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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Oct. 21, 2013
  • pp: 24665–24673
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Diode-pumped continuous wave tunable and graphene Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers

T.L. Feng, S.Z. Zhao, K.J. Yang, G.Q. Li, D.C. Li, J. Zhao, W.C. Qiao, J. Hou, Y. Yang, J.L. He, L.H. Zheng, Q.G. Wang, X.D. Xu, L.B. Su, and J. Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 24665-24673 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.024665


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Abstract

We have investigated the lasing characteristics of Tm:LSO crystal in three operation regimes: continuous wave (CW), wavelength tunable and passive Q-switching based on graphene. In CW regime, a maximum output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm with a slope efficiency of 21% was achieved. With a quartz plate, a broad wavelength tunable range of 145 nm was obtained, corresponding to a FWHM of 100 nm. By using a graphene saturable absorber mirror, the passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser produced pulses with duration of 7.8 μs at 2030.8 nm under a repetition rate of 7.6 kHz, corresponding to pulse energy of 14.0 μJ.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years, pulsed solid-state lasers emitting in 2 μm eye-safe region have attracted a lot due to their wide applications in medicine, ranging, laser LIDAR, environmental atmosphere monitoring and so on. Additionally, they can also be used as pump source for pumping optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and solid-state lasers in middle-infrared region [1

1. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001). [CrossRef]

5

5. H. H. Yu, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 laser with 1.26 mJ output energy,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2544–2546 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Generally, Q-switching methods provide simple ways to obtain nano- or microsecond pulses with high energy and peak power at 2 μm. Active Q-switching methods such as acousto-optical modulator had been employed before the suitable saturable absorber for 2 μm lasers came forth [6

6. B. Q. Yao, Y. Z. Wang, Y. L. Ju, and W. J. He, “Performance of AO Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4laser pumped by a 794nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5157–5162 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. J. R. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. S. Chen, Y. X. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 462–464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Compared with active Q-switching, the saturable absorber based passive Q-switching has advantages of compactness, simplicity and reliability, etc. Up to now, lots of materials have been employed as saturable absorbers for passively Q-switched 2 μm lasers, such as graphene [10

10. Q. Wang, H. Teng, Y. W. Zou, Z. G. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, J. J. Lin, L. W. Guo, and Z. Y. Wei, “Graphene on SiC as a Q-switcher for a 2 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 395–397 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Cr:ZnS, Cr:ZnSe [11

11. F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 501–508 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Titov, V. V. Badikov, S. G. Sheina, V. L. Panyutin, M. Mond, and S. Kück, “Efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser operation around 1.9μm and self-frequency Raman conversion of Tm-doped KY(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2926–2928 (2002). [CrossRef]

], InGaAs/GaAs [13

13. B. Q. Yao, Y. Tian, G. Li, and Y. Z. Wang, “InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13574–13579 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], PbS-doped glass [14

14. M. S. Gaponenko, I. A. Denisov, V. E. Kisel, A. M. Malyarevich, A. A. Zhilin, A. A. Onushchenko, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 787–791 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and etc. Among these saturable absorbers mentioned above, graphene was characterized with a broadband wavelength-insensitive absorption range due to the zero band gap between the conduction and valence band, which enables it absorb light from visible to the THz waveband in principle [15

15. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Q. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, its ultrafast recovery time [16

16. G. C. Xing, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], low saturation intensity, high damage threshold, and easy fabrication [17

17. W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010). [CrossRef]

], make it become a promising saturable absorber suitable for pulsed lasers.

In this paper, for the first time as far as we know, we have investigated the detailed lasing characteristics of Tm:LSO crystal operating in CW, wavelength tunable and graphene based Q-switching regimes. In CW regime, a maximum output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm was obtained, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 21%. By using a quartz plate as the wavelength selector, tunable Tm:LSO laser was realized, which produced a total wavelength tunable range of 145 nm from 1936.0 nm to 2081.9 nm. When a graphene saturable absorber mirror (SAM) was employed, a passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser was realized, and pulses with duration of 7.8 μs under a repetition rate of 7.6 kHz at 2030.8 nm were obtained, corresponding to a maximum pulse energy of 14.0 μJ.

2. Lasing characteristics of Tm:LSO crystal

2.1 CW operation

The schematic of the diode-pumped Tm:LSO laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diode-pumped Tm:LSO laser setup.
. A fiber-coupled diode laser was used as the pump source with a maximum output power of 50 W at 790 nm at 20 °C. The fiber core with a numerical aperture of 0.22 was 100 µm in diameter. A 1:1 imaging module was employed to focus the pump light into Tm:LSO crystal. The 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 Tm:LSO crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique with 4 at.% Tm3+ ions doped. Both surfaces of the Tm:LSO crystal were antireflection coated from 750 to 850 nm (reflectivity < 2%) and 1930-2230 nm (reflectivity < 0.8%). Its absorption coefficient was calculated to be 3.3 cm−1 at 790 nm. The laser crystal was wrapped in indium foil and mounted in a copper block cooled to 12°C by water.

The CW operation of diode-pumped Tm:LSO laser was investigated first by using a X-type cavity consisting of mirrors M1, M2, M4 and OC1. M1 was an input mirror with antireflection coated from 750 to 850 nm (reflectivity < 2%) and high reflectivity coated (reflectivity> 99.9%) from 2010 to 2100 nm, M2 was a concave mirror with radius of 75 mm and high reflectivity coated (reflectivity> 99.9%) from 2010 to 2100 nm, M4 was a flat mirror also with high reflectivity coated (reflectivity> 99.9%) from 2010 to 2100 nm. In CW regime, four output couplers (OCs) with different transmissions of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% were employed for comparisons. A laser power meter (MAX 500AD, Coherent, USA) was used to measure the average output power and a laser spectrometer with a resolution bandwidth of 0.4 nm was employed for measuring the output spectra (APE WaveScan, APE Inc.). The threshold absorbed pump powers were 0.37 W, 0.42 W, 0.47 W and 0.65 W for OCs of T = 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, respectively. The power performance and output spectra characteristics for the CW Tm:LSO lasers with different OCs are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Average output power versus absorbed pump power in CW regime for different OCs of T = 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3%, respectively.
and Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output spectra from Tm:LSO lasers in CW regime with different OCs.
, respectively. In Fig. 2, the average output powers are plotted as a function of the absorbed pump power, which increased linearly with the augment of absorbed pump powers. A maximum average output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm with a slope efficiency of 21% was achieved by using OC of T = 1%. The maximum average output powers of 0.43 W at 2053.7 nm, 0.58 W at 2056.1 nm and 0.45 W at 2053.1 nm were obtained with OCs of T = 0.5%, T = 2% and T = 3%, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 14.5%, 20.5% and 16.8%, respectively.

2.2 CW wavelength tunable operation

In the wavelength tunable experiment, the employed laser cavity was the same with the CW operation, except inserting a 2 mm thick birefringent quartz plate at Brewster's angle before the output coupler OC1. Since the CW output results indicated that the OC of T = 1% could give a high efficiency, the wavelength tunable lasing characteristics of the Tm:LSO crystal was studied with OC of T = 1% at the maximum absorbed pump power of 3.4 W. By rotating the quartz plate and aligning the OC carefully, the output wavelengths could be tuned from 1936.0 nm to 2081.9 nm with a total wavelength tunable range over 145 nm, corresponding to a FWHM of 100 nm. The output powers versus output wavelengths are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Wavelength tunability of CW Tm:LSO laser at the absorbed pump power of 3.4 W with OC of T = 1%.
, from which relatively high efficiencies could be obtained from 1960 nm to 2060 nm. A maximum output power of 201.2 mW was obtained at 2036.7nm.

2.3 Q-switching operation

The characteristic of Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers was investigated by using a graphene SAM. The SAM was fabricated by transferring high-quality chemical-vapor-deposited graphene on a 2 μm high reflectivity plane mirror, which was the same process with the description in Ref [27

27. G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 µm wavelength [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In Ref [27

27. G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 µm wavelength [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012). [CrossRef]

], a passively Q-switched Tm:CLNGG laser was also realized by using such a graphene SAM, where pulses with duration of 9 µs under a repetition rate of 5.8 kHz were produced. In our experiment, two layers of graphene were transferred on a high reflectivity mirror. The passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser characteristics were studied in a five mirror cavity formed by mirrors M1, M2, M3, OC2 and graphene SAM. M3 was a concave mirror with a radius of 50 mm and high reflectivity coated (reflectivity> 99.9%) from 2010 to 2100 nm. According to ABCD matrix theory, the calculated beam radius on graphene SAM was 23 × 24 μm2. The employed OC2 had a transmission of 1% for obtaining high efficiency and intracavity power intensity. By aligning the cavity mirrors and graphene SAM carefully, passive Q-switching operation was achieved as soon as the absorbed pump power exceeded 1.5 W. The average output powers as a function of absorbed pump power for passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average output powers versus absorbed pump powers for passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser.
. As can be seen, a maximum average output power of 106.3 mW was achieved at an absorbed pump power of 3.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 5.7%.

The output pulse trains were recorded by a digital oscilloscope (1 GHz bandwidth, Tektronix DPO 7102, USA) and a fast InGaAs photodetector with a rise time of 35 ps, (EOT, ET-5000, USA).The relationships between pulse repetition rates and pulse durations on the absorbed pump powers were recorded as shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The repetition rate and pulse duration versus absorbed pump power from Q-switched Tm:LSO laser.
. From Fig. 6, we can see that the pulse repetition rates increased from 3.5 kHz to 7.6 kHz and the pulse durations decreased from 20 μs to 7.8 μs as the absorbed pumped power increased from threshold to 3.4 W. The long pulse duration in microsecond region was due to a low modulation depth of the 2 layer graphene and a long cavity in our experiment.

With the measured average output powers and the repetition rates given in Fig. 6, the pulse energies could be calculated as shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The pulse energy versus absorbed pump power for Tm:LSO laser.
. A maximum pulse energy of 14.0 μJ was achieved at absorbed pump power of 3.4 W. The temporal profiles of pulse trains with repetition rate of 7.6 kHz and a single 7.8 μs pulse are shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The temporal profiles of the pulse trains from passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser with OC of T = 1%.
, from which it can be observed that the pulse to pulse fluctuation is less than 5%, indicating a nice Q-switching stability.

The emission wavelength of the graphene passively Q-switched Tm:LSO laser was located at 2030.8 nm without variation when the absorbed pump power increased from threshold to 3.4 W, which is shown in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Output spectrum characteristics for grapheme Q-switched Tm:LSO laser.
. However, this emission wavelength was slightly blue shifted compared with 2054.9 nm in CW running regime. We attribute the spectral blue shifting to the increased inversion rate introduced by the insertion losses of the graphene SAM in a typical three-level laser system [28

28. R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Conclusion

In this paper, the characteristic of CW, wavelength tunable and graphene passively Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers were demonstrated for the first time. In CW regime, the Tm:LSO laser produced a maximum average output power of 0.65 W at 2054.9 nm with a slope efficiency of 21%. With a quartz plate as wavelength selector, the Tm:LSO laser could be wavelength tuned within a total wavelength range of 145 nm from 1936.0 nm to 2081.9 nm, corresponding to a FWHM of 100 nm. In passive Q-switching regime, the Tm:LSO laser yielded 7.8 μs pulses at 2030.8 nm under a repetition rate of 7.6 kHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 14.0 μJ, indicating that Tm:LSO crystal is a potential candidate for producing high energy pulses at 2 μm.

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61008024, 61205145, 61078031, 60908030, 60938001), Research Award Fund for Outstanding Middle-aged and Young Scientist of Shandong Province (BS2011DX022), Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, IIFSDU (2012JC025), and Innovation Project of Shanghai Institute of Ceramics (Y04ZC5150G). The authors also acknowledge the support from Prof. Thomas Dekorsy in Konstanz University, Germany.

References and links

1.

A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72(2), 253–255 (2001). [CrossRef]

2.

P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Bromberger, K. J. Yang, D. Heinecke, T. Dekorsy, L. H. Zheng, J. Xu, and G. J. Zhao, “Comparative investigations on continuous wave operation of a-cut and b-cut Tm,Ho:YAlO3 lasers at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6505–6513 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Li, S. H. Yang, C. M. Zhao, H. Y. Zhang, and W. Xie, “High efficient single-frequency output at 1991 nm from a diode-pumped Tm:YAP coupled cavity,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12161–12167 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

H. H. Yu, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 laser with 1.26 mJ output energy,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2544–2546 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

B. Q. Yao, Y. Z. Wang, Y. L. Ju, and W. J. He, “Performance of AO Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4laser pumped by a 794nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5157–5162 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

L. J. Li, B. Q. Yao, C. W. Song, Y. Z. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, “Continuous wave and AO Q-switch operation Tm,Ho:YAP laser pumped by a laser diode of 798 nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(2), 102–104 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

L. J. Li, B. Q. Yao, Z. G. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. Li, and Y. Z. Wang, “Continuous wave and AO Q-switch operation of a b-cut Tm,Ho:YAP laser with dual wavelengths pumped by a laser diode of 792nm,” Laser Phys. 20(1), 205–208 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

J. R. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. S. Chen, Y. X. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 462–464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Q. Wang, H. Teng, Y. W. Zou, Z. G. Zhang, D. H. Li, R. Wang, C. Q. Gao, J. J. Lin, L. W. Guo, and Z. Y. Wei, “Graphene on SiC as a Q-switcher for a 2 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 395–397 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fibre laser near 2.l μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 501–508 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Titov, V. V. Badikov, S. G. Sheina, V. L. Panyutin, M. Mond, and S. Kück, “Efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser operation around 1.9μm and self-frequency Raman conversion of Tm-doped KY(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2926–2928 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Q. Yao, Y. Tian, G. Li, and Y. Z. Wang, “InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13574–13579 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. S. Gaponenko, I. A. Denisov, V. E. Kisel, A. M. Malyarevich, A. A. Zhilin, A. A. Onushchenko, N. V. Kuleshov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 787–791 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, J. Strait, P. George, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, M. G. Spencer, D. Veksler, and Y. Q. Chen, “Measurement of the optical absorption spectra of epitaxial graphene from terahertz to visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131905 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

G. C. Xing, H. C. Guo, X. H. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. Huan, “The Physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

W. D. Tan, C. Y. Su, R. J. Knize, G. Q. Xie, L. J. Li, and D. Y. Tang, “Mode locking of ceramic Nd: yttrium aluminum garnet with graphene as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 031106 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

A. A. Lagatsky, S. Calvez, J. A. Gupta, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, C. T. A. Brown, M. D. Dawson, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2 μm,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9995–10000 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

K. J. Yang, H. Bromberger, D. Heinecke, C. Kölbl, H. Schäfer, T. Dekorsy, S. Z. Zhao, L. H. Zheng, J. Xu, and G. J. Zhao, “Efficient continuous wave and passively mode-locked Tm-doped crystalline silicate laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18630–18635 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

C. Li, R. Moncorge, J. C. Souriau, and C. Wyon, “Efficient 2.05 µm room temperature Y2SiO5:Tm3+ CW laser,” Opt. Commun. 101(5–6), 356–360 (1993). [CrossRef]

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J. Xu, L. H. Zheng, K. J. Yang, T. Dekorsy, Q. G. Wang, X. D. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Growth and efficient tunable laser operation of Tm: Sc2SiO5 crystal,” Advances in Optical Materials, Optical Society of America (2012).

22.

S. Zhuang, D. Li, X. Xu, Z. Wang, H. Yu, J. Xu, L. Chen, Y. Zhao, L. Guo, and X. Xu, “Continuous-wave and actively Q-switched Nd:LSO crystal lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 107(1), 41–45 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Jacquemet, C. Jacquemet, N. Janel, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, J. Petit, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and B. Ferrand, “Efficient laser action of Yb:LSO and Yb:YSO oxyorthosilicates crystals under high-power diode-pumping,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 171–176 (2005). [CrossRef]

24.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Z. Y. Hua, “Judd–Ofelt analysis of spectra and experimental evaluation of laser performance of Tm3+ doped Lu2SiO5 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B. 17(10), 3635–3639 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

F. Thibault, D. Pelenc, F. Druon, Y. Zaouter, M. Jacquemet, and P. Georges, “Efficient diode-pumped Yb3+:Y2SiO5 and Yb3+:Lu2SiO5 high-power femtosecond laser operation,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1555–1557 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. M. Duan, Y. Z. Wang, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Diode pumped room-temperature continuous wave Tm-doped Lu2SiO5 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(10), 714–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 µm wavelength [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012). [CrossRef]

28.

R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.3538) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, pulsed

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 16, 2013
Published: October 8, 2013

Citation
T.L. Feng, S.Z. Zhao, K.J. Yang, G.Q. Li, D.C. Li, J. Zhao, W.C. Qiao, J. Hou, Y. Yang, J.L. He, L.H. Zheng, Q.G. Wang, X.D. Xu, L.B. Su, and J. Xu, "Diode-pumped continuous wave tunable and graphene Q-switched Tm:LSO lasers," Opt. Express 21, 24665-24673 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-21-24665


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References

  1. A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, V. I. Levchenko, V. N. Yakimovich, M. Mond, E. Heumann, G. Huber, H. Kretschmann, and S. Kück, “Efficient laser operation and continuous-wave diode pumping of Cr2+:ZnSe single crystals,” Appl. Phys. B72(2), 253–255 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, C. A. Miller, J. R. Mosto, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient mid-infrared laser using 1.9-μm pumped Ho:YAG and ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B17(5), 723–728 (2000). [CrossRef]
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