OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Oct. 21, 2013
  • pp: 24574–24581
« Show journal navigation

Gigabit close-proximity wireless connections supported by 60 GHz RoF links with low carrier suppression

Alexander Lebedev, Xiaodan Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, Søren Forchhammer, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 24574-24581 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.024574


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (813 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present an experimental investigation of the 60 GHz optical carrier suppressed radio over fiber systems with less than 5 dB carrier suppression. As a case study, the 60 GHz RoF signal is generated using a 12.5 Gb/s commercially available Mach-Zehnder modulator biased at its minimum point. We report on error free transmission over 20 km of standard single mode fiber and 1 m of wireless distance. Furthermore, the efficiency of photonic RF generation depending on the value of carrier suppression is reported. We argue that transport of RoF signals with low carrier suppression assisted with simplified techniques of lightwave generation, baseband data modulation, and RF downconversion might be a promising enabling technology for fiber support of close-proximity wireless terminals.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Low bandwidth availability within the microwave spectrum of radio communication frequencies may hinder the development of novel services and applications. Hence, it has been proposed to employ the 60 GHz band where up to 9 GHz of unlicensed spectrum [1

1. WirelessHD white paper, “WirelessHD Specification Version 1.1 Overview,” (WirelessHD, 2010). http://www.wirelesshd.org/pdfs/WirelessHD-Specification-Overview-v1.1May2010.pdf.

] has been allocated. Research and development to utilize the 60 GHz band have been conducted by organizations such as the Wireless Gigabit Alliance (WiGig, IEEE 802.11 ad), which proposed a specification to deliver data rates up to 7 Gb/s and enable tri-band networking (2.4-, 5- and 60GHz). ABI Research forecasts that by 2016, annual shipments of devices equipped with both Wi-Fi and WiGig technology will approach 1.8 billion [2

2. Wi-Fi alliance press-release, “Wi-Fi Alliance® and Wireless Gigabit Alliance to unify,” (Wi-Fi Alliance, 2013). http://www.wi-fi.org/media/press-releases/wi-fi-alliance®-and-wireless-gigabit-alliance-unify.

].

Radio over fiber (RoF) technologies are providing methods to generate, transport and detect wireless signals at high bitrates in diverse fiber-optic systems [3

3. A. Stöhr, S. Babiel, P. J. Cannard, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, S. Fedderwitz, D. Moodie, L. Pavlovic, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, D. Rogers, V. Rymanov, A. J. Seeds, A. G. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “Millimeter-wave photonic components for broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3071–3082 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. RoF technologies aim at simplification of base station (BS) and access point (AP) units which is crucial in case of the 60 GHz millimeter wave (mm-wave) transmission where coverage is limited by high attenuation due to the free space path loss and absorption on molecules of oxygen and water vapour, and therefore higher density of BSs/APs is required [4

4. ITU-R P.676–9 Recommendation (2012) Attenuation by atmospheric gases. ITU, Geneva, Switzerland.

].

Recent research on the RoF technology includes studies of the diversified fiber infrastructure for multiband wireless services [5

5. Y. Shi, M. Morant, C. Okonkwo, R. Llorente, E. Tangdiongga, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Multistandard Wireless Transmission Over SSMF and Large-Core POF for Access and In-Home Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(9), 736–738 (2012). [CrossRef]

], bidirectional 60 GHz RoF [6

6. F. Paresys, T. Shao, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Bidirectional Millimeter-Wave Radio-Over-Fiber System Based on Photodiode Mixing and Optical Heterodyning,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 74–80 (2013). [CrossRef]

] and systems combining RoF and fiber-to-the-home delivery [7

7. T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous Transmission of Gigabit WirelineSignal and ECMA 387 mmW over Fiber Using a Single MZM in Multi-Band Modulation,” in Proceedings of Microwave Photonics Conference, pp.149–152, 2011.

]. The development of highly linear high power 60 GHz analog photoreceivers [8

8. S. Fedderwitz, C. Leonhardt, J. Honecker, P. Muller, and A. Steffan, “A high linear and high power photoreceiver suitable for analog applications,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), paper TuL3, pp. 308–309, 2012. [CrossRef]

] and compact E-band (60-90 GHz) wireless transmitters [9

9. S. Babiel, I. Flammia, A. Stohr, J. Montero-de-Paz, L. E. Garcia-Munoz, D. Segovia-Vargas, G. Carpintero, A. Lisauskas, and O. Cojocari, “Compact transmitter and receiver modules for E-band wireless links,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition, paper OW3D.7, 2013. [CrossRef]

] combining progress in optoelectronic and mm-wave components further strengthens the potential for commercial deployment of mm-wave RoF links. However, a major impediment for widespread adoption of RoF technology is the utilization of costly high bandwidth optical components to perform the electro-optical (E/O) conversion, especially when dealing with mm-wave signals [10

10. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, K.-L. Lee, Y. Yang, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 390–405 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In order to alleviate the requirements for high frequency RF generation, optical carrier suppressed (OCS) RoF transmission is used [11

11. J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, “Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals,” Electron. Lett. 8, 2309–2311 (1992).

] yielding the desired RF after photomixing by doubling the original RF frequency applied at the E/O conversion point. OCS RoF technique generates RF signals with an excellent phase noise performance, which is crucial for support of advanced spectrally efficient modulation formats [12

12. G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, and R. Kashyap, “Phase-Noise Analysis of Optically Generated Millimeter-Wave Signals With External Optical Modulation Techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4861–4875 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

We have previously reported on transmission of Gigabit data in 60 GHz RoF systems with high carrier suppression using a distributed feedback laser integrated with an electroabsorption modulator (DFB-EAM) and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) for lightwave generation and data modulation [15

15. A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “ Fiber-supported 60 GHz mobile backhaul links for access/metropolitan deployment,” in Proceedings of Optical Networks Design and Modeling, pp. 189–192, 2013.

, 16

16. J. J. Vegas Olmos, X. Pang, A. Lebedev, and I. Tafur Monroy, VCSEL sources for optical fiber-wireless composite data links at 60GHz,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2013),paper TuPP-10, 2013, in press.

].

In this paper, we present novel results demonstrating generation and delivery of 60 GHz OCS RoF signals with low carrier suppression for Gigabit wireless systems. Bit error rate (BER) performance below 10−9 level after fiber transmission and 1 m of wireless transmission is reported. We argue that low carrier suppression RoF systems are suitable to enable wireless applications with ultrashort reach.

2. 60 GHz links supported by fiber for close proximity wireless communications

We depict the proposed hybrid fiber-wireless architecture to enable close proximity applications in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Network scenario for 60 GHz RoF signals’ delivery to close proximity communication terminals. CO: central office.
. In this paper, a low complexity RoF system for fiber support of close proximity wireless applications is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

3. Experimental setup description

In order to confirm the suitability of the 60 GHz RoF transmitter with low carrier suppression, we built an experimental setup and performed quantitative measurements after fiber and wireless transmission. This section describes the experimental setup.

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup demonstrating 60 GHz RoF generation, fiber and wireless transmission and baseband data recovery with low carrier suppression. PPG: pulse pattern generator, DFB-EAM: distributed feedback laser integrated with electro absorption modulator, PC: polarization controller, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, EDFA: Erbium doped fiber amplifier, VOA: variable optical attenuator, PD: photodiode, LNA: low noise amplifier, BPF: bandpass filter, PA: power amplifier, BERT: bit error rate tester, E/O: electrical-to-optical conversion, O/E-optical-to-electrical conversion.
. We used a single module combining lightwave generation and data modulation composed of a distributed feedback laser integrated with a 12.5 Gb/s electro absorption modulator producing + 4 dBm of optical output power. The baseband data signal imposed on the lightwave were generated by a pulse pattern generator (PPG) producing a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with a word length of 215-1. The lightwave was then modulated by a 29.54 GHz RF signal of 18 dBm RF power using a 12.5 Gb/s Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM, Covega Mach-10) biased at its minimum point. By biasing the MZM at the minimum point, the carrier is suppressed and the double sideband with suppressed carrier RoF signal is generated. The polarization controller (PC) was installed before the MZM to ensure the polarization alignment necessary for maximum achievable carrier suppression.

High RF power and subsequently modulation indices not following small signal modulation criteria have been shown to be beneficial when the bias is set at Vπ where a modulation index equal to 0.97 has been shown as optimal [25

25. I. G. Insua, “Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dresden University of Technology, (2010), pp. 69–75.

]. We also note that higher order harmonics appearing when higher modulation index is used are later mitigated by the frequency response of the O/E conversion device and the use of mm-wave bandpass filters and amplifiers.

In Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 RF spectrum of the signal (a) and S21 performance of 12.5 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s MZMs (b).
, we depict the RF spectrum of the signal at the output of the 60 GHz low noise amplifier (LNA) on the transmitting side when the 0.4 V peak-to-peak data signal is applied to the DFB-EAM. In Fig. 3(b), we depict the S21 performance of the system employing 12.5 Gb/s MZM (Covega Mach-10) in comparison to a 40 Gb/s MZM that was used in [15

15. A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “ Fiber-supported 60 GHz mobile backhaul links for access/metropolitan deployment,” in Proceedings of Optical Networks Design and Modeling, pp. 189–192, 2013.

, 16

16. J. J. Vegas Olmos, X. Pang, A. Lebedev, and I. Tafur Monroy, VCSEL sources for optical fiber-wireless composite data links at 60GHz,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2013),paper TuPP-10, 2013, in press.

]. The S21 performance was measured excluding EDFA from the link, where port 2 was the output of the PD, and port 1 – the MZM RF input. Given the lower E/O conversion performance of the 12.5 Gb/s modulator, higher power RF has been applied to the MZM.

4. Results and discussion

In this section, performance of the setup in terms of BER and RF O/E conversion efficiency is presented and the sources of impairments are reported and analyzed. First, we characterized the conversion efficiency of optical power to 60 GHz RF power depending on the suppression of the optical carrier. Power of the generated 60 GHz RF signal as a function of carrier suppression is depicted in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 60 GHz RF power after the PD as a function of carrier suppression for a constant level of optical power.
. The carrier suppression was changed by varying a bias voltage of the MZM, and measured as observed in optical spectrum analyzer. As it can be seen from Fig. 4 the slope of the curve flattens at about 0 dBm suppression value. These results are consistent with the results that we previously reported in the case of 40 Gb/s MZM when the carrier suppression was varied from 0 to 20 dB [26

26. A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, M. Beltran, R. Llorente, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Feasibility study and experimental verification of simplified fiber-supported 60 GHz picocell mobile backhaul links,” IEEE Photon. J 5(4), 7200913 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Reported degradation in RF power after E/O, fiber transmission, and O/E conversion is overcome by using a double-stage LNA. For example, 0 dBm optical signal at the PD is converted to −32 dBm 60 GHz RF signal for 4 dB carrier suppression value, and boosted to + 8 dBm RF power for radiation.

It can be observed from Fig. 5(b) that FWM-produced lightwaves start to be noticeable in case of fibers with a low dispersion parameter at 1550 nm. FWM is independent of channel bitrate, but depends critically on the spacing between lightwaves [28

28. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave technology: communication systems (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 5.

]. Power of the signal at new frequencies can be calculated analytically as a function of the effective cross-sectional area of the fiber, the nonlinear refractive index and the fiber length [28

28. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave technology: communication systems (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 5.

]. In our experiment, to confirm that FWM does not influence the performance of the system, we tested that increase in optical power at the EDFA output from 11 to 16 dBm increases power of FWM-generated lightwaves, but does not reduce the BER of the transmitted data signal. It should be noted that FWM brings a receiver sensitivity penalty for wavelength division multiplexed systems in the case of equally spaced channels through introduction of the inter-channel crosstalk, however it is not an obstacle for a single-channel system under study.

We then evaluated the performance of the system in terms of BER. In Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 BER performance back-to-back and after fiber transmission for 2 cases: (a) wireless transmission distance is omitted and (b) up to 1 m wireless transmission is performed. NZDSF: non-zero dispersion shifted fiber, DSF: dispersion shifted fiber, SSMF: standard single mode fiber.
, we depict the performance of the setup without wireless transmission, when only fiber transmission is considered. BER is measured for different distances and types of fibers in order to account for the effects of dispersion and nonlinearities. Fiber transmission results show a negligible power penalty when compared to the back-to-back transmission, clustering BER performance equal to 10−9 around −9.5 dBm region.

Finally, we added wireless transmission to the system. We measured the performance for two wireless distances, 50cm and 1m, and with or without 20 km fiber transmission. Figure 6(b) depicts the BER performance of the signal including air transmission. BER below 10−9 level is achieved in all cases, being the case of 20 km and 1 m transmission the cases sustaining the highest power penalty, less than 2.5 dB compared to the best case. Higher value of optical power into the PD is necessary to yield the performance below 10−9 level due to the fact that wireless channel loss is compensated by increasing optical power impinging the photodiode.

Utilizing E/O components with −3 dB bandwidth lower than a value of the RF frequency used for mm-wave OCS RoF technique leads to certain trade-offs in performance. For given RF signal power at the E/O point and given −3 dB bandwidth of the E/O module, carrier-to-sideband suppression ratio is decreasing with an increase in applied frequency, and, in turn, the amount of the RF power detected after photomixing at the PD is reduced. In this paper, the case study for modulation of 12.5 Gb/s MZM with a 30 GHz RF signal is presented showing that, even when the carrier suppression is decreased to less than 5 dB, excellent transmission performance may still be obtained allowing us to simplify the fiber transport of mm-wave frequencies by utilization of low bandwidth E/O conversion devices. We generalize the presented case by studying the relation between the carrier suppression and the photonically generated RF power for low values of carrier suppression (less than 5 dB).

The choice of lightwave generation, baseband data modulation, and RF downconversion techniques is done in order to further simplify the system. By utilizing the DFB-EAM, we simplify the installation of the system and allow lower driving voltages for baseband lightwave modulation. Performance is constrained by the chirp of the DFB-EAM however the sensitivity penalty is not imposed in our system. The envelope detection technique provides RF downconversion avoiding the use of LO at the wireless receiver.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

J. J. Vegas Olmos acknowledges the Marie Curie program for partly funding this research through the WISCON project.

References and links

1.

WirelessHD white paper, “WirelessHD Specification Version 1.1 Overview,” (WirelessHD, 2010). http://www.wirelesshd.org/pdfs/WirelessHD-Specification-Overview-v1.1May2010.pdf.

2.

Wi-Fi alliance press-release, “Wi-Fi Alliance® and Wireless Gigabit Alliance to unify,” (Wi-Fi Alliance, 2013). http://www.wi-fi.org/media/press-releases/wi-fi-alliance®-and-wireless-gigabit-alliance-unify.

3.

A. Stöhr, S. Babiel, P. J. Cannard, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, S. Fedderwitz, D. Moodie, L. Pavlovic, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, D. Rogers, V. Rymanov, A. J. Seeds, A. G. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “Millimeter-wave photonic components for broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3071–3082 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

ITU-R P.676–9 Recommendation (2012) Attenuation by atmospheric gases. ITU, Geneva, Switzerland.

5.

Y. Shi, M. Morant, C. Okonkwo, R. Llorente, E. Tangdiongga, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Multistandard Wireless Transmission Over SSMF and Large-Core POF for Access and In-Home Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(9), 736–738 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

F. Paresys, T. Shao, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Bidirectional Millimeter-Wave Radio-Over-Fiber System Based on Photodiode Mixing and Optical Heterodyning,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 74–80 (2013). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous Transmission of Gigabit WirelineSignal and ECMA 387 mmW over Fiber Using a Single MZM in Multi-Band Modulation,” in Proceedings of Microwave Photonics Conference, pp.149–152, 2011.

8.

S. Fedderwitz, C. Leonhardt, J. Honecker, P. Muller, and A. Steffan, “A high linear and high power photoreceiver suitable for analog applications,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), paper TuL3, pp. 308–309, 2012. [CrossRef]

9.

S. Babiel, I. Flammia, A. Stohr, J. Montero-de-Paz, L. E. Garcia-Munoz, D. Segovia-Vargas, G. Carpintero, A. Lisauskas, and O. Cojocari, “Compact transmitter and receiver modules for E-band wireless links,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition, paper OW3D.7, 2013. [CrossRef]

10.

C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, K.-L. Lee, Y. Yang, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 390–405 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, “Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals,” Electron. Lett. 8, 2309–2311 (1992).

12.

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, and R. Kashyap, “Phase-Noise Analysis of Optically Generated Millimeter-Wave Signals With External Optical Modulation Techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4861–4875 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Ng'oma, M. Sauer, D. Thelen, and J. George, “Data throughput tripling by Feed-Forward Equalization and photonic QPSK in a 7 Gbps single-carrier RoF link at 60 GHz,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp.213–216, Oct. 2008. [CrossRef]

14.

I. G. Insua, K. Kojucharow, and C. G. Schaeffer, “MultiGbit/s transmission over a fiber optic mm-wave link,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, pp.495–498, June 2008. [CrossRef]

15.

A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “ Fiber-supported 60 GHz mobile backhaul links for access/metropolitan deployment,” in Proceedings of Optical Networks Design and Modeling, pp. 189–192, 2013.

16.

J. J. Vegas Olmos, X. Pang, A. Lebedev, and I. Tafur Monroy, VCSEL sources for optical fiber-wireless composite data links at 60GHz,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2013),paper TuPP-10, 2013, in press.

17.

Bridgewave whitepaper, “Gigabit wireless applications using 60 GHz radios,” (Bridgewave, 2006).

18.

A. Mathew, “Local Area Networking Using MillimetreWaves,” (NewLANs, Inc., USA, 2005).

19.

AIRLINX Communications, Inc. specification datasheet, “GigaLink® 6221/6421/6451,” (AIRLINX Communications, Inc., 2013).

20.

Sub10 Systems Limited white paper, “60GHz Metro Cell and Small Cell Backhauling for Service Providers,” (Sub10 Systems Limited, 2011).

21.

K. Ramachadran, R. Kokku, R. Mahindra, and S. Rangarajan, “60 GHz data-center networking: wireless worry less?” NEC Technical Report, 2008.

22.

S. Kandula, J. Padhye, and P. Bahi, “Flyways to de-congest data center networks,” in Proceeding of Eighth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 2009.

23.

K. Kawasaki, Y. Akiyama, K. Komori, M. Uno, H. Takeuchi, T. Itagaki, Y. Hino, Y. Kawasaki, K. Ito, and A. Hajimiri, “A millimeter-wave intra-connect solution,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Francisco, 2010), pp. 414–415.

24.

TransferJet Overview, (TransferJet, 2010). www.transferjet.org/tj/transferjet_overview.pdf.

25.

I. G. Insua, “Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dresden University of Technology, (2010), pp. 69–75.

26.

A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, M. Beltran, R. Llorente, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Feasibility study and experimental verification of simplified fiber-supported 60 GHz picocell mobile backhaul links,” IEEE Photon. J 5(4), 7200913 (2013). [CrossRef]

27.

I. Garcés, A. Villafranca, and J. Lasobras, “Characterization of the chirp behavior of integrated laser modulators (ILM) by measurements of its optical spectrum,” in Proc. SPIE 699769971S–2.

28.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave technology: communication systems (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 5.

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 12, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 23, 2013
Published: October 7, 2013

Citation
Alexander Lebedev, Xiaodan Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, Søren Forchhammer, and Idelfonso Tafur Monroy, "Gigabit close-proximity wireless connections supported by 60 GHz RoF links with low carrier suppression," Opt. Express 21, 24574-24581 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-21-24574


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. WirelessHD white paper, “WirelessHD Specification Version 1.1 Overview,” (WirelessHD, 2010). http://www.wirelesshd.org/pdfs/WirelessHD-Specification-Overview-v1.1May2010.pdf .
  2. Wi-Fi alliance press-release, “Wi-Fi Alliance® and Wireless Gigabit Alliance to unify,” (Wi-Fi Alliance, 2013). http://www.wi-fi.org/media/press-releases/wi-fi-alliance ®-and-wireless-gigabit-alliance-unify.
  3. A. Stöhr, S. Babiel, P. J. Cannard, B. Charbonnier, F. van Dijk, S. Fedderwitz, D. Moodie, L. Pavlovic, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, D. Rogers, V. Rymanov, A. J. Seeds, A. G. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “Millimeter-wave photonic components for broadband wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(11), 3071–3082 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. ITU-R P.676–9 Recommendation (2012) Attenuation by atmospheric gases. ITU, Geneva, Switzerland.
  5. Y. Shi, M. Morant, C. Okonkwo, R. Llorente, E. Tangdiongga, and A. M. J. Koonen, “Multistandard Wireless Transmission Over SSMF and Large-Core POF for Access and In-Home Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(9), 736–738 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Paresys, T. Shao, G. Maury, Y. Le Guennec, and B. Cabon, “Bidirectional Millimeter-Wave Radio-Over-Fiber System Based on Photodiode Mixing and Optical Heterodyning,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.5(1), 74–80 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Shao, F. Paresys, Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, N. Corrao, and B. Cabon, “Simultaneous Transmission of Gigabit WirelineSignal and ECMA 387 mmW over Fiber Using a Single MZM in Multi-Band Modulation,” in Proceedings of Microwave Photonics Conference, pp.149–152, 2011.
  8. S. Fedderwitz, C. Leonhardt, J. Honecker, P. Muller, and A. Steffan, “A high linear and high power photoreceiver suitable for analog applications,” IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC), paper TuL3, pp. 308–309, 2012. [CrossRef]
  9. S. Babiel, I. Flammia, A. Stohr, J. Montero-de-Paz, L. E. Garcia-Munoz, D. Segovia-Vargas, G. Carpintero, A. Lisauskas, and O. Cojocari, “Compact transmitter and receiver modules for E-band wireless links,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition, paper OW3D.7, 2013. [CrossRef]
  10. C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, M. Bakaul, P. Gamage, K.-L. Lee, Y. Yang, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Fiber-Wireless Networks and Subsystem Technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 390–405 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, and R. Hofstetter, “Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimeter wave signals,” Electron. Lett.8, 2309–2311 (1992).
  12. G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, and R. Kashyap, “Phase-Noise Analysis of Optically Generated Millimeter-Wave Signals With External Optical Modulation Techniques,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4861–4875 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ng'oma, M. Sauer, D. Thelen, and J. George, “Data throughput tripling by Feed-Forward Equalization and photonic QPSK in a 7 Gbps single-carrier RoF link at 60 GHz,” in Proceedings of International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP), pp.213–216, Oct. 2008. [CrossRef]
  14. I. G. Insua, K. Kojucharow, and C. G. Schaeffer, “MultiGbit/s transmission over a fiber optic mm-wave link,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, pp.495–498, June 2008. [CrossRef]
  15. A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “ Fiber-supported 60 GHz mobile backhaul links for access/metropolitan deployment,” in Proceedings of Optical Networks Design and Modeling, pp. 189–192, 2013.
  16. J. J. Vegas Olmos, X. Pang, A. Lebedev, and I. Tafur Monroy, VCSEL sources for optical fiber-wireless composite data links at 60GHz,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2013),paper TuPP-10, 2013, in press.
  17. Bridgewave whitepaper, “Gigabit wireless applications using 60 GHz radios,” (Bridgewave, 2006).
  18. A. Mathew, “Local Area Networking Using MillimetreWaves,” (NewLANs, Inc., USA, 2005).
  19. AIRLINX Communications, Inc. specification datasheet, “GigaLink® 6221/6421/6451,” (AIRLINX Communications, Inc., 2013).
  20. Sub10 Systems Limited white paper, “60GHz Metro Cell and Small Cell Backhauling for Service Providers,” (Sub10 Systems Limited, 2011).
  21. K. Ramachadran, R. Kokku, R. Mahindra, and S. Rangarajan, “60 GHz data-center networking: wireless worry less?” NEC Technical Report, 2008.
  22. S. Kandula, J. Padhye, and P. Bahi, “Flyways to de-congest data center networks,” in Proceeding of Eighth ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 2009.
  23. K. Kawasaki, Y. Akiyama, K. Komori, M. Uno, H. Takeuchi, T. Itagaki, Y. Hino, Y. Kawasaki, K. Ito, and A. Hajimiri, “A millimeter-wave intra-connect solution,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, San Francisco, 2010), pp. 414–415.
  24. TransferJet Overview, (TransferJet, 2010). www.transferjet.org/tj/transferjet_overview.pdf .
  25. I. G. Insua, “Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dresden University of Technology, (2010), pp. 69–75.
  26. A. Lebedev, X. Pang, J. J. Vegas Olmos, M. Beltran, R. Llorente, S. Forchhammer, and I. Tafur Monroy, “Feasibility study and experimental verification of simplified fiber-supported 60 GHz picocell mobile backhaul links,” IEEE Photon. J5(4), 7200913 (2013). [CrossRef]
  27. I. Garcés, A. Villafranca, and J. Lasobras, “Characterization of the chirp behavior of integrated laser modulators (ILM) by measurements of its optical spectrum,” in Proc. SPIE 699769971S–2.
  28. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave technology: communication systems (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 5.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited