OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 20 — Oct. 7, 2013
  • pp: 23844–23850
« Show journal navigation

2-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser intracavity-pumped by a semiconductor disk laser

Esa J. Saarinen, Elena Vasileva, Oleg Antipov, Jussi-Pekka Penttinen, Miki Tavast, Tomi Leinonen, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 20, pp. 23844-23850 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.023844


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (891 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A proof-of-principle study of a 1.97-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser, intracavity pumped by a 1.2-µm semiconductor disk laser, is presented. The demonstrated concept allows for improved pump absorption and takes advantage of the broad wavelength coverage provided by semiconductor disk laser technology. For thin disk lasers the small thickness of the gain element typically leads to inefficient pump light absorption. This problem is usually solved by using a complex multi-pass pump arrangement. In this study we address this challenge with a new laser concept of an intracavity pumped ceramic thin disk laser. The output power at 1.97 µm was limited to 250 mW due to heat spreader-less mounting scheme of the ceramic gain disk.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Near infrared light sources emitting in the eye-safe region of the spectrum at around 2-µm wavelengths, where absorption by atmospheric constituents such as water vapor and CO2 takes place, are needed in global environmental monitoring, long-range LIDARs, medical diagnostics, laser surgery, materials processing, and many other emerging applications [1

1. G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Co2,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5092–5099 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, U. T. Schwarz, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, “Electro-optically cavity dumped 2 µm semiconductor disk laser emitting 3 ns pulses of 30 W peak power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141121 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Tm-ions can provide emission at wavelengths spanning from 1.8 um to 2.1 um, depending on the host crystal [4

4. P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Tm-doped Lu2O3 crystals are capable of efficient laser action at 2 µm when pumped at 808 nm with commercial multimode diode modules [5

5. P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In comparison to single crystals, ceramic materials possess stronger fracture toughness and their doping levels can be varied more freely [6

6. J. Sanghera, W. Kim, G. Villalobos, B. Shaw, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Sadowski, and I. Aggarwal, “Ceramic laser materials, Past and present,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 693–699 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, ceramics can be manufactured industrially in large volumes into a given shape and size [7

7. A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]

,8

8. J. Lu, J. F. Bisson, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Yb3+:Sc2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1101 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The material properties and the consequent increased life-time and resistance to laser induced damage make ceramics promising gain materials for high-power lasers as well as for short pulse generation [9

9. B. Yamamoto, B. Bhachu, K. Cutter, S. Fochs, S. Letts, C. Parks, M. Rotter, and T. Soules, “The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid-State Laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics, paper WC5 (2008).

,10

10. M. Tokurakawa, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 188 fs mode-locked Yb 3+:Y 2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071101 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Recently, a Tm-doped Lu2O3 ceramic laser was demonstrated [11

11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. With diode pumping at 808 nm, 26 W of output power and 33% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was obtained from the ceramic rod in continuous wave (CW) regime at 2066 nm. In a subsequent study, a similar rod laser was mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, confirming the applicability of the Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic medium to sub-picosecond pulse operation [12

12. A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19349–19354 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this study, we present a proof-of-principle demonstration of a Tm-doped Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser. Disk geometry of the gain element has several advantages over rod geometry, including power scaling without compromising beam quality and the possibility to generate ultrashort pulses at high average power levels [13

13. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

,14

14. C. R. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The advantages of the disk geometry originate from the increased ratio of cooling surface to pumped volume as compared to rod design and the decreased interaction length of the light passing through the gain element. The first diode-pumped Tm:Lu2O3 single crystal disk laser was reported by M. Schellhorn et al. [15

15. M. Schellhorn, P. Koopmann, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode-pumped Tm:Lu2O3 thin disk laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2011, paper ATuB14 (2011).

]. The Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser is intra-cavity pumped with a semiconductor disk laser (SDL). SDLs can cover a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to mid-infrared region and intrinsically operate with open high-Q cavities into which intracavity optical elements can easily be integrated for efficient frequency conversion or precise control of the laser output [16

16. O. Okhotnikov, Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

20

20. E. J. Saarinen, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Semiconductor Disk Laser with Frequency-Shifted Feedback,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 567–569 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The inefficient pump absorption typical for a solid-state gain disk with small thickness can be overcome using multiple pass pump recycling through the disk [21

21. C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW CW Thin Disc Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 650–657 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. In such a pumping scheme, pump optics repeatedly re-image the pump spot on the gain disk. The resulting multiple pump beam passes through the gain medium lead to enhanced pump light absorption. The intricate multipass pump focusing system can be replaced by an intracavity pumping scheme [22

22. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 209- µm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(10), 736–738 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The main advantage of the intracavity pumping scheme is the natural multiple-pass propagation of the pump laser beam through the gain medium. Therefore, in contrast with external pumping, a very thin gain disk with low doping level can be used. The demonstrated pumping concept can be applied to achieve high pump intensities for gain materials with low single-pass absorption or absorption lines inaccessible with traditional diode pump lasers. The presented Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser operated without extensive thermal management, which limited the output power at 2 µm to 250 mW.

2. Ceramic gain disk, SDL and experimental setup

The Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk, manufactured by Konoshima Chemical Co., had 2-at.% Tm3+ concentration, a diameter of 3 mm and thickness of 260 µm. The disk was mounted between two water-cooled copper plates to prevent thermal problems. Indium foil placed between the sample and copper alleviated mechanical stress and ensured reliable contact to the heat sink. The copper plates had apertures with 1.5-mm diameters for the SDL and ceramic laser light. Dielectric antireflection coatings were deposited on both surfaces of the ceramic disk to allow low-loss propagation of the SDL light at a small angle (<15°) to the surface normal of the sample. The targeted reflectivity of the coated sample surface was <0.1% at 1.2 µm and <4% at 2 µm. The temperature of the copper mount was kept at 15 °C during the experiments.

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Transmission of the ceramic Tm:Lu2O3 disk. (b) Energy diagram of Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics showing 800-nm and 1200-nm pumping transitions.
shows transmission of the ceramic disk at 8° angle to the surface normal, measured with a spectrophotometer in the range 1.1 – 1.3 µm. The beam of the white-light source was partially blocked by the aperture in the sample holder, resulting in small transmission values. The vertical axis in Fig. 1(a) has been rescaled with the help of well-known absorption cross section data for Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic that predict nearly complete transmission at 1.1 µm [11

11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. It can be seen that absorption has a local maximum at 1.2 µm, corresponding to the 3H63H5 transition. The cross-section of this transition is about 2 times higher than that of the 3H63H4 transition used for 800 nm pumping [11

11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The transitions corresponding to pumping in the 1200-nm wavelength band and at 800 nm are depicted in Fig. 1(b). With pumping at 1200 nm, the upper laser level 3F4 of the 2-μm laser transition is populated by a non-radiative transition 3H53F4, resulting in a four-level scheme. Contrary to pumping at 800 nm, a cross-relaxation process is not involved for 1.2-µm pumping. Theoretically, when pumped at 800 nm, Tm-doped lasers can achieve an optical-to-optical efficiency close to 80% through a process in which every absorbed pump photon excites two Tm atoms [23

23. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the quantum defect is slightly higher for 1200-nm pumping compared to pumping the upper laser level 3F4 via the cross-relaxation process. However, the optical-to-optical efficiencies demonstrated so far with Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic or crystal lasers have not reached the predicted efficiency for the cross-relaxation process and has been limited to about 40% for diode pumping [5

5. P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. One reason for this might be the high doping level required for an efficient cross-relaxation process, which may deteriorate the crystal quality and result in reduced optical and thermal parameters of the crystal.

The gain element of the semiconductor disk laser was grown in a single step by molecular beam epitaxy. The gain structure consists of ten InGaAs quantum wells strain compensated by GaAsP spacer layers, and a 23-layer pair AlAs/GaAs DBR. The subcavity formed between the sample surface and the bottom DBR, which arises from the Gires-Tournois etalon-like nature of the gain element [16

16. O. Okhotnikov, Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

], was designed to be antiresonant for the operation wavelength of 1180 nm in order to enhance wavelength tunability of the SDL. The detailed structure of the SDL gain chip has been described elsewhere [24

24. S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, and M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The chip was mounted on a diamond heat spreader by means of flip–chip technology [25

25. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and the diamond was bonded with indium to a water-cooled heat sink kept at 20 °C during experiments.

The experimental setup used in the study is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup. The SDL cavity is sketched in green and the ceramic disk laser cavity in red. HR –high reflective, RoC –radius of curvature, PR –partially reflective.
. The 1.2-µm semiconductor disk laser has no output coupling other than absorption in the Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk. The ceramic disk has its own cavity and produces a laser beam at a wavelength of 1.97 µm. The SDL gain mirror was pumped by 808-nm radiation from a fiber-coupled multimode diode laser module focused onto a spot of about 400 µm in diameter. A V-shaped cavity was built with two spherical high reflective (HR) mirrors for the 1.2-µm SDL. The ceramic disk was placed inside the SDL cavity at a location where the SDL transversal mode diameter was around 340 µm. The disk was tilted 15° from the perpendicular position to allow a linear cavity for the 2-µm light to be set up with two spherical mirrors, one of which was partially reflective (PR) for outcoupling the 2-µm radiation. The diameter of the transversal mode of the 2-µm laser was about 250 µm at the ceramic disk to ensure complete overlap of the mode and the 1.2-µm SDL beam.

3. Experimental results

The small irregularities in the output power of the ceramic disk laser with respect to diode pump power are caused by changes in the SDL spectrum that have an effect on the 1.2-µm light absorption in the ceramic disk material. As can be seen in Fig. 1, absorption of the Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics increases when the wavelength is shifted from the local absorption minimum at 1160 nm to longer wavelengths closer to the absorption peaks at around 1200 nm. An increase in the multimode diode module power results in a redshift of the SDL wavelength and in an increase in the absorption of pump power for the ceramic disk laser. The redshift can be observed also in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Spectrum of the SDL at various diode pump powers. (b) Ceramic disk laser spectrum at output powers of 2 and 250 mW. Beam shapes at maximum output powers measured with a pyrocamera are shown as insets in (a) for the SDL and in (b) for the ceramic disk laser.
showing the optical spectrum of the SDL at various power levels. The changes in absorption of the SDL light in the ceramic disk in turn affect the SDL intracavity power. The decrease in the SDL intracavity power at high pump powers, seen in Fig. 3 (right vertical axis), doesn’t cause a corresponding drop in the output power of the ceramic disk laser because of the increase in absorption of the SDL light. We measured single pass absorption of about 1.5% at 1160 nm for the ceramic disk, which is in good agreement with the absorption cross section data measured for Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics [11

11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Taking into account that light travels in a cavity in two directions we can estimate that the maximum absorbed pump intensity at 1160 nm was about 26 W/mm2. The optical spectrum of the ceramic disk laser measured close to lasing threshold and at the maximum output power is presented in Fig. 4(b). The discrete lines in the spectrum are due to the etalon effect caused by reflections at the ceramic/air interfaces. The inset shows the output beam profile measured with a pyrocamera at the maximum output power of the ceramic disk laser.

4. Discussion

It should be noted that output power of a few hundred milliwatts was obtained even without extensive thermal management applied. The output power from the ceramic disk could be scaled up by reducing the heat load imposed on the sample, for example by attaching a heat spreader onto the disk. The presented conceptual test experiments for intracavity pumping the ceramic disk with the 1.2-µm SDL were carried out without transparent diamond heat spreaders to study the influence of quantum defect without disturbances that may arise from etalon effects associated with multiple reflections from the diamond/sample interfaces and surfaces of the diamond. Mounting the disk in direct contact to heat spreaders on one or both sides will be tested in future experiments to reduce thermal lensing and the risk of thermally induced damage of the ceramic disk.

The ceramic gain material used in the experiments was originally designed to be operated in bulk/rod form rather than in disk configuration. Therefore, further power scaling can be expected by optimizing the doping level, thickness and material quality of the ceramic disk. For example, lower concentration of Tm ions would decrease absorption losses for the SDL cavity and allow tuning the intracavity pumping wavelength from 1160 nm to 1200 nm. Lower doping level may decrease defect density and improve optical quality of the material, which could contribute to lower losses and reduced heating of the disk and result in higher output powers. The increased absorption at 1200 nm compared to that at 1160 nm would permit to decrease the thickness of the ceramic disk while maintaining adequate single pass absorption, thereby facilitating more efficient heat removal from the ceramic gain element. Considerable changes in the doping level can be implemented when the ceramic is pumped at 1.2 µm instead of 800 nm where high ion concentration is required for efficient cross-relaxation process [4

4. P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

].

5. Conclusion

A 1.97-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser intracavity pumped by a semiconductor disk laser was demonstrated. The described intracavity pumping scheme allows elevate pump absorption in the thin gain disk, eliminates the need for a complex multi-pass system usually applied for pumping thin disks and takes advantage of the broad wavelength coverage provided by semiconductor disk laser technology. The Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser produces 250 mW of CW output power limited by thermal roll-over in the heat spreader-less assembly. Using disk geometry considerable power scaling can be expected with proper thermal management and optimized doping level of the ceramic gain medium.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by the projects ERA.Net Rus INTENT (number 265020) and T-REPTILE (number 269121) funded by the Academy of Finland. The authors are grateful to Juuso Heikkinen and Antti Rantamäki for depositing AR coatings on the ceramic disk.

References and links

1.

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Co2,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5092–5099 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. T. Olesberg, “Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring in the 2.0-2.5 μm wavelength range,” in IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society Meeting 20012, 529 (2001).

3.

S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, U. T. Schwarz, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, “Electro-optically cavity dumped 2 µm semiconductor disk laser emitting 3 ns pulses of 30 W peak power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141121 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 102(1), 19–24 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 948–950 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Sanghera, W. Kim, G. Villalobos, B. Shaw, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Sadowski, and I. Aggarwal, “Ceramic laser materials, Past and present,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 693–699 (2013). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Lu, J. F. Bisson, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Yb3+:Sc2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1101 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Yamamoto, B. Bhachu, K. Cutter, S. Fochs, S. Letts, C. Parks, M. Rotter, and T. Soules, “The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid-State Laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics, paper WC5 (2008).

10.

M. Tokurakawa, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 188 fs mode-locked Yb 3+:Y 2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071101 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19349–19354 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

C. R. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Schellhorn, P. Koopmann, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode-pumped Tm:Lu2O3 thin disk laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2011, paper ATuB14 (2011).

16.

O. Okhotnikov, Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).

17.

D. J. Stothard, J. M. Hopkins, D. Burns, and M. H. Dunn, “Stable, continuous-wave, intracavity, optical parametric oscillator pumped by a semiconductor disk laser (VECSEL),” Opt. Express 17(13), 10648–10658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1935–1937 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “3 W of 650 nm red emission by frequency doubling of wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21645–21650 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

E. J. Saarinen, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Semiconductor Disk Laser with Frequency-Shifted Feedback,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 567–569 (2011). [CrossRef]

21.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW CW Thin Disc Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(4), 650–657 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 209- µm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(10), 736–738 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, and M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett. 49(1), 59–60 (2013). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.5560) Lasers and laser optics : Pumping
(140.5680) Lasers and laser optics : Rare earth and transition metal solid-state lasers
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(140.7270) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 5, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 10, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 23, 2013
Published: September 30, 2013

Citation
Esa J. Saarinen, Elena Vasileva, Oleg Antipov, Jussi-Pekka Penttinen, Miki Tavast, Tomi Leinonen, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov, "2-µm Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic disk laser intracavity-pumped by a semiconductor disk laser," Opt. Express 21, 23844-23850 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-20-23844


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Co2,” Appl. Opt.43(26), 5092–5099 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. T. Olesberg, “Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring in the 2.0-2.5 μm wavelength range,” in IEEE Lasers and Electro-optics Society Meeting 20012, 529 (2001).
  3. S. Kaspar, M. Rattunde, T. Topper, U. T. Schwarz, C. Manz, K. Kohler, and J. Wagner, “Electro-optically cavity dumped 2 µm semiconductor disk laser emitting 3 ns pulses of 30 W peak power,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141121 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. P. Koopmann, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Crystal growth, spectroscopy, and highly efficient laser operation of thulium-doped Lu2O3 around 2 µm,” Appl. Phys. B102(1), 19–24 (2011). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Koopmann, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Efficient diode-pumped laser operation of Tm:Lu2O3 around 2 μm,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 948–950 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Sanghera, W. Kim, G. Villalobos, B. Shaw, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Sadowski, and I. Aggarwal, “Ceramic laser materials, Past and present,” Opt. Mater.35(4), 693–699 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Lu, J. F. Bisson, K. Takaichi, T. Uematsu, A. Shirakawa, M. Musha, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Yb3+:Sc2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1101 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Yamamoto, B. Bhachu, K. Cutter, S. Fochs, S. Letts, C. Parks, M. Rotter, and T. Soules, “The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid-State Laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics, paper WC5 (2008).
  10. M. Tokurakawa, K. Takaichi, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Diode-pumped 188 fs mode-locked Yb 3+:Y 2O3 ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. O. L. Antipov, A. A. Novikov, N. G. Zakharov, and A. P. Zinoviev, “Optical properties and efficient laser oscillation at 2066 nm of novel Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express2(2), 183–189 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express20(17), 19349–19354 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett.35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Schellhorn, P. Koopmann, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode-pumped Tm:Lu2O3 thin disk laser,” in OSA Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2011, paper ATuB14 (2011).
  16. O. Okhotnikov, Semiconductor Disk Lasers: Physics and Technology (Wiley-VCH, 2010).
  17. D. J. Stothard, J. M. Hopkins, D. Burns, and M. H. Dunn, “Stable, continuous-wave, intracavity, optical parametric oscillator pumped by a semiconductor disk laser (VECSEL),” Opt. Express17(13), 10648–10658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Rautiainen, I. Krestnikov, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2.5 W orange power by frequency conversion from a dual-gain quantum-dot disk laser,” Opt. Lett.35(12), 1935–1937 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “3 W of 650 nm red emission by frequency doubling of wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express18(21), 21645–21650 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. J. Saarinen, J. Nikkinen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Semiconductor Disk Laser with Frequency-Shifted Feedback,” Photon. Technol. Lett.23(9), 567–569 (2011). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW CW Thin Disc Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(4), 650–657 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Intracavity-pumped 209- µm Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett.17(10), 736–738 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.24(6), 924–933 (1988). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Ranta, M. Tavast, T. Leinonen, N. Van Lieu, G. Fetzer, and M. Guina, “1180 nm VECSEL with output power beyond 20 W,” Electron. Lett.49(1), 59–60 (2013). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited