown in Fig. 4. As can be seen, for certain

*ξ*

_{fb}, adding an OI light too strong drives the SL from the chaos states into other narrowband oscillation states such as the P1, P2, or QP. In general, for the SL to remain in the CO state, the

*ξ*

_{fb}has to be stronger if a stronger

*ξ*

_{i}is intended to apply.

*LS′*region shown in Fig. 4, where the SL is stabilized and injection-locked by the OI light. Figure 6(d) shows the power spectrum of the SL when the

*ξ*

_{i}is increased to 0.85 (an order greater than the

*ξ*

_{fb}), where the instability (chaos) induced by the OF shown in Figs. 6(a)–6(c) is completely suppressed. From the boundary between the

*SS*and the

*LS′*scenarios, the minimum

*ξ*

_{i}needed for different

*ξ*

_{fb}to suppress the unwanted dynamics can also be determined.

*ξ*

_{fb}= 0 (black curve), 0.08 (red curve), and 0.18 (blue curve), respectively. As can be seen, with a stronger feedback, stronger injection is needed for the SL to enter into the locking region (scenario

*LS′*) and suppress the instability induced by the OF. The stars marked at the apexes of each locking regions indicate the optimal operation points where minimum

*ξ*

_{i}are required to stabilize the SL. As can be seen, when increasing the

*ξ*

_{fb}, the optimal detuning frequency

*f*

_{opt}to have the minimum

*ξ*

_{i}shifts toward the negative detuning. We found that the shift in

*f*

_{opt}is directly corresponding to the frequency shift Δ

*f*of the

*ν*

_{SL}caused by the OF previously shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

*f*

_{opt}(solid black curve labeled on the left) and the frequency shift Δ

*f*of the

*ν*

_{SL}(dashed gray curve labeled on the right) for different

*ξ*

_{fb}. As can be seen, they match well with each other and decrease from −7.5 GHz to −16.54 GHz as the

*ξ*

_{fb}increases from 0 to 0.18. As the results, the optimal detuning frequency

*f*

_{opt}to have the minimum

*ξ*

_{i}is when the OI light has exactly the same frequency as the frequency-pushed

*ν*

_{SL}, where the suppression due to the gain depletion is most effective. Figure 8(b) shows the threshold (minimum) injection strength

*ξ*

_{i,th}needed to stabilize the laser under different

*ξ*

_{fb}. The black curve is obtained when the detuning frequency

*f*is optimized under different

*ξ*

_{fb}according to the

*f*

_{opt}shown in Fig. 8(a). The red and blue curves are obtained with fixed

*f*at −7.5 GHz and 5.6 GHz, respectively. As can be seen, when the detuning frequency

*f*of the OI light is optimized to

*f*

_{opt}, the

*ξ*

_{i,th}is substantially lower compared to the cases when the detuning frequencies are fixed at certain values. As the result, by simply measuring the Δ

*f*under different

*ξ*

_{fb}as that is shown in Fig. 3, the optimal detuning frequency

*f*

_{opt}of the OI light to effectively stabilize the laser under different

*ξ*

_{fb}can be determined. Hence, finding the boundaries of the locking regions under different

*ξ*

_{fb}as shown in Fig. 7 is therefore no longer necessary.

## 4. Conclusions

*ξ*

_{i}and the

*ξ*

_{fb}can be determined and controlled. Since the main oscillation frequency of the feedback light shifts together with the frequency-pushed

*ν*

_{SL}, the frequency-pushing effect induced by the OF light is found to be more significant than that by the OI light. As the result, when affecting by both perturbations simultaneously, the SL is found to be more sensitive to the influences from the OF than the OI light. To study the competition between the OI and the OF, the mapping of the dynamical scenarios and states are plotted and overlapped for different

*ξ*

_{i}and

*ξ*

_{fb}. Dynamical scenarios of

*PP*,

*PS*,

*SP*,

*SS*, and

*LS′*and dynamical states of P1, P2, QP, CO, and L are observed. The mapping is shown to be useful in determining the appropriate operation conditions in applications such as the linewidth narrowing and broadband chaos generation where the SL employing both the OI and the OF at the same time. Moreover, we also show that without really plotting the locking regions, the optimal detuning frequency

*f*

_{opt}of the OI light to effectively stabilize the laser can be determined by simply measuring the Δ

*f*under different

*ξ*

_{fb}.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt. |

2. | S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. |

3. | J. Ohtsubo, “Feedback induced instability and chaos in semiconductor lasers and their applications,” Opt. Rev. |

4. | T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäβer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: Bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E |

5. | S. C. Chen, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express |

6. | Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Ultra broadband microwave frequency combs generated by an optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express |

7. | Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. |

8. | J. S. Lawrence and D. M. Kane, “Injection locking suppression of coherence collapse in a diode laser with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun. |

9. | T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. |

11. | Y. Takiguchi, K. Ohyagi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Bandwidth-enhanced chaos synchronization in strongly injection-locked semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H. K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. C. Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating > 100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths,” Opt. Express |

13. | J. Ohtsubo, “Chaos synchronization and chaotic signal masking in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. |

14. | R. Vicente, J. Daudén, P. Colet, and R. Toral, “Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. |

15. | R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regions of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback laser,” J. Light-wave Technol. |

16. | S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

17. | J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, “Tunable photonics microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics with optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett. |

18. | T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor oscillators,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

19. | A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and H. C. He, “Enhancing the bandwidth of the optical chaotic signal generated by a semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. |

20. | A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and J. F. Wang, “Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection,” Opt. Lett. |

21. | S. C. Chan, “Analysis of an optically injected semiconductor laser for microwave generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

22. | Y. H. Liao, J. M. Liu, and F. Y. Lin, “Dynamical characteristics of a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

23. | F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, “Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser subject to optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Commun. |

24. | F. Y. Lin, Y. K. Chao, and T. C. Wu, “Effective bandwidths of broadband chaotic signals,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. |

**OCIS Codes**

(140.3520) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, injection-locked

(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

(190.3100) Nonlinear optics : Instabilities and chaos

**ToC Category:**

Lasers and Laser Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: August 2, 2013

Revised Manuscript: September 16, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: September 18, 2013

Published: September 26, 2013

**Citation**

Yi-Huan Liao and Fan-Yi Lin, "Dynamical characteristics and their applications of semiconductor lasers subject to both optical injection and optical feedback," Opt. Express **21**, 23568-23578 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-20-23568

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### References

- T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclass. Opt.9, 765–784 (1997). [CrossRef]
- S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, T. B. Simpson, and D. Lenstra, “The dynamical complexity of optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.416, 1–128 (2005). [CrossRef]
- J. Ohtsubo, “Feedback induced instability and chaos in semiconductor lasers and their applications,” Opt. Rev.6, 1–15 (1999). [CrossRef]
- T. Heil, I. Fischer, W. Elsäβer, B. Krauskopf, K. Green, and A. Gavrielides, “Delay dynamics of semiconductor lasers with short external cavities: Bifurcation scenarios and mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. E67, 066214 (2003). [CrossRef]
- S. C. Chen, S. K. Hwang, and J. M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express15, 14921–14935 (2007). [CrossRef]
- Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Ultra broadband microwave frequency combs generated by an optical pulse-injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express17, 18596–18605 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Y. S. Juan and F. Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics J.3, 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. S. Lawrence and D. M. Kane, “Injection locking suppression of coherence collapse in a diode laser with optical feedback,” Opt. Commun.167, 273–282 (1999). [CrossRef]
- T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9, 1322–1324 (1997). [CrossRef]
- A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.39, 1196–1204 (2003). [CrossRef]
- Y. Takiguchi, K. Ohyagi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Bandwidth-enhanced chaos synchronization in strongly injection-locked semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.28, 319–321 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H. K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. C. Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating > 100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths,” Opt. Express16, 6609–6618 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Ohtsubo, “Chaos synchronization and chaotic signal masking in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.38, 1141–1154 (2002). [CrossRef]
- R. Vicente, J. Daudén, P. Colet, and R. Toral, “Analysis and characterization of the hyperchaos generated by a semiconductor laser subject to a delayed feedback loop,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.41, 541–548 (2005). [CrossRef]
- R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regions of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback laser,” J. Light-wave Technol.LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986). [CrossRef]
- S. C. Chan and J. M. Liu, “Tunable narrow-linewidth photonic microwave generation using semiconductor laser dynamics,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10, 1025–1032 (2004). [CrossRef]
- J. P. Zhuang and S. C. Chan, “Tunable photonics microwave generation using optically injected semiconductor laser dynamics with optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett.38, 344–346 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, M. AlMulla, N. G. Usechak, and V. Kovanis, “Linewidth sharpening via polarization-rotated feedback in optically injected semiconductor oscillators,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19, 1500807 (2013). [CrossRef]
- A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and H. C. He, “Enhancing the bandwidth of the optical chaotic signal generated by a semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett.20, 1633–1635 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. B. Wang, Y. C. Wang, and J. F. Wang, “Route to broadband chaos in a chaotic laser diode subject to optical injection,” Opt. Lett.34, 1144–1146 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. C. Chan, “Analysis of an optically injected semiconductor laser for microwave generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46, 421–428 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Y. H. Liao, J. M. Liu, and F. Y. Lin, “Dynamical characteristics of a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. of Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19, 1500606 (2013). [CrossRef]
- F. Y. Lin and J. M. Liu, “Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser subject to optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Commun.221, 173–180 (2003). [CrossRef]
- F. Y. Lin, Y. K. Chao, and T. C. Wu, “Effective bandwidths of broadband chaotic signals,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron.48, 1010–1014 (2011). [CrossRef]

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