OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Oct. 21, 2013
  • pp: 25197–25209
« Show journal navigation

10-Gbit/s direct modulation of a TO-56-can packed 600-μm long laser diode with 2% front-facet reflectance

Shih-Ying Lin, Yu-Chuan Su, Yi-Cheng Li, Hai-Lin Wang, Gong-Cheng Lin, Shian-Ming Chen, and Gong-Ru Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 25197-25209 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.025197


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2495 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A 600-μm long-cavity laser diode with a front-facet reflectance of 2% is demonstrated as a colorless OC-192 transmitter for the future DWDM-PON, which is packed in a TO-56-can package of only 4-GHz frequency bandwidth but can be over-bandwidth modulated with 10-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero data-stream. The coherent injection-locking successfully suppresses its side-mode intensity and noise floor level, which further improves its modulation throughput at higher frequencies. With increasing the coherent injection-locking power from −12 to −3 dBm, the side-mode suppression ratio significantly increases from 39 to 50 dB, which also suppresses the frequency chirp from −12 to −4 GHz within a temporal range of 150 ps. The dense but weak longitudinal modes (with 0.6-nm spacing) in the long-cavity laser diode suppresses to one single-mode in a 100-GHz wide DWDM channel for carrying the OC-192 data at 9.953 Gbit/s. Such an over-bandwidth modulated laser diode still exhibits an on/off extinction ratio of 6.68 dB and a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.96 dB, which can provide a back-to-back receiving power sensitivity of −12.2 dBm at BER of 10−9. After 25-km DSF transmission of the OOK data-stream at a bit rate up to 10 Gbit/s, the receiving power sensitivity is −10.1 dBm at a requested BER of 10−9.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In this work, a 600-μm long-cavity laser diode with its front-facet reflectance as low as 2% is demonstrated as a colorless and universal OC-192 transmitter for the future DWDM-PON after injection-locking, which is packed in a TO-56-can package with a modulation frequency bandwidth of only 4 GHz but can be over-bandwidth directly modulated to deliver the non-return-to-zero data-stream at 10 Gbit/s effectively. With the modified rate equations under injection-locking case, the ideal output eye-diagram of the directly NRZ-OOK encoded long-cavity colorless laser diode is simulated by using the experimentally obtained parameters. The effects of biased current and injection-locking power on the modulation throughput, bandwidth and bit-error-rate (BER) performance under OC-192 NRZ data transmission are characterized. The modulation response, side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR), extinction ratio (ER), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the long-cavity colorless laser diode under coherent injection-locking are optimized to promote the receiving power sensitivity of the 25-km transmitted 10-Gbit/s NRZ data-stream with such a TO-56 packed long-cavity colorless laser diode.

2. Experimental setup

Afterwards, the power-current characteristic of the long-cavity colorless laser diode injection-locked at different powers were measured by a commercial optical power meter (ILX OMM-6810B). A commercial microwave spectrum analyzer (Agilent, 8565E) was used to measure the frequency modulation responses with increasing the injection power level from −12 to −3 dBm. The dynamic chirp of the transmitted data was measured by a commercial optical chirp form tester (Advantest, Q7606B). The eye-diagram of the OC-192 NR data transmitted by the injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode was analyzed by a digital sampling oscilloscope (Agilent, 86106A). According to the datasheet of DCA (Agilent 86106A), the CW inaccuracy is only 0.2%. The BER performances of the 10 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK data transmitted by the long-cavity colorless laser diode was analyzed via a commercial BER tester (Agilent, 70843A) after receiving by a NRZ optical receiver (Agilent, 83434A). In consideration of the future application in optical distribution network, both the 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and the 25-km long dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF, Corning MetroCor Optical Fiber) were applied to the DWDM-PON setup for characterizing the metropolitan transmission performance.

3. Results and discussions

Figure 2
Fig. 2 spectra without (left) and with injection locking (middle) and power-current responses (right) of the long-cavity colorless laser diode.
shows the power-current characteristics of the long-cavity colorless laser diode without and with coherent injection locking varying from −15 to 0 dBm. The externally injected photons can effectively promote the stimulated emission by reducing the spontaneous emission to enhance the gain of the colorless laser diode [33

33. S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, “Gain change and threshold reduction of diode laser by injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 253–256 (1998). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Z.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, and G.-C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13622–13635 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In other words, the threshold current is decreased by implementing injection locking, because the externally injected photons effectively promote the stimulated emitting photons in the long-cavity colorless laser diode cavity [34

34. G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Z.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, and G.-C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13622–13635 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As the injection-locking power increases from −15 to 0 dBm, the threshold current of the injection-locked laser diode is effectively reduced from 14.5 to 9 mA. This causes the increasing output power with the enlarged injection level. The power-to-current slope (dP/dI) at bias currents larger than 20 mA keeps invariant, whereas the dP/dI at slightly above threshold region shows a decreasing trend due to the contribution of the externally injected photons. At such low bias conditions, the excited carriers fail to duplicate all of the externally injected photons such that most of the incoming photons left in the cavity but not amplified. In this case, the output response behaves somewhat like the summation of powers from the duplicated stimulated emission and the external injection but the latter one is dominated in this region. According to the lasing spectra shown in Fig. 2, the gain-spectrum with a 3-dB linewidth of 4.7 nm is provided at a bias current around two times of it threshold current. By applying the coherent injection-locking at −12 dBm, the long-cavity colorless laser diode is ensured to be operated in single-mode lasing with a spectral linewidth (FWHM) of 0.08 nm.

Although injection locking has been verified since early years to enhance the intrinsic modulation bandwidth [35

35. J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 34–36 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 36

36. X. Jin and S. L. Chuang, “Bandwidth enhancement of Fabry-Perot quantum-well lasers by injection-locking,” Solid-State Electron. 50(6), 1141–1149 (2006). [CrossRef]

] of a laser diode, the injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode shows a slightly extraordinary modulating response as compared to other transmitters. According to left part of Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Left: the frequency responses of the long-cavity colorless laser diode at different injection-locking power level. Right: the SMSR and frequency bandwidth of the coherently injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode with different injection powers.
, the relaxation resonance frequency of the long-cavity colorless laser diode is also enhanced by injection locking, which is attributed to the enhancement on both the relative strength of the coupling and gain coefficients [37

37. L. Li, “Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1701–1708 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. In the meantime, the injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode shows a decayed throughput power with almost identical negative power to frequency slope at <5 GHz but presents a better response in high frequency region (6-10 GHz), which essentially benefits the NRZ transmission performance under high-speed modulation. The improvement on high-frequency (7-10 GHz) response becomes much apparent as the injection power increases from −12 to −6 dBm. However, as the coherent injection-locking power is larger than −6 dBm, the throughput power response in high frequency region seems to seriously decade. Injection locking with appropriate injection-locking power can effectively enhance the bandwidth of the long-cavity colorless laser diode; however, the response of the long-cavity colorless laser diode at low frequency region is reduced.

At constant current, the excited carriers are limited so that only part of the injected photons are duplicated to enhance the stimulated emission, whereas other excessive photons fail to induce more stimulated emission photons and remain as the continuous-wave lasing in the colorless laser diode cavity. This results in a stronger DC component and a gradually decayed throughput power in the frequency response spectrum of the injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode. The intense injection-locking inevitably leads to the enlarged negative power-to-frequency slope, which eventually degrades the high-frequency modulation bandwidth. To enhance the modulation response, the bias current has to be further increased such that the abundant carriers can provide sufficient throughput power response at higher frequency region. The correlation among the SMSR, modulation bandwidth and the injection-locking power of the coherently injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode is depicted in the right part of Fig. 3. The externally injected photons with high coherence assist the injection-locked mode in achieving gain, which enables the SMSR to enhance from 39.6 to 50.3 dB by enlarging the injection-locking level from −12 to −3 dBm with the suppressed side-mode intensity and ASE power. Nevertheless, the effect of side-mode suppression seems to saturate at injection power larger than −3 dBm. When the injection power goes beyond −3 dBm, the SMSR can be further enhanced by less than 1 dB. The frequency bandwidth (f6dB) of the long-cavity colorless laser diode is also affected by injection power at some extent. As injection power is adjusted from −12 to −9 dBm, the 10-dB frequency bandwidth increases from 7.8 to 9.1 GHz. Apparently, implementing appropriate injection-locking power can effectively suppress the side-mode intensity but inevitably set a compromise between the modulation throughput responses in low (<5 GHz) and high (6-10 GHz) frequency regions of the long-cavity colorless laser diode.

With the modified rate equation set [38

38. C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(6), 830–841 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. K.-Y. Park, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, and C.-H. Lee, “A theoretical model of a wavelength-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diode to the externally injected narrow-band ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1797–1799 (2005). [CrossRef]

] for the coherently injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode by using the experimentally obtained modulation response in time domain, the eye-diagram of the directly NRZ-OOK encoded long-cavity colorless laser diode can be simulated, as given by
dN(t)dt=ηiI(t)qN(t)τsνgaV[N(t)Ntr]S(t),
(1)
dϕ(t)dt=α2{ΓνgaV[N(t)Ntr]1τp}κSinjS(t)sinϕ(t)Δωinj,
(2)
dS(t)dt=12{ΓνgaV[N(t)Ntr]1τp}S(t)+κSinjS(t)cosϕ(t),
(3)
in which N denotes the carrier number, ϕ the phase difference (ϕ slave- ϕ master), S the photon number of the long-cavity colorless laser diode, I the bias current, ηi the internal quantum efficiency, a the differential gain, Γ the optical confinement factor, νg the velocity, τp the photon lifetime, τs the spontaneous carrier lifetime, κ the coupling efficiency, α the linewidth enhancement factor, Sinj the injection photon number, and Δωinj the detuning frequency. The requested characteristic parameters of the long-cavity colorless laser diode for analytically solving the aforementioned equations are summarized in Table 1

Table 1. Characteristic Parameters of Laser Diodes for Simulation

table-icon
View This Table
.

In Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) the modulation response in frequency domain, (b) the FFT of modulation response in time domain, (c) the FFT (solid) and fitting function (dashed), and (d) the simulated eye-diagram.
, the output shape of the directly NRZ-OOK encoded long-cavity colorless laser diode is simulated by either using a degraded shape obtained by fast Fourier transforming the modulation response of the long-cavity colorless laser diode in frequency domain, or by simply using the original electrical OOK data shape in time domain that is output from the PRBS generator. Alternatively, such a shape can be accessed by simply seeding a TTL data into the long-cavity colorless laser diode and then functionalize the monitored output.

The analog modulation response of the long-cavity colorless laser diode in frequency domain is shown in the upper left of Fig. 4(a). For simulation, the electrical OOK data shape at the PRBS generator output in time domain, as shown in Fig. 4(b). After fitting the time-domain response with a polynomial function at a degree of 9 [see Fig. 4(c)] and sending into the MATLAB simulation program, the rate equation can numerically solved to provide a simulated eye-diagram, as shown in the lower right part of Fig. 4(d). In this simulation, the modulation rate of the injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode is 9.953 Gbit/s (OC-192), and the external injection-locking power is −3 dBm. According to the simulated result, even the long-cavity colorless laser diode with 3-dB bandwidth of only 4.9 GHz can present a clear eye-diagram at 10 Gbit/s without serious distortion. By directly modulating the coherently injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode with a NRZ-OOK PRBS data stream at 10 Gbit/s, the eye-diagrams without and with increased injection power from −12 to −3 dBm are shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The optical eye-diagrams and BER of the directly OC-192 NRZ modulated long-cavity colorless laser diode without and with injection power from −12 to −3 dBm.
. According to the frequency response shown in Fig. 3, the long-cavity colorless laser diode without injection shows a flat response in low frequency region and a 3-dB bandwidth of 4.9 GHz. Therefore, the long-cavity colorless laser diode without injection is expected to demonstrate a clear eye-diagram by using full-band carrier to transmit. Without injection, the overshooting effect is observed on the leading edge of the eye-diagram owing to the frequency chirp induced when biasing the laser diode closer to the threshold. As the injection power is enlarged to effectively reduce the threshold current of the laser diode, the chirp induced overshooting phenomenon can be greatly suppressed. With coherent injection-locking, it is feasible to control the whole power of modulation signal in single mode so that the modulation throughput response can be maximized within a limited injecting level. As increasing the injection power decreases the threshold current, the modulating amplitude from pattern generator is modified for reaching the optimized ER. As enlarging the injection-locking power can suppress the side-mode intensity and the noise floor, the ER and SNR can be improved from 5.36 to 5.88 dB and 4.3 to 4.41 dB, respectively, with injection power from −12 to −6 dBm. However, the improvement on SNR seems to be confined by the imperfect injection-locking condition. That is, the long-cavity colorless laser diode without temperature controller cannot avoid the fluctuation in temperature during the process of injection locking. Therefore, the BER response of the long-cavity colorless laser diode is unable to demonstrate an oblique line. With imperfect injection-locking situation, the external photons without modulation become part of noise in the cavity. With injection-locking power of −3 dBm, the long-cavity colorless laser diode shows a receiving power of −12.2 dBm with ER of 6.68 dB and SNR of 4.96 dB.

In addition, the frequency chirp plays a pivotal role in high-speed modulated transmission. The Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmitted data chirp of injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode without and with coherent injection at different power levels.
shows the time-resolved intensity and chirp waveforms for the long-cavity colorless laser diode coherently injection-locked at different power levels. The dynamic chirp of the free-running long-cavity colorless laser diode can be estimated by [21

21. G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17739–17746 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 40

40. S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/S by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 418–424 (1994). [CrossRef]

]
Δνc(t)=12πdϕ(t)dt=α4π=12π{α2g[N(t)(Nth2κg1+α2SinjSLm)]},
(4)
where Δνc denotes the time-dependent frequency chirp, ϕ the dynamic phase change, and SLm denotes the maximal photon number in the injection-locked mode. The rising part of the output signal from long-cavity colorless laser diode exhibits a positive chirp due to the positive frequency deviation. Similarly, a negative chirp is observed in the falling part of the output signal from the long-cavity colorless laser diode. The injection-locking technique definitely shows a remarkable improvement on suppressing the dynamic chirp [27

27. E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 90–99 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 40

40. S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/S by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 418–424 (1994). [CrossRef]

, 41

41. G.-R. Lin, H.-L. Wang, T.-K. Cheng, and G.-C. Lin, “Suppressing chirp and power penalty of channelized ASE injection-locked mode-number tunable weak-resonant-cavity FPLD transmitter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(9), 1106–1113 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and enhance the signal-to-noise ratio [42

42. Y.-H. Lin, C.-J. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Saturated signal-to-noise ratio of up-stream WRC-FPLD transmitter injection-locked by down-stream data-erased ASE carrier,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4067–4075 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] of the coherently injection-locked long-cavity colorless laser diode. By implementing a coherent injection locking with power of −9 dBm, the peak-to-peak chirp is suppressed from −12.1 (at free-running case) to −5.4 GHz. Moreover, it can be observed that as the injection power increases from −9 to −3 dBm, the peak-to-peak chirp further reduces to −4.1 GHz. The strong injection can reduce the change of carrier density and the corresponding variation on refractive index in the active region. Therefore, the frequency deviation in response to the changes of carrier density and refractive index is also decreased.

In consideration of practical optical distribution network, the BER performance of OC-192 NRZ data stream over 25-km transmission is discussed. Under back-to-back, 25-km SMF and 25-km DSF transmissions, the BER of the directly modulated long-cavity laser diode at 7, 8, and 10 Gbit/s are compared in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Left: the measured eye-diagrams of (a) the optical data-stream and (b) the OC-192 filtered and reshaped electrical data-stream from the directly modulated long-cavity colorless laser diode with injection-locking power of −6 dBm at bit rate of 10 Gbit/s under 25-km DSF transmission. Right: the BER responses of the directly modulated long-cavity colorless laser diode at bit rate of (a) 7 Gbit/s, (b) 8 Gbit/s, and (c) 10 Gbit/s under back-to-back (short dashed), 25-km DSF (solid), and 25-km SMF (dashed) transmissions.
. The injection-locking level is set as −6 dBm, because the BER response at 10 Gbit/s reveals a significant reduction on receiving power penalty by 5 dB when the long-cavity colorless laser diode is injection-locked with a power of more than −9 dBm. As the modulation rate increases from 7 to 8 Gbit/s in back-to-back transmission case, the ER slightly degrades from 6.1 to 5.8 dB to cause a power penalty of about 1 dB at BER of 10−9. The transmitted eye-diagram suffers from a chromatic dispersion to seriously distort after 25-km SMF transmission. As a result, the SNR is decreased by 2.1 dB to cause an additional power penalty of 0.7 dB at least. To overcome the chirp induced degradation, the 25-km long DSF with zero-dispersion wavelength shifting to 1550 nm is applied to suppress the chromatic dispersion. With an injection-locking power of −6 dBm, the received eye-diagram before and after OC-192 filtering and reshaping are compared in left part of Fig. 7. It is observed that the distortion can be significantly improved by filtering the received data stream with a standard OC-192 optical receiver. At a requested BER of 10−9, the receiving power is −17.8 and −16.7 dBm with data rate of 7 and 8 Gbit/s, respectively. If the transmission bit rate is further increased up to 10 Gbit/s, the receiving power sensitivity inevitably degrades to −10.1 dBm at BER of 10−9, which results in a power penalty of −6.7 and −7.7 dB as compared to the sensitivities obtained at 7 and 8 Gbit/s respectively. A significant BER floor occurs when transmitting the data stream at bit rate of up to 10 Gbit/s, which is attributed to the finite SNR and ER of the long-cavity colorless laser diode operated at such high data rate.

4. Conclusion

In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of 10-Gbit/s NRZ data transmission using a long-cavity colorless laser diode packed in a TO-56 can with a modulation bandwidth limited at 4 GHz. This implementation relies on the coherent injection locking and specific SMA connection of such a TO-can packed long-cavity colorless laser diode transmitter. The dense but weak longitudinal modes (with 0.6-nm spacing) in the long-cavity laser diode suppresses to one single-mode in a 100-GHz wide DWDM channel for carrying the OC-192 data at 9.953 Gbit/s. The effect of injection power on modulation throughput, SMSR, chirp, ER and SNR are also analyzed to optimize the BER performance of the beyond-bandwidth modulated laser diode. With increasing the coherent injection-locking power from −12 to −3 dBm, the side-mode suppression ratio significantly increases from 39 to 50 dB, which also suppresses the frequency chirp from −12 to −4 GHz within a temporal range of 150 ps. The coherent injection-locking shows the significant suppression on the noise floor level and frequency chirp, providing an enhanced SMSR of 42 dB and reduced chirp of −5.4 GHz even with the injection of only −9 dBm. After overcoming the limited frequency bandwidth set by the conventional TO-56-can package, the directly NRZ modulated data rate of the long-cavity colorless laser diode can be operated up to 10 Gbit/s with its ER and SNR of 6.68 dB and 4.96 dB, respectively. At back-to-back transmission case, the receiving power sensitivity of −12.2 dBm at BER of 10−9 is achieved. As the strong injection-locking effectively reduces the transient change on carrier density and corresponding refractive index in active region, the peak-to-peak chirp is further suppressed to −4 GHz by enlarging the coherent injection-locking power up to −3 dBm. For 25-km transmission, the receiving power can be improved by using DSF instead of SMF owing to the improvement on dispersion. At a requested BER of 10−9, the receiving power of the 25-km DSF transmission is −16.7 dBm with a NRZ-OOK data rate of 8 Gbit/s. By increasing the bit rate up to 10 Gbit/s, the receiving power sensitivity slightly degrades to −10.1 dBm with corresponding power penalty of 6.7 dB. For such a 600-μm long-cavity colorless laser diode, these are already the new records on both the allowable modulation bandwidth and the transmittable OOK data bit-rate, which enables its future DWDM-PON applications at a bit-rate over 10 Gbit/s.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C. and the Excellent Research Projects of National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R. O. C., under grants NSC100-2221-E-002-156-MY3, and NSC101-2221-E-002-071-MY3.

References and links

1.

D. Gutierrez, W.-T. Shaw, F.-T. An, Y.-L. Hsueh, M. Rogge, G. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Next Generation Optical Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3428–3442 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

K. Iwatsuki, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and M. Fujiwara, “Access and metro networks based on WDM technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2623–2630 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4520–4528 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Y. Kim and S. K. Han, “Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(22), 2350–2352 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, and S. Chi, “Wavelength-tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(22), 1710–1712 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

S. L. Woodward, P. P. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, and N. J. Frigo, “A spectrally sliced PON employing Fabry–Perot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1337–1339 (1998). [CrossRef]

7.

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, and J.-R. Wu, “Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40 GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry-Pe´ rot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1810–1812 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Lee, S. B. Kang, D. S. Lim, H. K. Lee, and W. V. Sorin, “Fiber link loss monitoring scheme in bidirectional WDM transmission using ASE-injected FP-LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 523–525 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

G.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13405–13413 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

G.-R. Lin, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, Y.-H. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, and T.-K. Cheng, “Comparison on injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with front-facet reflectivity of 1% and 30% for optical data transmission in wdm-pon system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(14), 2779–2785 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Lin, C.-J. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-C. Lin, “Reusing a data-erased ASE carrier in a weak-resonant-cavity laser diode for noise-suppressed error-free transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 676–685 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y.-C. Lin, G.-H. Peng, and G.-R. Lin, “Compression of 200 GHz DWDM channelized TDM pulsed carrier from optically modelocking WRC-FPLD fiber ring at 10 GHz,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5526–5532 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry–Perot laser diode with injection-locking mode number-dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1349–1355 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

S. Kobayashi, J. Yamada, S. Machida, and T. Kimura, “Single mode operation of 500 Mbit/s modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 16(19), 746–747 (1980). [CrossRef]

17.

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Su, J.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. in press.

18.

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, Y.-F. Wu, S.-P. Huang, Y.-L. Liu, and C.-L. Pan, “Performance of long-reach passive access networks using injection-locked fabry–perot laser diodes with finite front-facet reflectivities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1929–1934 (2013). [CrossRef]

19.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(3), 7901208 (2013). [CrossRef]

20.

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17739–17746 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-xavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2925–2932 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, F. Steinhagen, H. Hillmer, R. Losch, W. Schlapp, and R. Gobel, “10-Gb/s standard fiber transmission using directly modulated 1.55-pm quantum-well DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(11), 1357–1359 (1995). [CrossRef]

24.

Z. Al-Qazwini and H. Kim, “Symmetric 10-Gb/s WDM-PON using directly modulated lasers for downlink and RSOAs for uplink,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(12), 1891–1899 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, and J. Prat, “10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation,” in European Optical Communication Conf. (ECOC2008), 1–2, Sept. 2008. [CrossRef]

26.

M. C. Wu, C. Chang-Hasnain, E. K. Lau, and X. Zhao, “High-speed modulation of optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC)2008, San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008. [CrossRef]

27.

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(1), 90–99 (2008). [CrossRef]

28.

G. Yabre, “Effect of relatively strong light injection on the chirp-to-power ratio and the 3 dB bandwidth of directly modulated semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2367–2373 (1996). [CrossRef]

29.

E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H.-K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating > 100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6609–6618 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7(7), 709–711 (1995). [CrossRef]

31.

P. J. Winzer, F. Fidler, M. J. Matthews, L. E. Nelson, H. J. Thiele, J. H. Sinsky, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Winter, D. Castagnozzi, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “10-Gb/s upgrade of bidirectional CWDM systems using electronic equalization and FEC,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 203–210 (2005). [CrossRef]

32.

I. Papagiannakis, D. Klonidis, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, and I. Tomkos, “Performance improvement of low-cost 2.5-Gb/s rated DML sources operated at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(23), 1983–1985 (2008). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, “Gain change and threshold reduction of diode laser by injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 253–256 (1998). [CrossRef]

34.

G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Z.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, and G.-C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13622–13635 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 34–36 (1996). [CrossRef]

36.

X. Jin and S. L. Chuang, “Bandwidth enhancement of Fabry-Perot quantum-well lasers by injection-locking,” Solid-State Electron. 50(6), 1141–1149 (2006). [CrossRef]

37.

L. Li, “Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(8), 1701–1708 (1994). [CrossRef]

38.

C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(6), 830–841 (2011). [CrossRef]

39.

K.-Y. Park, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, and C.-H. Lee, “A theoretical model of a wavelength-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diode to the externally injected narrow-band ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1797–1799 (2005). [CrossRef]

40.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/S by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(3), 418–424 (1994). [CrossRef]

41.

G.-R. Lin, H.-L. Wang, T.-K. Cheng, and G.-C. Lin, “Suppressing chirp and power penalty of channelized ASE injection-locked mode-number tunable weak-resonant-cavity FPLD transmitter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(9), 1106–1113 (2009). [CrossRef]

42.

Y.-H. Lin, C.-J. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Saturated signal-to-noise ratio of up-stream WRC-FPLD transmitter injection-locked by down-stream data-erased ASE carrier,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4067–4075 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(140.3520) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, injection-locked
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: June 13, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 6, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 6, 2013
Published: October 15, 2013

Citation
Shih-Ying Lin, Yu-Chuan Su, Yi-Cheng Li, Hai-Lin Wang, Gong-Cheng Lin, Shian-Ming Chen, and Gong-Ru Lin, "10-Gbit/s direct modulation of a TO-56-can packed 600-μm long laser diode with 2% front-facet reflectance," Opt. Express 21, 25197-25209 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-21-25197


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. Gutierrez, W.-T. Shaw, F.-T. An, Y.-L. Hsueh, M. Rogge, G. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Next Generation Optical Access Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(11), 3428–3442 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Iwatsuki, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and M. Fujiwara, “Access and metro networks based on WDM technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(11), 2623–2630 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express16(7), 4520–4528 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Y. Kim and S. K. Han, “Reflective SOA-based bidirectional WDM-PON sharing optical source for up/downlink data and broadcasting transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(22), 2350–2352 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, and S. Chi, “Wavelength-tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(22), 1710–1712 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Woodward, P. P. Iannone, K. C. Reichmann, and N. J. Frigo, “A spectrally sliced PON employing Fabry–Perot lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(9), 1337–1339 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chang, and J.-R. Wu, “Rational harmonic mode-locking of erbium-doped fiber laser at 40 GHz using a loss-modulated Fabry-Pe´ rot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(8), 1810–1812 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(7), 1579–1581 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Lee, S. B. Kang, D. S. Lim, H. K. Lee, and W. V. Sorin, “Fiber link loss monitoring scheme in bidirectional WDM transmission using ASE-injected FP-LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(3), 523–525 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. G.-H. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring,” Opt. Express16(17), 13405–13413 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G.-R. Lin, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, Y.-H. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, and T.-K. Cheng, “Comparison on injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with front-facet reflectivity of 1% and 30% for optical data transmission in wdm-pon system,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(14), 2779–2785 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. G.-R. Lin, Y.-H. Lin, C.-J. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-C. Lin, “Reusing a data-erased ASE carrier in a weak-resonant-cavity laser diode for noise-suppressed error-free transmission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(5), 676–685 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express15(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y.-C. Lin, G.-H. Peng, and G.-R. Lin, “Compression of 200 GHz DWDM channelized TDM pulsed carrier from optically modelocking WRC-FPLD fiber ring at 10 GHz,” Opt. Express17(7), 5526–5532 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry–Perot laser diode with injection-locking mode number-dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(9), 1349–1355 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kobayashi, J. Yamada, S. Machida, and T. Kimura, “Single mode operation of 500 Mbit/s modulated AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.16(19), 746–747 (1980). [CrossRef]
  17. S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Su, J.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.in press.
  18. C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, Y.-F. Wu, S.-P. Huang, Y.-L. Liu, and C.-L. Pan, “Performance of long-reach passive access networks using injection-locked fabry–perot laser diodes with finite front-facet reflectivities,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(12), 1929–1934 (2013). [CrossRef]
  19. H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. J.5(3), 7901208 (2013). [CrossRef]
  20. E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett.42(5), 299–301 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express17(20), 17739–17746 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-xavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(20), 2925–2932 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, F. Steinhagen, H. Hillmer, R. Losch, W. Schlapp, and R. Gobel, “10-Gb/s standard fiber transmission using directly modulated 1.55-pm quantum-well DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.7(11), 1357–1359 (1995). [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Al-Qazwini and H. Kim, “Symmetric 10-Gb/s WDM-PON using directly modulated lasers for downlink and RSOAs for uplink,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(12), 1891–1899 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Omella, V. Polo, J. Lazaro, B. Schrenk, and J. Prat, “10 Gb/s RSOA transmission by direct duobinary modulation,” in European Optical Communication Conf. (ECOC2008), 1–2, Sept. 2008. [CrossRef]
  26. M. C. Wu, C. Chang-Hasnain, E. K. Lau, and X. Zhao, “High-speed modulation of optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC)2008, San Diego, CA, Feb. 2008. [CrossRef]
  27. E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, and M. C. Wu, “Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.44(1), 90–99 (2008). [CrossRef]
  28. G. Yabre, “Effect of relatively strong light injection on the chirp-to-power ratio and the 3 dB bandwidth of directly modulated semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(10), 2367–2373 (1996). [CrossRef]
  29. E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H.-K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. Chang-Hasnain, and M. C. Wu, “Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating > 100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths,” Opt. Express16(9), 6609–6618 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.7(7), 709–711 (1995). [CrossRef]
  31. P. J. Winzer, F. Fidler, M. J. Matthews, L. E. Nelson, H. J. Thiele, J. H. Sinsky, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Winter, D. Castagnozzi, L. W. Stulz, and L. L. Buhl, “10-Gb/s upgrade of bidirectional CWDM systems using electronic equalization and FEC,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 203–210 (2005). [CrossRef]
  32. I. Papagiannakis, D. Klonidis, A. N. Birbas, J. Kikidis, and I. Tomkos, “Performance improvement of low-cost 2.5-Gb/s rated DML sources operated at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(23), 1983–1985 (2008). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Sivaprakasam and R. Singh, “Gain change and threshold reduction of diode laser by injection locking,” Opt. Commun.151(4-6), 253–256 (1998). [CrossRef]
  34. G.-R. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-S. Liao, H.-C. Kuo, Z.-W. Liao, H.-L. Wang, and G.-C. Lin, “A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission,” Opt. Express20(13), 13622–13635 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(1), 34–36 (1996). [CrossRef]
  36. X. Jin and S. L. Chuang, “Bandwidth enhancement of Fabry-Perot quantum-well lasers by injection-locking,” Solid-State Electron.50(6), 1141–1149 (2006). [CrossRef]
  37. L. Li, “Static and dynamic properties of injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(8), 1701–1708 (1994). [CrossRef]
  38. C.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, P.-C. Peng, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and G.-R. Lin, “Beyond-bandwidth electrical pulse modulation of a TO-Can packaged VCSEL for 10 Gbit/s injection-locked NRZ-to-RZ transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(6), 830–841 (2011). [CrossRef]
  39. K.-Y. Park, S.-G. Mun, K.-M. Choi, and C.-H. Lee, “A theoretical model of a wavelength-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diode to the externally injected narrow-band ASE,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1797–1799 (2005). [CrossRef]
  40. S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/S by strong CW light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol.12(3), 418–424 (1994). [CrossRef]
  41. G.-R. Lin, H.-L. Wang, T.-K. Cheng, and G.-C. Lin, “Suppressing chirp and power penalty of channelized ASE injection-locked mode-number tunable weak-resonant-cavity FPLD transmitter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(9), 1106–1113 (2009). [CrossRef]
  42. Y.-H. Lin, C.-J. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and G.-R. Lin, “Saturated signal-to-noise ratio of up-stream WRC-FPLD transmitter injection-locked by down-stream data-erased ASE carrier,” Opt. Express19(5), 4067–4075 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited