## Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal: Observation of a power law for inhomogeneous broadening |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 20, pp. 24332-24343 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.024332

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### Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal (Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5}). We succeeded in observing very small absorption due to the ions appropriately prepared by optical pumping, which corresponds to the single-pass absorption of 4 × 10^{−6}. We also observed a power law for the inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions of ions in the crystal. Compared with a theoretical model, the result of the power law indicates that the dominant origin of the inhomogeneous broadening may be some charged defects.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

3. E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Method of extending hyperfine coherence times in Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Phys. Rev. Lett. **92**, 077601 (2004). [CrossRef]

5. S. E. Beavan, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Demonstration of the reduction of decoherent errors in a solid-state qubit using dynamic decoupling techniques,” Phys. Rev. A **80**, 032308 (2009). [CrossRef]

6. A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **88**, 023602 (2001). [CrossRef]

10. B. Lauritzen, J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **104**, 080502 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a solid,” Phys. Rev. A **74**, 053410 (2006). [CrossRef]

14. A. L. Alexander, R. Lauro, A. Louchet, T. Chanelière, and J. L. Le Gouët, “Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm^{3+}:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B **78**, 144407 (2008). [CrossRef]

12. H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A **75**, 033404 (2007). [CrossRef]

15. J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Demonstration of conditional quantum phase shift between ions in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **93**, 130503 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16. K. Ichimura, “A simple frequency-domain quantum computer with ions in a crystal coupled to a cavity mode,” Opt. Commun. **196**, 119–125 (2001). [CrossRef]

20. D. L. McAuslan, J. J. Longdell, and M. J. Sellars, “Strong-coupling cavity QED using rare-earth-metal-ion dopants in monolithic cavities: what you can do with a weak oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A **80**, 062307 (2009). [CrossRef]

*f*-5

*d*transitions [22

22. R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. **3**, 1029 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. C. Yin, M. Rancic, G. G. de Boo, N. Stavrias, J. C. McCallum, M. J. Sellars, and S. Rogge, “Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon,” Nature **497**, 91–94 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. C. Greiner, B. Boggs, and T.W. Mossberg, “Superradiant emission dynamics of an optically thin material sample in a short-decay-time optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **85**, 3793–3796 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28. D. L. McAuslan, D. Korystov, and J. J. Longdell, “Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A **83**, 063847 (2011). [CrossRef]

^{3+}:Y

_{2}SiO

_{5}(Pr:YSO) [29

29. H. Goto, S. Nakamura, and K. Ichimura, “Experimental determination of intracavity losses of monolithic Fabry-Perot cavities made of Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Opt. Exp. **18**, 23763 (2010). [CrossRef]

^{−6}.

*ν*−

*ν*

_{0}|

^{−2.4}, where

*ν*is the ionic transition frequency and

*ν*

_{0}is the center frequency of the broadening. Compared with a theoretical model [30

30. A. M. Stoneham, “Shapes of inhomogeneously broadened resonance lines in solids,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **41**, 82–108 (1969). [CrossRef]

## 2. Experimental

### 2.1. Sample

^{−3}at. %). Two cavity mirrors are formed on two surfaces of a crystal, which are perpendicular to the

*b*axis of YSO crystal. (The cavity mode is parallel to the

*b*axis.) One of the two mirrors is planar, and the other is spherical with a radius of curvature of about 9 mm. Both the mirrors have a diameter of 3 mm. The cavity length is about 8.9 mm, which is designed to be close to the radius of curvature so that the radius of the mode waist, which is on the planar mirror, becomes small (about 10

*μ*m).

*g*between ions and the cavity mode is theoretically given by [21, 27

_{max}27. K. Ichimura and H. Goto, “Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic optical cavity mode,” Phys. Rev. A **74**, 033818 (2006). [CrossRef]

29. H. Goto, S. Nakamura, and K. Ichimura, “Experimental determination of intracavity losses of monolithic Fabry-Perot cavities made of Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Opt. Exp. **18**, 23763 (2010). [CrossRef]

*μ*is the transition dipole moment,

*n*is the refractive index of the crystal,

*V*is the mode volume,

*ε*

_{0}is the permittivity of vacuum,

*ω*and

_{c}*λ*are the cavity resonance angular frequency and wavelength, respectively,

_{c}*l*is the cavity length, and

_{c}*w*is the mode radius. (In general, the coupling rate depends on the ionic position [21, 27

27. K. Ichimura and H. Goto, “Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic optical cavity mode,” Phys. Rev. A **74**, 033818 (2006). [CrossRef]

*g*corresponds to that for the ion at the position where the cavity field becomes maximum.) Because of the small radius of the mode waist, the coupling rate is fairly high in the sense that

_{max}*g*/(2

_{max}*π*) reaches 3 kHz and exceeds the decay rate,

*γ*, of the ionic excited states [

*γ*/(2

*π*) ≃ 1 kHz [31

31. R. W. Equall, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Homogeneous broadening and hyperfine structure of optical transitions in Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Phys. Rev. B **52**, 3963–3969 (1995). [CrossRef]

^{3+}ions is about 0.15%. The transmittances and intracavity loss of the cavity were determined by the method proposed in [29

29. H. Goto, S. Nakamura, and K. Ichimura, “Experimental determination of intracavity losses of monolithic Fabry-Perot cavities made of Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Opt. Exp. **18**, 23763 (2010). [CrossRef]

### 2.2. Experimental setup

^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Opt. Exp. **18**, 23763 (2010). [CrossRef]

32. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. **B31**, 97–105 (1983). [CrossRef]

*D*

_{2}axis of YSO crystal so that the absorption due to ions becomes maximum [2]. The probe is incident to the sample cavity cooled at about 4.1 K in a cryostat. The probe transmitted through the cavity is combined with the LO (∼ 5 mW) at a half beamsplitter (HBS). The transmission power is measured by balanced heterodyne detection.

^{2}. The polarization of the repump is also set to be parallel to the

*D*

_{2}axis of YSO crystal. The position of the repump is set near the planar mirror because the mode waist is on this mirror and here the coupling rate between ions and the cavity mode becomes maximum. The absorption to be measured is due to the ions at the crossing point of the probe and repump beams.

### 2.3. Method

^{3}times higher (∼ 10 nW) to optically pump out unnecessary ions in the cavity mode. This is done without the repump beam. Thus, the absorption due to only the ions at the crossing point of the probe and repump beams can be measured. Then, the probe power is reset to the small value (∼ 10 pW) and the measurement is started.

^{3+}ions) is measured. (Because of hole burning by the above optical pumping with the strong probe, there are no ions absorbing the probe as long as the repump beam is not incident.) This spectrum

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*) can be expressed as [29

^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Opt. Exp. **18**, 23763 (2010). [CrossRef]

*T*and

_{p}*T*are the transmittances of the planar and spherical mirrors, respectively,

_{s}*L*is the intracavity loss per one round trip not including the absorption due to Pr

_{in}^{3+}ions,

*ν*is the FSR of the cavity, and

_{FSR}*C*

_{0}is a proportionality constant. (The origin of frequency

*ν*has been taken at the peak of the transmission spectrum.)

^{3+}ions) is measured. (The repumping mechanism is presented in detail below.) This spectrum

*S*(

*ν*) can be expressed as where

*A*(

*ν*) is the single-pass absorption loss due to Pr

^{3+}ions and

*C*is another proportionality constant. Here, we have assumed that the absorption loss depends on frequency. An appropriate frequency dependence is achieved by the repumping explained below.

*S*(

*ν*) with

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*), we obtain where the first-order approximation with respect to

*A*(

*ν*) has been done assuming that

*A*(

*ν*) is sufficiently small.

*A*(

*ν*) becomes zero in some frequency region. Using the data in this region, we can estimate

*C/C*

_{0}and eliminate this factor from

*S̄*(

*ν*) dividing

*S̄*(

*ν*) by this estimated value. The renormalized

*S̄*(

*ν*) is denoted by

*ν*| is sufficiently smaller than the half width at half maximum of the cavity [(

*L*+

_{in}*T*+

_{p}*T*)

_{s}*ν*/(4

_{FSR}*π*) ≃ 1.35 MHz], the following further approximation is valid: where

*F*is the finesse of the cavity given by

*F*= 2

*π*/(

*L*+

_{in}*T*+

_{p}*T*).

_{s}*F/π*) compared to the single-pass case.

^{3+}ions in YSO is depicted in Fig. 4 [33

33. M. Lovrić, P. Glasenapp, and D. Suter, “Spin Hamiltonian characterization and refinement for Pr^{3+}:YAlO_{3}and Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Phys. Rev. B **85**, 014429 (2012). [CrossRef]

*−|± 5/2〉*

_{g}*transition to observe the absorption because this transition has the largest oscillator strength (electric dipole moment:*

_{e}*μ*= 2.7 × 10

^{−32}C m) [34

34. M. Nilsson, L. Rippe, S. Kröll, R. Klieber, and D. Suter, “Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions in inhomogeneously broadened solids demonstrated in Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5},” Phys. Rev. B **70**, 214116 (2004). [CrossRef]

*and |± 3/2〉*

_{g}*to |± 5/2〉*

_{g}*. (The probe pumps out the ionic population from |± 5/2〉*

_{g}*to the others during the spectrum measurement.) This is achieved by the repump beam resonant with the |± 1/2〉*

_{g}*−|± 5/2〉*

_{g}*and |± 3/2〉*

_{e}*−|± 1/2〉*

_{g}*transitions. These repumpings for an ion are depicted in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively. The transition frequency of this ion is such that the |± 5/2〉*

_{e}*−| ± 5/2〉*

_{g}*transition resonates with the probe at the frequency shift of 1 MHz, as depicted in Fig. 3(c). The arrows with (a), (b), and (c) in the upper figure in Fig. 3 indicate the points at which the situations depicted in Figs. 3(a), 3(b), and 3(c) occur, respectively. Note that the probe does not affect the ion during the repumping because of large detuning. The frequency shift in Fig. 3 is carefully designed so that the absorption due to the ions occurs only in the range from 1 MHz to 1.5 MHz of the 1.5-MHz scan for the spectrum measurement. Here it is important that the frequency difference between the probe and the repump is set to 29 MHz. There is no absorption due to Pr*

_{e}^{3+}ions in the frequency region from 0 to 1 MHz, and therefore the data in this region can be used to estimate the factor of

*C/C*

_{0}, as explained above. The peak of the transmission spectrum is set at about 1.25 MHz so that the approximation in Eq. (5) is valid.

*S*(

*ν*) and

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*), respectively, measured by the balanced heterodyne detection, where the peaks of the transmission spectra are at

*ν*≃ 1.25 MHz, unlike Eqs. (2)–(5). [The spectrum analyzer (SA) output of balanced heterodyne detection is proportional to the transmission power.] Normalizing

*S*(

*ν*) with

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*), we obtain

*S̄*(

*ν*), which is shown in Fig. 5(b). [The unit “dB” means that

*S̄*(

*ν*) (dB)= 10log

_{10}

*S̄*(

*ν*). This can be easily obtained by subtracting

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*) (dBm) from

*S*(

*ν*) (dBm). This “dB” is also used in Fig. 6.] The next step is to estimate the factor

*C/C*

_{0}and renormalize

*S̄*(

*ν*) with the estimated value. However,

*S̄*(

*ν*) in the range lower than 0.8 MHz is not constant but a line with a small slope. This small tilt is due to a little difference between the peak frequencies of

*S*(

*ν*) and

*S*

_{0}(

*ν*), which is inevitable by laser frequency drift between the measurements. Therefore, instead of estimating a constant factor, we fit a line to

*S̄*(

*ν*) in the range lower than 0.8 MHz. The fitted line is the dashed line in Fig. 5(b).

*S̄*(

*ν*) with the line [subtracting the line (dB) from

*S̄*(

*ν*) (dB)], which is shown in Fig. 5(c). [The line includes the information on not only

*C/C*

_{0}but also the difference between the peak frequencies. Thus,

*A*(

*ν*).

## 3. Results

^{3}times accumulation for Modes 1 and −1 and 1 × 10

^{4}times accumulation for the other modes. The results shown in Fig. 6 are the averages of the five measurements. (The noises in these data are mainly due to quantum noise of the power of the weak probe. Because of the quantum noise, we must take an average of many times.)

## 4. Discussion

*A*corresponding to this value is

*A*≃ 4 × 10

^{−6}(

*F*≃ 3400). This absorption may be too small to observe with an ordinary bulk sample of Pr:YSO (without the cavity structure). (Because of the long excited-state lifetime and hole burning, the measurement of small absorption in Pr:YSO is difficult.) This sensitivity can be raised further by increasing the number of measurements for averaging. Our numerical simulation indicates that the signal for a single ion with the maximum coupling rate to the cavity mode will be about −0.004 dB (0.09%). Thus, we will be able to observe a single-ion signal by averaging 100 times more measurements than the case of Mode −5.

*d*(

*n*) =

*a*|

*n*−

*n*

_{0}|

^{−}

*, where*

^{b}*d*is the magnitude of the dip,

*n*is the continuous mode number,

*n*

_{0}is the value of

*n*corresponding to the center of the inhomogeneous broadening, and

*a*and

*b*are constants. The curve in Fig. 7(a) is the fitting result. Figure 7(b) is a log-log plot of the same data as Fig. 7(a), where the continuous mode numbers

*n*and

*n*

_{0}are converted to frequencies

*ν*and

*ν*

_{0}with the FSR of the cavity (9.2 GHz). Assuming that the magnitude of the dip, which is proportional to the absorption from its definition, is proportional to the ionic density, this result means that the inhomogeneous broadening obeys a power law. The exponent

*b*is 2.39 ± 0.04.

30. A. M. Stoneham, “Shapes of inhomogeneously broadened resonance lines in solids,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **41**, 82–108 (1969). [CrossRef]

## 5. Conclusion

^{3+}:Y

_{2}SiO

_{5}(Pr:YSO). We have successfully observed very small absorption due to the ions appropriately prepared by optical pumping. The smallest absorption measured corresponds to the single-pass absorption of 4 × 10

^{−6}. We have also observed a power law for the inhomogeneous broadening of optical transitions of Pr

^{3+}ions in YSO. The result indicates that the dominant origin of the inhomogeneous broadening may be some charged defects.

## References and links

1. | A. A. Kaplyanskii and R. M. Macfarlane, |

2. | G. Liu and B. Jacquier, |

3. | E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Method of extending hyperfine coherence times in Pr |

4. | E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Dynamic decoherence control of a solid-state nuclear-quadrupole qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

5. | S. E. Beavan, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Demonstration of the reduction of decoherent errors in a solid-state qubit using dynamic decoupling techniques,” Phys. Rev. A |

6. | A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

7. | J. J. Longdell, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Stopped light with storage times greater than one second using electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

8. | M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature |

9. | M. Sabooni, F. Beaudoin, A. Walther, N. Lin, A. Amari, M. Huang, and S. Kröll, “Storage and recall of weak coherent optical pulses with an efficiency of 25%,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

10. | B. Lauritzen, J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a solid,” Phys. Rev. A |

12. | H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A |

13. | J. Klein, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Robust population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Pr |

14. | A. L. Alexander, R. Lauro, A. Louchet, T. Chanelière, and J. L. Le Gouët, “Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm |

15. | J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Demonstration of conditional quantum phase shift between ions in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

16. | K. Ichimura, “A simple frequency-domain quantum computer with ions in a crystal coupled to a cavity mode,” Opt. Commun. |

17. | M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Bowers, B. Demsky, P. S. Bhatia, S. Lloyd, P. R. Hemmer, and A. E. Craig, “Cavity dark states for quantum computing,” Opt. Commun. |

18. | Y.-F. Xiao, X.-M. Lin, J. Gao, Y. Yang, Z.-F. Han, and G.-C. Guo, “Realizing quantum controlled phase flip through cavity-QED,” Phys. Rev. A |

19. | Y.-F. Xiao, Z.-F. Han, Y. Yang, and G.-C. Guo, “Quantum CPF gates between rare earth ions through measurement,” Phys. Lett. A |

20. | D. L. McAuslan, J. J. Longdell, and M. J. Sellars, “Strong-coupling cavity QED using rare-earth-metal-ion dopants in monolithic cavities: what you can do with a weak oscillator,” Phys. Rev. A |

21. | P. R. Berman, |

22. | R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. |

23. | C. Yin, M. Rancic, G. G. de Boo, N. Stavrias, J. C. McCallum, M. J. Sellars, and S. Rogge, “Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon,” Nature |

24. | C. Greiner, B. Boggs, and T.W. Mossberg, “Superradiant emission dynamics of an optically thin material sample in a short-decay-time optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

25. | C. Greiner, T. Wang, T. Loftus, and T.W. Mossberg, “Instability and pulse area quantization in accelerated super-radiant atom-cavity systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

26. | C. Greiner, B. Boggs, and T. W. Mossberg, “Frustrated pulse-area quantization in accelerated superradiant atom-cavity systems,” Phys. Rev. A |

27. | K. Ichimura and H. Goto, “Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic optical cavity mode,” Phys. Rev. A |

28. | D. L. McAuslan, D. Korystov, and J. J. Longdell, “Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A |

29. | H. Goto, S. Nakamura, and K. Ichimura, “Experimental determination of intracavity losses of monolithic Fabry-Perot cavities made of Pr |

30. | A. M. Stoneham, “Shapes of inhomogeneously broadened resonance lines in solids,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

31. | R. W. Equall, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Homogeneous broadening and hyperfine structure of optical transitions in Pr |

32. | R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. |

33. | M. Lovrić, P. Glasenapp, and D. Suter, “Spin Hamiltonian characterization and refinement for Pr |

34. | M. Nilsson, L. Rippe, S. Kröll, R. Klieber, and D. Suter, “Hole-burning techniques for isolation and study of individual hyperfine transitions in inhomogeneously broadened solids demonstrated in Pr |

**OCIS Codes**

(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators

(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials

(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

**ToC Category:**

Materials

**History**

Original Manuscript: September 19, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: September 24, 2013

Published: October 3, 2013

**Citation**

Hayato Goto, Satoshi Nakamura, Mamiko Kujiraoka, and Kouichi Ichimura, "Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal: Observation of a power law for inhomogeneous broadening," Opt. Express **21**, 24332-24343 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-20-24332

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### References

- A. A. Kaplyanskii and R. M. Macfarlane, Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare-Earth Ions (North-Holland, 1987).
- G. Liu and B. Jacquier, Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005).
- E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Method of extending hyperfine coherence times in Pr3+:Y2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 077601 (2004). [CrossRef]
- E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Dynamic decoherence control of a solid-state nuclear-quadrupole qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 030506 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. E. Beavan, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and J. J. Longdell, “Demonstration of the reduction of decoherent errors in a solid-state qubit using dynamic decoupling techniques,” Phys. Rev. A80, 032308 (2009). [CrossRef]
- A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, “Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 023602 (2001). [CrossRef]
- J. J. Longdell, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Stopped light with storage times greater than one second using electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 063601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. P. Hedges, J. J. Longdell, Y. Li, and M. J. Sellars, “Efficient quantum memory for light,” Nature465, 1052–1056 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Sabooni, F. Beaudoin, A. Walther, N. Lin, A. Amari, M. Huang, and S. Kröll, “Storage and recall of weak coherent optical pulses with an efficiency of 25%,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 060501 (2010). [CrossRef]
- B. Lauritzen, J. Minář, H. de Riedmatten, M. Afzelius, N. Sangouard, C. Simon, and N. Gisin, “Telecommunication-wavelength solid-state memory at the single photon level,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104, 080502 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a solid,” Phys. Rev. A74, 053410 (2006). [CrossRef]
- H. Goto and K. Ichimura, “Observation of coherent population transfer in a four-level tripod system with a rare-earth-metal-ion-doped crystal,” Phys. Rev. A75, 033404 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Klein, F. Beil, and T. Halfmann, “Robust population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 113003 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. L. Alexander, R. Lauro, A. Louchet, T. Chanelière, and J. L. Le Gouët, “Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm3+:YAG,” Phys. Rev. B78, 144407 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J. J. Longdell, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Demonstration of conditional quantum phase shift between ions in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93, 130503 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. Ichimura, “A simple frequency-domain quantum computer with ions in a crystal coupled to a cavity mode,” Opt. Commun.196, 119–125 (2001). [CrossRef]
- M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Bowers, B. Demsky, P. S. Bhatia, S. Lloyd, P. R. Hemmer, and A. E. Craig, “Cavity dark states for quantum computing,” Opt. Commun.195, 411–417 (2001). [CrossRef]
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