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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 20 — Oct. 7, 2013
  • pp: 24049–24059
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Absorption mechanism of the second pulse in double-pulse femtosecond laser glass microwelding

Sizhu Wu, Dong Wu, Jian Xu, Haiyu Wang, Testuya Makimura, Koji Sugioka, and Katsumi Midorikawa  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 20, pp. 24049-24059 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.024049


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Abstract

The absorption mechanism of the second pulse is experimentally and theoretically investigated for high-efficiency microwelding of photosensitive glass by double-pulse irradiation using a femtosecond laser. The transient absorption change during the second pulse irradiation for various energies induced by the first pulse is measured at different delay times. The resulting effects depend on whether the delay time is 0–30 ps (time domain I) or 30– several ns (domain II). By solving rate equations for the proposed electronic processes, the excitation and relaxation times of free electrons in time domain I are estimated to be 0.98 and 20.4 ps, respectively, whereas the relaxation times from the conduction band to a localized state and from the localized state to the valence band in domain II are 104.2 and 714.3 ps, respectively. Single-photon absorption of the second pulse by free electrons dominates in domain I, resulting in high bonding strength. In time domain II, about 46% of the second pulse is absorbed by a single photon due to the localized state, which is responsible for higher bonding strength compared with that prepared by single-pulse irradiation.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Glass microwelding induced by an ultrafast laser has been drawing attention for applications such as optics, microelectromechanical systems, precision machinery, healthcare, and small satellites. Many groups have successfully demonstrated microwelding of various glass including borosilicate [1

1. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021106 (2006). [CrossRef]

9

9. K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, V. Bui, S. Scharfenberg, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Strength of joining seam in glass welded by ultra-fast lasers depending on focus height,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng 7(1), 68–72 (2012). [CrossRef]

], fused silica [10

10. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(22), L687–L689 (2005). [CrossRef]

14

14. D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51(12), 2098–2106 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], photosensitive glass [15

15. I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, M. Schmidt, and H. Helvajian, “Characteristics of laser absorption and welding in FOTURAN glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22961–22973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. S. Wu, D. Wu, J. Xu, Y. Hanada, R. Suganuma, H. Wang, T. Makimura, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Characterization and mechanism of glass microwelding by double-pulse ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28893–28905 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and others [18

18. Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008). [CrossRef]

21

21. I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7(3), 279–283 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In order to enhance the efficiency of glass microwelding, a new strategy [16

16. K. Sugioka, M. Iida, H. Takai, and K. Micorikawa, “Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by ultrafast laser irradiation using a double-pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2734–2736 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has been proposed using double-pulse irradiation by an ultrafast laser beam. This technique increases the bonding strength of photosensitive glass welding by 22% relative to that for conventional single-pulse irradiation. The physical mechanism of glass microwelding by double-pulse irradiation has been systematically investigated by measuring the dependence of the size of the heat-affected zone and the bonding strength on the delay time between the two pulses and analyzing the transient absorption induced by ultrafast laser pulses using a pump-probe technique [17

17. S. Wu, D. Wu, J. Xu, Y. Hanada, R. Suganuma, H. Wang, T. Makimura, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Characterization and mechanism of glass microwelding by double-pulse ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28893–28905 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. An increase in both the heat-affected zone and the bonding strength was found to be associated with an increase in the second-pulse absorption induced by the first pulse. The first pulse induces multiphoton or tunneling ionization, while the second pulse induces electron heating or avalanche ionization with a delay of up to 30 ps. Alternatively, the second pulse is absorbed by the localized state with a delay of as much as several nanoseconds. However, there remain issues to be clarified in order to optimize the process, such as the excitation and relaxation times of the excited electrons and how many photons are necessary for the second pulse absorption.

2. Experimental setup for evaluation of the second-pulse absorption

3. Estimate of the electronic excitation and relaxation times

It is considered that deposition of as much laser energy as possible into the glass results in efficient heating to produce a large molten zone for high-quality welding. Therefore, exploration of the electronic excitation and relaxation times is important for efficient transfer of the energy of the second pulse to the glass.

Next, we simulate the relaxation times in the time domain II where the bonding strength is still higher than that for the conventional single-pulse irradiation sample. The absorption of the second pulse in this time domain arises from electrons trapped at a localized state such as a defect or exciton. Therefore, the three-level model of Fig. 3(b) is adopted in this domain. For simplicity, set Nc(0)=N,N(0)=0,andNv(0)=0 because the electronic excitation takes place much earlier than the start of this time domain. The rate equations then become
dNc(t)dt=rcNc(t),dN(t)dt=+rcNc(t)rvN(t),anddNv(t)dt=+rvN(t)
(2)
where N(t) is the electron density at time t in the localized state, γc is the relaxation rate from the conduction band to the localized state, and γv is the relaxation rate from the localized state to the valence band. By solving Eq. (2), the electron density in the localized state is found to be

N(t)=N1rv/rc[exp(rvt)exp(rct)]
(3)

The variation of the OD in this time domain is proportional to N(t) because the absorption of the second pulse is due to electrons trapped at the localized state. Therefore, the relaxation time from the conduction band to the localized state and from the localized state to the valence band can be obtained by fitting Eq. (3) to Fig. 2, resulting in 104.2 and 714.3 ps, respectively. This 104.2 ps relaxation time from the conduction band to the localized state is much longer than the 20.4 ps from the conduction band to the valence band calculated above. However, the relaxation rate of free electrons out of the conduction band is expected to be constant. Thus, there may be another intermediate state that has a relaxation time of a few tens of picoseconds. The electrons could first relax from the conduction band to the intermediate state with a time of ~20 ps, and then further decay to the localized state with a relaxation time of ~80 ps. This idea would explain the small peak observed near 100 ps in Fig. 2.

The relaxation time from the localized state to the valence band is calculated to be 714.3 ps. One of the possible origins for the localized state may therefore be a self-trapped exciton, because the excitons have a typical lifetime of about 1 ns in silica glass at room temperature [26

26. K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heiderberg, 1993).

]. Another possibility is the lattice defect.

4. Determination of the number of photons for the second pulse absorption

Multiphoton absorption inducing the interband excitation is dominant for conventional single-pulse irradiation. However, double-pulse irradiation can more efficiently deposit the laser energy in the glass, resulting in higher bonding strength. To demonstrate the effect, the number of photons absorbed during the second pulse irradiation is estimated in each time domain. For this estimation, the dependence of the transient absorption during the second pulse irradiation on the delay time for different second pulse powers was measured as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dependence of the transient absorption of the second pulse on the delay time for different second pulse powers ranging from 5 to 155 mW.
.

4.1 The number of photons absorbed in time domain I

The photosensitive glass has an elaborate electronic excitation process due to its complex composition. The electrons in the valence band are first excited to an intermediate state and then they are further excited to the conduction band to generate free electrons [24

24. T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063517 (2005). [CrossRef]

], resulting in the two-step excitation process depicted in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption channels for the second pulse in time domain I. One channel is interband excitation via the defect level, and the other channel is absorption by free electrons.
. When the second pulse is incident at a delay time of between 1 and 20 ps (which are the excitation and relaxation times of free electrons calculated above), there are two possible absorption channels for the second pulse. One possibility is interband excitation via a defect level, and the other channel is absorption by free electrons. For the first step of the interband process [24

24. T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063517 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 27

27. B. Fisette and M. Meunier, “Three-dimensional microfabrication inside photosensitive glasses by femtosecond,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 1(1), 7–11 (2006). [CrossRef]

], an energy larger than 3.3 (3.9) eV is necessary, corresponding to 3 (4) photons of the femtosecond laser. For the second step, between 3.2 and 4.8 eV is needed, corresponding to between 3 and 5 photons. Meanwhile, free-electron absorption of a single photon occurs. Therefore, single-, three-, four- and five-photon absorption processes are possible for the second pulse in time domain I.

Based on these considerations, absorption of the second pulse is given by [28

28. J. Kim, H. Berberoglu, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of microstructures in photoetchable glass ceramics using excimer and femtosecond lasers,” J. Micro. Nanolith. 3(3), 478–485 (2004). [CrossRef]

]
dIdx=α1Iα3I3α4I4α5I5
(4)
where I is the laser intensity in W/cm2 at x, αn is the nonlinear absorption coefficient for n-photon absorption, and x is the distance from the surface in the substrate. Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Dependence of the absorbed power density of the second laser pulse on the incident laser power at a delay time of 15 ps obtained by experimental measurement (black line) and by data fitting (red line). (b) Laser power density absorbed by each absorption process for different second pulse powers.
plots the dependence of the absorbed power density of the second pulse on the incident laser power at a delay time of 15 ps where the largest bonding strength occurs. The black curve is derived from Fig. 4, whereas the red line is computed by fitting the data to Eq. (4). For the fitting, dI/dx was calculated as (IT – I0)/DOF where I0, IT are the incident and the transmitted laser intensities and DOF (Depth of Focus) = λ/NA2, and I was set at the laser intensity around the center of focal volume (I = (I0 + IT)/2). The fit is excellent and the absorption coefficients for single-, three-, four-, and five-photon absorption are calculated to be 9.96 × 102 cm–1, 3.19 × 10−9 cm3 W–2, 2.88 × 10−16 cm5 W–3, and 1.29 × 10−22 cm7 W–4, respectively.

Using these absorption coefficients, Fig. 6(b) graphs the laser power density absorbed in each process as a function of the incident power of the second pulse. This result indicates that single- and three-photon absorption are much more likely than four- or five-photon absorption. Thus, one concludes that interband excitation takes place by three-photon absorption in both steps, whereas free-electron absorption only by single photons. In the current case, the first pulse energy is only used for free electron generation since the first pulse cannot interact with free electrons due to the significantly longer excitation time of 0.98 ps (see Sec. 3) than the pulse width of 360 fs. In the meanwhile, once the free electrons are generated by the first pulse, the second pulse is more probably absorbed by the free electrons than interband excitation through the intermediate state due to single photon absorption. In fact, about 55% of the second laser energy is absorbed by the free electrons even at the largest power of 155 mW used for glass welding. This result explains why the highest bonding strength is obtained at a delay time of around 15 ps.

4.2 The number of photons absorbed in time domain II

Between 30 ps and a couple of ns, absorption of the second pulse by electrons trapped at the localized state continues to result in higher bonding strength compared with that prepared by conventional single-pulse irradiation [17

17. S. Wu, D. Wu, J. Xu, Y. Hanada, R. Suganuma, H. Wang, T. Makimura, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Characterization and mechanism of glass microwelding by double-pulse ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28893–28905 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this time domain, the second pulse can be absorbed both by the interband excitation and by the electrons trapped at the localized state, as shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Absorption channels for the second pulse in time domain II. The second pulse can be absorbed by the interband excitation and by the electrons trapped at the localized state.
. The interband excitation is induced by the three-photon absorption discussed in Sec. 4.1. To achieve a higher bonding strength, the localized state absorption needs to be more efficiently induced than the interband excitation. Therefore, the number of photons required for the localized state absorption should be smaller than 3. Based on this consideration, the data are fit to the following four combinations at a delay time of 100 ps corresponding to the small peak in Fig. 2,

1,2,3photonabsorption: dIdx=α1Iα2I2α3I3
(5)
1,3photonabsorption:      dIdx=α1Iα3I3
(6)
2,3photonabsorption:  dIdx=α2I2α3I3,and
(7)
3photonabsorption:          dIdx=α3I3.
(8)

The results are plotted in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dependence of the absorbed power intensity of the second pulse on the incident laser power. Black lines: experimental results; red lines: data fitting using (a) Eq. (5) for single-, two-, and three-photon absorption, (b) Eq. (6) for single- and three-photon absorption, (c) Eq. (7) for two- and three-photon absorption, and (d) Eq. (8) for only three-photon absorption.
as the red lines. The combination of 1- and 3-photon absorption in Fig. 8(b) gives the best fit to the experimental results from Fig. 4 graphed by the black line. These results indicate that localized state absorption occurs via a single photon, since the interband excitation is induced by three photons. Consequently, the localized state is more efficiently excited than are free electrons by three-photon absorption. This explains why a higher bonding strength is observed in time domain II than for conventional single-pulse irradiation.

The absorption coefficients calculated using Eq. (6) are 8.29 × 102 cm–1 for single-photon absorption and 3.37 × 10−9 cm3 W–2 for three-photon absorption. Figure 9
Fig. 9 Laser power density absorbed by single- and three-photon processes for different second pulse powers estimated using the calculated absorption coefficients at a delay time of 100 ps.
plots the laser power density absorbed by single and three photons for different second pulse powers using the calculated absorption coefficients at a delay time of 100 ps. Even at the largest power of 155 mW, as used for glass welding, about 46% of the energy of the second pulse is absorbed by the localized state to form the excited-localized state. There are three channels for relaxation of the excited-localized state, which are nonradiative transitions to its grand state and the valence band and a radiative transition to its grand states. The former two processes efficiently transform the absorbed laser energy into heat, while the latter one is nonthermal process. Since the radiative process usually occurs much later than the nonradiative processes, the nonradiative process is much more efficiently induced [26

26. K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heiderberg, 1993).

], resulting in more efficient heat generation which is responsible for a higher bonding strength than for single-pulse irradiation.

5. Conclusion

The physical mechanism of photosensitive glass microwelding by femtosecond double-pulse irradiation was experimentally and theoretically investigated by measuring the transient absorption of the second pulse induced by the first pulse. The second-pulse absorption arises from electronic excitation and relaxation processes that depend on the delay time in two different domains. In time domain I, ranging from 0 to 30 ps, the excitation and relaxation times of the free electrons were estimated to be 0.98 and 20.4 ps, respectively, whereas in time domain II (from 30 ps to several ns), the relaxation time from the conduction band to the localized state and from the localized state to the valence band were calculated to be 104.2 and 714.3 ps, respectively. Furthermore, we found that single-photon absorption of the second pulse by free electrons dominates in time domain I, which results in the highest possible bonding strength. Meanwhile in time domain II, the second pulse is absorbed by the localized state by a single photon, and approximately 46% of its energy is transferred to the localized state at the power of 155 mW that is used for glass welding. This localized state absorption results in a higher bonding strength than for conventional single-pulse irradiation. The single-photon absorption of the 1045-nm beam by the localized state occurs during time domain II relative to the arrival of the first pulse. These results suggest a new method of combining femtosecond irradiation with a nanosecond laser for efficient microwelding of glass.

References and links

1.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021106 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 87(1), 85–89 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 93(1), 171–175 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K. S. Lim, I. B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(1), 147–152 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10714–10727 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity and absorption region in fusion welding of glass using ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Procedia 12, 378–386 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 1695–1709 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, V. Bui, S. Scharfenberg, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Strength of joining seam in glass welded by ultra-fast lasers depending on focus height,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng 7(1), 68–72 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(22), L687–L689 (2005). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6971–6980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 103(2), 257–261 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

D. Helie, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallee, “Reinforcing a direct bond between optical materials by filamentation based femtosecond laser welding,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7(3), 284–292 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Hélie, M. Bégin, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallée, “Reinforced direct bonding of optical materials by femtosecond laser welding,” Appl. Opt. 51(12), 2098–2106 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, Y. Okamoto, M. Schmidt, and H. Helvajian, “Characteristics of laser absorption and welding in FOTURAN glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22961–22973 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

K. Sugioka, M. Iida, H. Takai, and K. Micorikawa, “Efficient microwelding of glass substrates by ultrafast laser irradiation using a double-pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2734–2736 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Wu, D. Wu, J. Xu, Y. Hanada, R. Suganuma, H. Wang, T. Makimura, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Characterization and mechanism of glass microwelding by double-pulse ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28893–28905 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y. Ozeki, T. Inoue, T. Tamaki, H. Yamaguchi, S. Onda, W. Watanabe, T. Sano, S. Nishiuchi, A. Hirose, and K. Itoh, “Direct welding between copper and glass substrates with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 082601 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

C. Y. Ho, “Effects of polarizations of a laser on absorption in a paraboloid of revolution-shaped welding or drilling cavity,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(10), 5393–5401 (2004). [CrossRef]

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M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, M. Yamaji, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, and K. Miura, “Three-dimensional temperature distribution and modification mechanism in glass during ultrafast laser irradiation at high repetition rates,” Opt. Express 20(2), 934–940 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

I. Alexeev, K. Cvecek, C. Schmidt, I. Miyamoto, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Characterization of shear strength and bonding energy of laser produced welding seams in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 7(3), 279–283 (2012). [CrossRef]

22.

K. Sugioka, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, K. Toyoda, Y. Ohnuma, and A. Nakamura, “Multiwavelength excitation by vacuum-ultraviolet beams coupled with fourth harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for high-quality ablation of fused quartz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2789–2791 (1995). [CrossRef]

23.

K. Nahen and A. Vogel, “Plasma formation in water by picosecond and nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses-part II: transmission, scattering, and reflection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantu. Electron. 2(4), 861–871 (1996). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Hongo, K. Sugioka, H. Niino, Y. Cheng, M. Masuda, I. Miyamoto, H. Takai, and K. Midorikawa, “Investigation of photoreaction mechanism of photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063517 (2005). [CrossRef]

25.

S. Guizard, P. D’Oliveira, P. Daguzan, P. Martin, P. Meynadier, and G. Petite, “Time-resolved studies of carriers dynamics in wide band gap materials, ” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. Phys. Res. B 116, 43–48 (1996).

26.

K. S. Song and R. T. Williams, Self-Trapped Excitons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heiderberg, 1993).

27.

B. Fisette and M. Meunier, “Three-dimensional microfabrication inside photosensitive glasses by femtosecond,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 1(1), 7–11 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

J. Kim, H. Berberoglu, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of microstructures in photoetchable glass ceramics using excimer and femtosecond lasers,” J. Micro. Nanolith. 3(3), 478–485 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 11, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 10, 2013
Published: October 1, 2013

Citation
Sizhu Wu, Dong Wu, Jian Xu, Haiyu Wang, Testuya Makimura, Koji Sugioka, and Katsumi Midorikawa, "Absorption mechanism of the second pulse in double-pulse femtosecond laser glass microwelding," Opt. Express 21, 24049-24059 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-20-24049


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References

  1. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Space-selective laser joining of dissimilar transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(2), 021106 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Watanabe, S. Onda, T. Tamaki, and K. Itoh, “Direct joining of glass substrates by 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B87(1), 85–89 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Horn, I. Mingareev, A. Werth, M. Kachel, and U. Brenk, “Investigations on ultrafast welding of glass-glass and glass-silicon,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.93(1), 171–175 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Kim, J. Choi, Y. Lee, T. Kim, D. Kim, W. Jang, K. S. Lim, I. B. Sohn, and J. Lee, “Femtosecond laser bonding of glasses and ion migration in the interface,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.101(1), 147–152 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity in internal modification of bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Express19(11), 10714–10727 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Miyamoto, K. Cvecek, and M. Schmidt, “Evaluation of nonlinear absorptivity and absorption region in fusion welding of glass using ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Procedia12, 378–386 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.76(3), 351–354 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. S. S. Mao, F. Quere, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79, 1695–1709 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Cvecek, I. Miyamoto, J. Strauss, V. Bui, S. Scharfenberg, T. Frick, and M. Schmidt, “Strength of joining seam in glass welded by ultra-fast lasers depending on focus height,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng7(1), 68–72 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Welding of transparent materials using femtosecond laser pulse,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(22), L687–L689 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, “Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm,” Opt. Express14(15), 6971–6980 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Richter, S. Doring, A. Tunnermann, and S. Nolte, “Bonding of glass with femtosecond laser pulses at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.103(2), 257–261 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. D. Helie, F. Lacroix, and R. Vallee, “Reinforcing a direct bond between optical materials by filamentation based femtosecond laser welding,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(3), 284–292 (2012). [CrossRef]
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