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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Oct. 21, 2013
  • pp: 24590–24598
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Efficient continuous-wave self-Raman Yb:KGW laser with a shift of 89 cm−1

M. T. Chang, W. Z. Zhuang, K. W. Su, Y. T. Yu, and Y. F. Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 24590-24598 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.024590


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Abstract

We demonstrated a continuous-wave (CW) self-Raman laser with high conversion efficiency by using Yb:KGW as the Raman crystal. The first Stokes line of wavelength centered at 1095.2 nm with spectral bandwidth of 8 nm and the cascaded Raman conversion wavelength at 1109.5 nm with spectral bandwidth of 3.4 nm were observed with a Raman shift of 89 cm−1 with respect to the fundamental laser wavelength at 1085.0 nm with spectral bandwidth of 10 nm. The CW Raman output power of 1.7 W was attained under the diode pump power of 7.8 W which corresponds to the slope efficiency and the diode-to-Stokes optical conversion efficiency of 26.6% and 21.8%, respectively.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in optical crystals has attracted great interest in recent years due to its extension of wavelength coverage in solid-state laser technologies. The pulsed-mode operations with high-peak-power were utilized in the past to reduce the restriction of high Raman threshold on solid-state Raman lasers [1

1. A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 616–618 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, G. I. Ryabtsev, and A. A. Demidovich, “All solid-state diode-pumped Raman laser with self-frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3742–3744 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. Among solid-state Raman lasers, the self-Raman conversion that the laser crystal serves as the Raman medium simultaneously gains the advantages of compactness together with low resonator losses and thresholds. In 2005, the first continuous-wave (CW) Raman laser which utilized a Nd:KGW crystal as the self-Raman medium was demonstrated by Demidovich et al. [5

5. A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and W. Kiefer, “Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1701–1703 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since then, various Nd-doped nonlinear crystals such as YVO4 [6

6. H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. A. Orlovich, and V. N. Matrosov, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 laser with self-frequency Raman conversion,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 511–514 (2007). [CrossRef]

], GdVO4 [8

8. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Efficient 5.3 W cw laser at 559 nm by intracavity frequency summation of fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths in a self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and LuVO4 [9

9. Y. Tan, X. H. Fu, P. Zhai, and X. H. Zhang, “An efficient cw laser at 560 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing in a self-Raman Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045806 (2013). [CrossRef]

] have been exploited to generate CW self-Raman lasers because of its wide applications in optical communications and biomedicine. However, the Raman conversion efficiencies of Nd-doped self-Raman media that range from 7.8% to 13.9% [6

6. H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO(4) at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7038–7046 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. N. Titov, “Nd:KGW/KGW crystal: efficient medium for continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 499–501 (2007). [CrossRef]

] were hindered by low quantum efficiency and high thermal loading factor.

Yb-doped laser crystals have been proven to be promising materials for high efficiency owing to the small quantum defect, high quantum efficiency, and broad absorption bandwidth. Compared with other Yb-doped laser crystals, Yb:KGd(WO4)2 (Yb:KGW) crystal is a advantageous candidate for generating efficient self-Raman laser owing to its high absorption cross section (5.3 × 10−20 cm2), large emission cross section (2.8 × 10−20 cm2), and large nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3). Nevertheless, up to now, Yb:KGW self-Raman lasers were limited to the pulsed regimes in both actively Q-switched [13

13. P. Dekker, J. M. Dawes, P. A. Burns, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of cw diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2003), pp. 50. [CrossRef]

] and passively Q-switched [1

1. A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 616–618 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Efficient self-frequency Raman conversion in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, J. Zayhowski, ed., Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 189.

] operations.

In this work, we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of CW self-Raman laser by Yb-doped crystalline material with high conversion efficiency. The first Stokes line of wavelength centered at 1095.2 nm with spectral bandwidth of 8 nm and the cascaded Raman conversion wavelength at 1109.5 nm with spectral bandwidth of 3.4 nm were observed with a Raman shift of 89 cm−1 with respect to the fundamental laser wavelength at 1085.0 nm with spectral bandwidth of 10 nm. Under the diode pump power of 7.8 W, the CW Raman output power of 1.7 W was attained by using a Yb:KGW crystal as the self-Raman medium. The corresponding slope efficiency and the diode-to-Stokes optical conversion efficiency was 26.6% and 21.8%, respectively.

2. Experimental setup

The schematic diagram of the experimental setup is depicted in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for a CW diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser.
. The diode-pumped, CW Yb:KGW self-Raman laser was composed of a plano-concave resonator. The gain medium was a 5 at.% doped Yb:KGW crystal with a length of 6 mm. Considering higher efficiency and more symmetric thermal lens, the gain medium was cut along the Ng-axis.

Both the fundamental and self-Raman fields were found to be parallel to the Nm-axis. The present crystal cut was also suitable for achieving high gain on the 89 cm−1 Raman mode. Both sides of the active medium were coated for antireflection at 1000-1200 nm (R<0.2%). Additionally, the active medium was wrapped with indium foil and mounted in a water-cooled cooper block with water temperature to be maintained at 8 °C.

The input mirror is a concave mirror with the radius-of-curvature of 100 mm and coated with high-reflection (HR) coating at 1030-1120 nm (R>99.8%) together with high transmission (HT) coating at 980 nm (T>95%). Two flat output couplers (O. C.) with different coatings at both the fundamental laser range (from 1020 nm to 1090 nm) and the converted Raman laser range (from 1090 nm to 1110 nm) were used for comparison. The transmittance spectra of the O. C. were depicted in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The transmittance spectra of the used output coupler (O.C.1:output coupler 1; O.C.2:output coupler 2).
. The O.C.1 was designed to have higher reflection in both the fundamental laser range (R>99.8% from 1020 nm to 1090 nm) and in the converted Raman laser range (R>99.4% from 1090 nm to 1110 nm) than O.C.2 (R>99.5% @ 1020~1090 nm and R>99.0% @ 1090~1110 nm). The transmittance spectra were determined by a monochromator (Jobin-Yvon, Triax 320) which agree very well with the results specified by the manufacturer of the mirrors. Note that due to the low gain in CW Raman laser, all the coatings and optics setting should be designed to depress the cavity loss [6

6. H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Besides, since the intracavity SRS efficiency is significantly sensitive to the cavity losses and thermal effects, the cavity length has to be as short as possible. Consequently, the separation of the cavity mirrors was approximately 10 mm. The pumping source was a 980-nm fiber-coupled laser diode with a core diameter of 200 μm and a numerical aperture of 0.2. The focusing lens with 25 mm focal length and 90% coupling efficiency was used to focus the pump beam into the laser crystal. The pump spot radius was approximately 220 μm. The laser output spectral characteristics were investigated by an optical spectrum analyzer with 0.1 nm resolution (Advantest Q8381A).

3. Experimental results and discussion

Figure 4
Fig. 4 The average total combined output power of the Stokes and fundamental wavelength with respect to the incident pump power by using different output coupler.
depicts the average total combined output power of the Stokes and fundamental wavelength with respect to the incident pump power of the laser diode. First, we use O.C.1 to demonstrate a CW self-Raman laser with high efficiency. The pump power threshold for the fundamental laser wavelength was 1.4 W. The maximum peak wavelength of the fundamental laser was located at 1088.9 nm with the total spectral bandwidth of 8.4 nm as demonstrated in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a)-(d) Laser output spectrum by using O.C.1 at various pump power of 1.40 W, 1.47 W, 1.50 W, and 7.80 W, respectively. Note: The intensities of the spectra of (c) together with (d) at around 1085 nm have been magnified by 1000 times and (d) at around 1110 nm has been magnified by 2 times. (a')-(d') Laser output spectrum by using O.C.2 at different pump power of 2.03 W, 3.70 W, 6.00 W, and 7.80 W, respectively.
. The present lasing wavelength was found to be considerably longer than the results ever reported [1

1. A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 616–618 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. P. Dekker, J. M. Dawes, P. A. Burns, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of cw diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2003), pp. 50. [CrossRef]

, 14

14. V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Efficient self-frequency Raman conversion in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, J. Zayhowski, ed., Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 189.

] because the present cavity employed a relatively long gain medium and a fairly low output transmission for self-Raman generation. For a quasi-three-level medium, the lasing wavelength is determined by the resonator losses and the balance between emission and re-absorption. Since the re-absorption considerably reduces the short-wavelength net gain for low excitation levels, a cavity with a longer gain medium [26

26. S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Kerr-lens mode-locking scheme for diode-pumped Yb-doped-bulk lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper MC36.

] or a lower output transmission [27

27. A. A. Lagatsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Diode-pumped CW lasing of Yb:KYW and Yb:KGW,” Opt. Commun. 165(1–3), 71–75 (1999). [CrossRef]

] usually leads to a longer lasing wavelength [13

13. P. Dekker, J. M. Dawes, P. A. Burns, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of cw diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2003), pp. 50. [CrossRef]

]. By further increasing the pump power to 1.47 W, the intracavity fundamental field reached the threshold of the stimulated self-Raman generation with a shift of 89 cm−1. As depicted in Fig. 5(b), the output spectrum near the Raman threshold displays simultaneously the fundamental and converted Raman components with a distribution ranging from 1080.0 nm to 1098.3 nm.

In order to confirm that the laser wavelength shift from 1088.9 nm to 1099.6 nm was resulted from the Raman conversion but not the wavelength shift induced by the re-absorption loss, we replaced the O. C. with O.C.2. The laser threshold with O.C.2 as the O.C. was 2.03 W and the output spectrum is depicted in Fig. 5(a') which centered at 1080.9 nm. The variant laser spectra with increased pump power were shown in Figs. 5(b')-5(d'). With the raised pump power from 2.03 W to 7.8 W, the center of the laser spectrum shifted gradually from 1080.9 nm to 1084.3 nm as depicted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Lasing wavelength versus various incident pump power with respect to different output coupler.
. Since the spectral shape of the optical gain in a quasi-three-level medium significantly depends on the temperature, the red-shift with increasing the pump power is mainly caused by the temperature-dependent emission spectra of Yb-doped crystals [33

33. J. Dong, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, A. A. Kaminskii, and Z. Cai, “Comparative study the effect of Yb concentrations on laser characteristics of Yb:YAG ceramics and crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 282–289 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Effect of ytterbium concentration on cw Yb:YAG microchip laser performance at ambient temperature - Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 359–365 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, the output power exhibited the sign of rollover for the pump power higher than 7.0 W. The rollover was chiefly due to the gain degradation caused by the local heating.

In comparison with the result obtained with O.C.2, the case of using O.C.1 can be confirmed to come from Raman conversion by the following illustration. For the pump power just beyond the threshold of 1.47 W in the case with O.C.1, the wavelength of the maximum lasing peak suddenly shifted from 1088.9 nm to 1099.6 nm and nearly kept invariant with increasing the pump power. In contrast, the wavelength of the maximum lasing peak in the case of using O.C.2 gradually increased with increasing the pump power. The comparison is shown in Fig. 6. In the case of O.C.1, the abrupt jump of the lasing wavelength beyond the threshold of 1.47 W is an explicit indication for the generation of the Raman mode. Furthermore, as depicted in Fig. 5(d), a weak lasing output at 1110.5 nm could be detected. This wavelength component was just consistent with the second Stokes line, corresponding to the first Stokes line of 1099.6 nm with a further 89 cm−1 shift. All of the phenomena mentioned above certainly confirm that the wavelength shift obtained with O.C.1 was to come from the Raman conversion. Note that the reflectivities of the output coupler at 1188.3 nm and 1207.4 nm (which correspond to the Raman shift lines at 768 cm−1 and 901.5 cm−1 with the fundamental laser wavelength at 1088.9 nm) were 52.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The reflectivities of the output coupler at these wavelengths were too low to depress the cavity loss for the low-gain CW Raman laser [6

6. H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, no Raman conversions at 1188.3 nm and 1207.4 nm were observed in this experiment.

The diode pump power required to reach the Raman threshold can be simplified to be given by [32

32. D. J. Spence, P. Dekker, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of continuous wave intracavity Raman lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 756–763 (2007). [CrossRef]

]
PP=ARgRlRλFλP(TS+LS)(TR+LR)2,
(1)
where AR is the spot area of the Stokes field, gR is the stimulated Raman gain coefficient, λP is the wavelength of the pump radiation, λF is the wavelength of the fundamental wave, TF, LF and TS, LS are the output coupling transmissions and round-trip losses for the fundamental and Stokes fields, respectively. With Eq. (1), the Raman threshold for the O.C.2 (TF = 0.55%, TS = 0.75%, LF = 0.05%, LS = 0.05%) can be estimated to be approximately 6 times higher than that for the O.C.1 (TF = 0.2%, TS = 0.3%, LF = 0.05%, LS = 0.05%). Using the experimental Raman threshold for the O.C.1, the pump power for the Raman generation with the O.C.2 needs to be higher than 8.0 W. Equation (1) also indicates that the Raman threshold can be reduced by decreasing the ration AR / lR through a combination of decreasing the mode size and increasing the crystal length. In addition, the Nd:KGW crystal can be expected to lead to a lower threshold for generating the 89 cm−1 Raman mode in comparison with the Yb:KGW crystal because it can offer a relatively higher Raman gain by a narrow bandwidth. Even so, the wide spectrum of the Yb:KGW laser can be employed to design the ultrafast mode-locked laser. It will be an interesting issue to achieve a self-Raman Yb:KGW laser in the mode locked operation.

When the Raman laser was under operation with O.C.1, a strong blue-red fluorescence within the space channel of laser generation from the Yb:KGW crystal can be observed by the naked eye and the emission spectrum measured by the optical spectrum analyzer was shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectrum of the red-blue emission from the Yb:KGW crystal.
. There were two spectral peaks shown in the spectrum which centered at 476.0 nm (blue fluorescence) and 649.1 nm (red fluorescence) with the spectral bandwidths of about 9 nm and 12 nm, respectively. The blue fluorescence phenomenon which has been previously observed by a variety of crystalline Raman laser materials such as KGW [35

35. A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301(1–2), 300–302 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 36

36. H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2454–2456 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], GdVO4 [37

37. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, and J. A. Piper, “High efficiency, multi-Watt CW yellow emission from an intracavity-doubled self-Raman laser using Nd:GdVO4.,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21958–21963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 38

38. T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 73–79 (2012). [CrossRef]

], BaWO4 [28

28. L. Fan, Y. X. Fan, Y. Q. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “High-efficiency continuous-wave Raman conversion with a BaWO4 Raman crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1687–1689 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5984–5992 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], SrWO4 [39

39. Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 491–494 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and SrMoO4 [30

30. H. Yu, Z. Li, A. J. Lee, J. Li, H. Zhang, J. Wang, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and M. Jiang, “A continuous wave SrMoO4 Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 579–581 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] are characteristic of additional energy deposition within the Raman crystal [29

29. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5984–5992 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The up-conversion process within the Nd3+ ions for the case of Nd:KGW was speculated to be the origin of the blue luminescence [35

35. A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301(1–2), 300–302 (2000). [CrossRef]

]; while Pask et al. suggested that the blue fluorescence in the Raman crystals of un-doped KGW [36

36. H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2454–2456 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and Nd:GdVO4 [37

37. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, and J. A. Piper, “High efficiency, multi-Watt CW yellow emission from an intracavity-doubled self-Raman laser using Nd:GdVO4.,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21958–21963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] may be owing to trace impurity absorption by Tm3+ ions. Here we observed the blue-red luminescence in Yb-doped laser crystal under Raman generation. The origin of the blue-red luminescence within Yb:KGW crystal deserves further investigations.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have demonstrated, for the first time, a high efficiency Yb-doped CW self-Raman laser by using an Yb:KGW crystal. The CW Raman output power of 1.7 W was attained under the diode pump power of 7.8 W which corresponds to the slope efficiency and the diode-to-Stokes optical conversion efficiency of 26.6% and 21.8%, respectively. The first Stokes line of peak wavelength at 1099.6 nm and the cascaded Raman conversion wavelength at 1110.5 nm were observed with a Raman shift of 89 cm−1 with respect to the fundamental laser wavelength at 1088.9 nm. When the Raman laser was under operation, a strong blue-red fluorescence was detected at 476.0 nm and 649.1 nm, respectively.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the National Science Council of Taiwan for their financial support of this research under Contract NSC-100-2628-M-009-001-MY3.

References and links

1.

A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 616–618 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. Omatsu, A. Lee, H. M. Pask, and J. Piper, “Passively Q-switched yellow laser formed by a self-Raman composite Nd:YVO4/YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 799–804 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. F. Chen, M. L. Ku, L. Y. Tsai, and Y. C. Chen, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond Nd:GDxY1-xVO4 self-stimulated raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(19), 2279–2281 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, G. I. Ryabtsev, and A. A. Demidovich, “All solid-state diode-pumped Raman laser with self-frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(24), 3742–3744 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and W. Kiefer, “Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1701–1703 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. A. Orlovich, and V. N. Matrosov, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 laser with self-frequency Raman conversion,” Appl. Phys. B 86(3), 511–514 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Efficient 5.3 W cw laser at 559 nm by intracavity frequency summation of fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths in a self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Y. Tan, X. H. Fu, P. Zhai, and X. H. Zhang, “An efficient cw laser at 560 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing in a self-Raman Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. 23(4), 045806 (2013). [CrossRef]

10.

P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO(4) at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express 15(11), 7038–7046 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. Fan, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “A compact efficient continuous-wave self-frequency Raman laser with a composite YVO4/Nd:YVO4/YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 101(3), 493–496 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. N. Titov, “Nd:KGW/KGW crystal: efficient medium for continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 499–501 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Dekker, J. M. Dawes, P. A. Burns, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of cw diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2003), pp. 50. [CrossRef]

14.

V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Efficient self-frequency Raman conversion in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, J. Zayhowski, ed., Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 189.

15.

A. Major, R. Cisek, and V. Barzda, “Development of diode-pumped high average power continuous-wave and ultrashort pulse Yb:KGW lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 6108, 61080Y, 61080Y-8 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

D. Kasprowicz, T. Runka, A. Majchrowski, and E. Michalski, “Low-temperature vibrational properties of KGd(WO4)2: (Er, Yb) single crystals studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 70(9), 1242–1247 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Jakutis-Neto, J. Lin, N. U. Wetter, and H. Pask, “Continuous-wave watt-level Nd:YLF/KGW Raman laser operating at near-IR, yellow and lime-green wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9841–9850 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. C. Parrotta, W. Lubeigt, A. J. Kemp, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, and J. E. Hastie, “Continuous-wave Raman laser pumped within a semiconductor disk laser cavity,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1083–1085 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. W. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. L. Zhu, J. L. Li, and J. H. Liu, “Structure and vibration spectrum of laser crystal Yb:KGd(WO4)2,” J. Inorg. Mater. 20(6), 1295–1300 (2005).

20.

T. T. Basiev, A. A. Sobol, P. G. Zverev, L. I. Ivleva, V. V. Osiko, and R. C. Powell, “Raman spectroscopy of crystals for stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Mater. 11(4), 307–314 (1999). [CrossRef]

21.

H. Zellmer, S. Buteau, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, “All fibre laser system with 0.1 W output power in blue spectral range,” Electron. Lett. 33(16), 1383–1384 (1997). [CrossRef]

22.

E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, “Blue and infrared up-conversion in Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 1.06, 1.117 and 1.18 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1540–1542 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

F. Heinrichsdorff, Ch. Ribbat, M. Grundmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-power quantum-dot lasers at 1100 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 556–558 (2000). [CrossRef]

24.

S. D. Jackson, “2.7-W Ho3+-doped silica fibre laser pumped at 1100 nm and operating at 2.1 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 793–795 (2003). [CrossRef]

25.

Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “A Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ triply-doped tellurite fibre laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10690–10695 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Kerr-lens mode-locking scheme for diode-pumped Yb-doped-bulk lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper MC36.

27.

A. A. Lagatsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Diode-pumped CW lasing of Yb:KYW and Yb:KGW,” Opt. Commun. 165(1–3), 71–75 (1999). [CrossRef]

28.

L. Fan, Y. X. Fan, Y. Q. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “High-efficiency continuous-wave Raman conversion with a BaWO4 Raman crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1687–1689 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5984–5992 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

H. Yu, Z. Li, A. J. Lee, J. Li, H. Zhang, J. Wang, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and M. Jiang, “A continuous wave SrMoO4 Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 579–581 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

W. Lubeigt, V. G. Savitski, G. M. Bonner, S. L. Geoghegan, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “1.6 W continuous-wave Raman laser using low-loss synthetic diamond,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6938–6944 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

D. J. Spence, P. Dekker, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of continuous wave intracavity Raman lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 756–763 (2007). [CrossRef]

33.

J. Dong, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, A. A. Kaminskii, and Z. Cai, “Comparative study the effect of Yb concentrations on laser characteristics of Yb:YAG ceramics and crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(4), 282–289 (2009). [CrossRef]

34.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Effect of ytterbium concentration on cw Yb:YAG microchip laser performance at ambient temperature - Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 359–365 (2007). [CrossRef]

35.

A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp. 300–301(1–2), 300–302 (2000). [CrossRef]

36.

H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2454–2456 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, and J. A. Piper, “High efficiency, multi-Watt CW yellow emission from an intracavity-doubled self-Raman laser using Nd:GdVO4.,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21958–21963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 73–79 (2012). [CrossRef]

39.

Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 491–494 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3550) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Raman
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 21, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 24, 2013
Published: October 7, 2013

Citation
M. T. Chang, W. Z. Zhuang, K. W. Su, Y. T. Yu, and Y. F. Chen, "Efficient continuous-wave self-Raman Yb:KGW laser with a shift of 89 cm−1," Opt. Express 21, 24590-24598 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-21-24590


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References

  1. A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Passive Q switching and self-frequency Raman conversion in a diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett.25(9), 616–618 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Omatsu, A. Lee, H. M. Pask, and J. Piper, “Passively Q-switched yellow laser formed by a self-Raman composite Nd:YVO4/YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B97(4), 799–804 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. F. Chen, M. L. Ku, L. Y. Tsai, and Y. C. Chen, “Diode-pumped passively Q-switched picosecond Nd:GDxY1-xVO4 self-stimulated raman laser,” Opt. Lett.29(19), 2279–2281 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, G. I. Ryabtsev, and A. A. Demidovich, “All solid-state diode-pumped Raman laser with self-frequency conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(24), 3742–3744 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Demidovich, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and W. Kiefer, “Continuous-wave Raman generation in a diode-pumped Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1701–1703 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Y. Zhu, Y. M. Duan, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, W. D. Chen, L. X. Huang, and Y. D. Huang, “Efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1176 nm,” Appl. Phys. B103(3), 559–562 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. A. Orlovich, and V. N. Matrosov, “Diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 laser with self-frequency Raman conversion,” Appl. Phys. B86(3), 511–514 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Efficient 5.3 W cw laser at 559 nm by intracavity frequency summation of fundamental and first-Stokes wavelengths in a self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 682–684 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Tan, X. H. Fu, P. Zhai, and X. H. Zhang, “An efficient cw laser at 560 nm by intracavity sum-frequency mixing in a self-Raman Nd:LuVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.23(4), 045806 (2013). [CrossRef]
  10. P. Dekker, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and J. A. Piper, “Continuous-wave, intracavity doubled, self-Raman laser operation in Nd:GdVO(4) at 586.5 nm,” Opt. Express15(11), 7038–7046 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Fan, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “A compact efficient continuous-wave self-frequency Raman laser with a composite YVO4/Nd:YVO4/YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B101(3), 493–496 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. V. A. Lisinetskii, A. S. Grabtchikov, A. A. Demidovich, V. N. Burakevich, V. A. Orlovich, and A. N. Titov, “Nd:KGW/KGW crystal: efficient medium for continuous-wave intracavity Raman generation,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 499–501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Dekker, J. M. Dawes, P. A. Burns, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and T. Omatsu, “Power scaling of cw diode-pumped Yb:KGW self-Raman laser,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (IEEE, 2003), pp. 50. [CrossRef]
  14. V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Efficient self-frequency Raman conversion in a passively Q-switched diode-pumped Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, J. Zayhowski, ed., Vol. 83 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper 189.
  15. A. Major, R. Cisek, and V. Barzda, “Development of diode-pumped high average power continuous-wave and ultrashort pulse Yb:KGW lasers for nonlinear microscopy,” Proc. SPIE6108, 61080Y, 61080Y-8 (2006). [CrossRef]
  16. D. Kasprowicz, T. Runka, A. Majchrowski, and E. Michalski, “Low-temperature vibrational properties of KGd(WO4)2: (Er, Yb) single crystals studied by Raman spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids70(9), 1242–1247 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Jakutis-Neto, J. Lin, N. U. Wetter, and H. Pask, “Continuous-wave watt-level Nd:YLF/KGW Raman laser operating at near-IR, yellow and lime-green wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(9), 9841–9850 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. C. Parrotta, W. Lubeigt, A. J. Kemp, D. Burns, M. D. Dawson, and J. E. Hastie, “Continuous-wave Raman laser pumped within a semiconductor disk laser cavity,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1083–1085 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. W. Wang, H. B. Cheng, Z. L. Zhu, J. L. Li, and J. H. Liu, “Structure and vibration spectrum of laser crystal Yb:KGd(WO4)2,” J. Inorg. Mater.20(6), 1295–1300 (2005).
  20. T. T. Basiev, A. A. Sobol, P. G. Zverev, L. I. Ivleva, V. V. Osiko, and R. C. Powell, “Raman spectroscopy of crystals for stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Mater.11(4), 307–314 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. H. Zellmer, S. Buteau, A. Tünnermann, and H. Welling, “All fibre laser system with 0.1 W output power in blue spectral range,” Electron. Lett.33(16), 1383–1384 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. E. B. Mejia, A. N. Starodumov, and Y. O. Barmenkov, “Blue and infrared up-conversion in Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 1.06, 1.117 and 1.18 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(11), 1540–1542 (1999). [CrossRef]
  23. F. Heinrichsdorff, Ch. Ribbat, M. Grundmann, and D. Bimberg, “High-power quantum-dot lasers at 1100 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 556–558 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. S. D. Jackson, “2.7-W Ho3+-doped silica fibre laser pumped at 1100 nm and operating at 2.1 μm,” Appl. Phys. B76(7), 793–795 (2003). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “A Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ triply-doped tellurite fibre laser,” Opt. Express16(14), 10690–10695 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. Uemura and K. Torizuka, “Kerr-lens mode-locking scheme for diode-pumped Yb-doped-bulk lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper MC36.
  27. A. A. Lagatsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Diode-pumped CW lasing of Yb:KYW and Yb:KGW,” Opt. Commun.165(1–3), 71–75 (1999). [CrossRef]
  28. L. Fan, Y. X. Fan, Y. Q. Li, H. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Wang, and H. T. Wang, “High-efficiency continuous-wave Raman conversion with a BaWO4 Raman crystal,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1687–1689 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “An intracavity, frequency-doubled BaWO4 Raman laser generating multi-watt continuous-wave, yellow emission,” Opt. Express18(6), 5984–5992 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. Yu, Z. Li, A. J. Lee, J. Li, H. Zhang, J. Wang, H. M. Pask, J. A. Piper, and M. Jiang, “A continuous wave SrMoO4 Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 579–581 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. W. Lubeigt, V. G. Savitski, G. M. Bonner, S. L. Geoghegan, I. Friel, J. E. Hastie, M. D. Dawson, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “1.6 W continuous-wave Raman laser using low-loss synthetic diamond,” Opt. Express19(7), 6938–6944 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. D. J. Spence, P. Dekker, and H. M. Pask, “Modeling of continuous wave intracavity Raman lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13(3), 756–763 (2007). [CrossRef]
  33. J. Dong, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, A. A. Kaminskii, and Z. Cai, “Comparative study the effect of Yb concentrations on laser characteristics of Yb:YAG ceramics and crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(4), 282–289 (2009). [CrossRef]
  34. J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. I. Ueda, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Effect of ytterbium concentration on cw Yb:YAG microchip laser performance at ambient temperature - Part I: Experiments,” Appl. Phys. B89(2–3), 359–365 (2007). [CrossRef]
  35. A. S. Grabtchikov, A. N. Kuzmin, V. A. Lisinetskii, G. I. Ryabtsev, V. A. Orlovich, and A. A. Demidovich, “Stimulated Raman scattering in Nd:KGW laser with diode pumping,” J. Alloy. Comp.300–301(1–2), 300–302 (2000). [CrossRef]
  36. H. M. Pask, “Continuous-wave, all-solid-state, intracavity Raman laser,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2454–2456 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. J. Lee, H. M. Pask, P. Dekker, and J. A. Piper, “High efficiency, multi-Watt CW yellow emission from an intracavity-doubled self-Raman laser using Nd:GdVO4.,” Opt. Express16(26), 21958–21963 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. Omatsu, M. Okida, A. Lee, and H. M. Pask, “Thermal lensing in a diode-end-pumped continuous-wave self-Raman Nd-doped GdVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B108(1), 73–79 (2012). [CrossRef]
  39. Y. M. Duan, H. Y. Zhu, G. Zhang, C. H. Huang, Y. Wei, C. Y. Tu, Z. J. Zhu, F. G. Yang, and Z. Y. You, “Efficient 559.6 nm light produced by sum-frequency generation of diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG/SrWO4 Raman laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(7), 491–494 (2010). [CrossRef]

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