## Time-bin entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a cw multi-mode diode laser |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 25492-25500 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.025492

Acrobat PDF (1186 KB)

### Abstract

Generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs requires the use of the Franson interferometer which consists of two spatially separated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers through which the signal and idler photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) are made to transmit individually. There have been two SPDC pumping regimes where the scheme works: the narrowband regime and the double-pulse regime. In the narrowband regime, the SPDC process is pumped by a narrowband cw laser with the coherence length much longer than the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In the double-pulse regime, the longitudinal separation between the pulse pair is made equal to the path length difference of the Franson interferometer. In this paper, we propose another regime by which the generation of time-bin entanglement is possible and demonstrate the scheme experimentally. In our scheme, differently from the previous approaches, the SPDC process is pumped by a cw multi-mode (i.e., short coherence length) laser and makes use of the coherence revival property of such a laser. The high-visibility two-photon Franson interference demonstrates clearly that high-quality time-bin entanglement source can be developed using inexpensive cw multi-mode diode lasers for various quantum communication applications.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A **361**, 1655–1674 (2003). [CrossRef]

3. A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **67**, 661–663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **70**, 1895–1899 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **86**, 1370–1373 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics **5**, 222–229 (2011). [CrossRef]

9. Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun. **4**, 2451 (2013). [CrossRef]

10. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **61**, 2921–2924 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **75**, 4337–4341 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **107**, 160401 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys. **8**, 117–120 (2012). [CrossRef]

15. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A **66**, 062304 (2002). [CrossRef]

16. J. F. Dynes, H. Takesue, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, K. Harada, T. Honjo, H. Kamada, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and A. J. Shields, “Efficient entanglement distribution over 200 kilometers,” Opt. Express **17**, 11440–11449 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **62**, 2205–2208 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **66**, 1142–1145 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-μ m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express **15**, 1679–1683 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **82**, 2594–2597 (1999). [CrossRef]

27. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **81**, 3563–3566 (1998). [CrossRef]

28. A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A **63**, 053801 (2001). [CrossRef]

29. S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **46**, 7720–7723 (2007). [CrossRef]

30. O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express **17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Theory

*S*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}, |

*L*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}, |

*S*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}, and |

*L*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}. The left (right) peak is due to |

*S*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}(|

*L*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}) and the central peak is due to both |

*S*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}and |

*L*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}which is why the central peak is twice as tall as the side peaks. Note that the separation between peaks is determined by the optical path length difference of the MZI Δ

*L*

_{1,2}=

*L*

_{1,2}−

*S*

_{1,2}and the width of the peak (typically around 1 ∼ 2 ns) is mostly determined by the resolution of the electronics. Since

*L*≪ Δ

_{c}*L*

_{1,2}, where

*L*is the coherence length of the single-photons (signal and idler photons), there is no first-order interference observed at either detectors

_{c}*D*

_{1}and

*D*

_{2}. We then further impose the condition Δ

*L*

_{1,2}≪

*L*, where

_{p}*L*is the coherence length of the SPDC pump laser, and post-select only the central peak of the TCSPC histogram by using a narrow coincidence window. We have thus obtained a time-bin entangled state where

_{p}*ϕ*is the phase difference between two probability amplitudes, which can be controlled by scanning Δ

*L*

_{1,2}of the MZI. The visibility drops if the side peaks are not completely excluded.

*L*

_{1,2}≪

*L*, which is essential for providing quantum coherence between |

_{p}*S*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}and |

*L*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}[18

18. J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **66**, 1142–1145 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-μ m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express **15**, 1679–1683 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*S*〉

_{1}|

*S*〉

_{2}and |

*L*〉

_{1}|

*L*〉

_{2}is to pump the SPDC process with a pair of coherent pulses, the double-pulse regime, whose longitudinal separation is identical to Δ

*L*

_{1,2}[24

24. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **82**, 2594–2597 (1999). [CrossRef]

27. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **81**, 3563–3566 (1998). [CrossRef]

*L*≪ Δ

_{p}*L*

_{1,2}. Instead, our scheme is based on the coherence revival property of multi-mode emission from a cavity [28

28. A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A **63**, 053801 (2001). [CrossRef]

30. O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express **17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8. O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A **81**, 063801 (2010). [CrossRef]

30. O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express **17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*) is the spectral power density of the pump laser given as the sum of multiple incoherent longitudinal modes, where

_{p}*ω*

_{p}_{0}, Δ

*ω*, and

_{p}*n*are the central frequency of the pump, the mode spacing, and the mode number and we have assumed that the spectral power density has a Gaussian spectral profile with the bandwidth

*θ*,

*ψ*〉, pumped by a single-mode laser with frequency

*ω*is given as where Δ

_{p}*≡*

_{ω}*ω*−

_{p}*ω*−

_{s}*ω*, Δ

_{i}*≡*

_{k}*k*−

_{p}*k*−

_{s}*k*, and

_{i}*l*is the thickness of the SPDC crystal. The subscripts

*p*,

*s*, and

*i*refer the pump, signal, and idler photons, respectively. Note that

*ω*(

_{s}*ω*) and |0〉 is the vacuum.

_{i}*D*

_{1}(

*D*

_{2}) through the unbalanced MZIs in Fig. 1. We also assume that interference filters are placed in front of the detectors and they have the Gaussian transmission function

*ω*

_{0}and

*θ*

_{f}are the central frequency and bandwidth of the filter, respectively, and ∫ |

*ϕ*(

*ω*)|

^{2}

*dω*= 1. Consequently, the positive frequency component of the electric field operator for a single-photon detector

*D*

_{j}_{∈{1,2}}at time

*t*is expressed as

*a*

_{Dj}(

*ω*) is the annihilation operator for a photon of frequency

*ω*at the detector

*D*.

_{j}*D*

_{1}and

*D*

_{2}is then proportional to where

*ξ*= Δ

_{j}*L*with

_{j}/c*c*being the speed of light in vacuum, and

*τ*=

*t*

_{1}−

*t*

_{2}. In evaluating the integral in Eq. (5), we set the value of Δ

*τ*such that only the central peak in the TCSPC histogram (see Fig. 1) is selected (i.e., two side peaks are thrown out). Thus, the field operator

*D*

_{1}(

*D*

_{2}) and given that the field operators for the signal and the idler photons are given as

*j*∈ {

*s*,

*i*}, we can write

*ρ*in Eq. (6), we finally obtain the joint detection rate where

_{eff}(

*ω*) identical to 𝒮

_{p}_{0}(

*ω*) except that the bandwidth

_{p}*θ*is replaced with the effective bandwidth

*θ*

_{eff}(calculated from

*θ*

_{f}is sufficiently narrower than the natural bandwidth of SPDC (calculated from sinc(Δ

*/2)) so that the SPDC spectral amplitude is equal to the filter transmission function*

_{k}l*ϕ*(

*ω*).

*λ*

_{p}_{0}= 405 nm with the bandwidth of

*σ*= 0.28 nm and the mode spacing is Δ

*λ*= 0.0289 nm. The SPDC photons are assumed to be generated at a type-I BBO crystal of thickness

_{p}*l*= 6 mm and centered at

*λ*

_{0}= 810 nm. The bandwidth of the filter transmission function is assumed to be

*σ*

_{f}= 17 nm. These parameters are converted to frequencies by using the following relations

*ω*

_{0}= 2

*πc/λ*

_{0},

29. S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **46**, 7720–7723 (2007). [CrossRef]

**17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*L*. Figures 2(a) and 2(b) show the coincidence rates as a function of Δ

_{r}*L*

_{1}, while Δ

*L*

_{2}is fixed at

*L*and 2

_{r}*L*, respectively. As demonstrated in the theoretical plots, two-photon time-bin interference fringes are expected whenever the scanning Δ

_{r}*L*

_{1}becomes identical to Δ

*L*

_{2}within the single-photon coherence length. It is important to point out that, since the individual MZI is unbalanced, there is no first-order interference. Note also that, in this case, the interference fringes exhibit modulation at the wavelength of SPDC photons

*λ*

_{0}= 810 nm. Consider now that both Δ

*L*

_{1}and Δ

*L*

_{2}are scanned simultaneously shown in Fig. 2(c). In this case, two-photon interference is expected at the modulation period equal to the pump wavelength

*λ*

_{p}_{0}= 405 nm. Furthermore, coherence revival of the two-photon time-bin interference fringes is expected at the period of

29. S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **46**, 7720–7723 (2007). [CrossRef]

**17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*L*

_{1}=Δ

*L*

_{2}. However, if Δ

*L*

_{1}differs significantly from Δ

*L*

_{2}, Γ degrades quickly so the revival of two-photon interference does not occur as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b).

## 3. Experiment

*β*-BaB

_{2}O

_{4}crystal pumped by a 405 nm multi-mode diode laser are used for the experiment. For the 405 nm pump laser, the coherence length and the first-order coherence revival period are measured as

*L*= 216 μm and

_{p}*L*= 5.668 mm, respectively. From these results, we can find that the mode spacing of the pump laser is Δ

_{r}*ω*= 3.33 × 10

_{p}^{11}Hz as simulated in the previous section. The degenerate phase matching condition was applied for the SPDC so the wavelengths of both signal and idler SPDC photons are centered at 810 nm.

*H*〉 and |

*V*〉 are horizontal and vertical polarization, is prepared by interfering the two photons at a beam splitter [10

10. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **61**, 2921–2924 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **61**, 50–53 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*H*〉 photon at the input of the PBS takes the long path (|

*L*〉

_{1}or |

*L*〉

_{2}) of the interferometer and exits the PBS as the |

*V*〉 photon. Similarly, |

*V*〉 photon at the input of the PBS takes the short path (|

*S*〉

_{1}or |

*S*〉

_{2}) of the interferometer and exits the PBS as the |

*H*〉 photon. Finally, 45° oriented polarizers are used to erase the polarization information. As a result, the polarization-entangled state has been converted to the time-bin entangled state of the form in Eq. (1) with no need for TCSPC postselection. Note that the relative phase

*ϕ*can be adjusted by scanning either Δ

*L*

_{1}or Δ

*L*

_{2}.

*L*

_{1}while Δ

*L*

_{2}is fixed at 5.668 mm and 11.336 mm, respectively. As expected in Eq. (7) and in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), two-photon quantum interference due to time-bin entanglement occurs only when the condition Δ

*L*

_{1}= Δ

*L*

_{2}is satisfied. Figure 4(c) shows the coincidence count rate when both Δ

*L*

_{1}and Δ

*L*

_{2}are simultaneously scanned. In this case, as expected in Fig. 2(c), recurrence or revival of two-photon interference is observed with the period of 5.668 mm. The observed quantum interference visibilities are 95% for Fig. 4(a) and 4(b) and 93% for Fig. 4(c). Since the visibility threshold for the two-photon quantum interference for the Bell’s inequality violation is 70.7% [31

31. J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D **10**, 526–535 (1974). [CrossRef]

## 4. Conclusion

18. J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **66**, 1142–1145 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-μ m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express **15**, 1679–1683 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **82**, 2594–2597 (1999). [CrossRef]

27. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **81**, 3563–3566 (1998). [CrossRef]

28. A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A **63**, 053801 (2001). [CrossRef]

**17**, 13059–13069 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32. J. Galinis, M. Karpiński, G. Tamošauskas, K. Dobek, and A. Piskarskas, “Photon coincidences in spontaneous parametric down-converted radiation excited by a blue LED in bulk LiIO3 crystal,” Opt. Express **19**, 10351–10358 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A |

2. | M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, |

3. | A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

4. | C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

5. | D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature |

6. | Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

7. | V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Advances in quantum metrology,” Nat. Photonics |

8. | O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observing photonic de Broglie waves without the maximally-path-entangled |N, 0〉 + |0, N〉 state,” Phys. Rev. A |

9. | Y.-S. Ra, M. C. Tichy, H.-T. Lim, O. Kwon, F. Mintert, A. Buchleitner, and Y.-H. Kim, “Observation of detection-dependent multi-photon coherence times,” Nature Commun. |

10. | Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, “Violation of Bell’s inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

12. | P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A.V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

13. | H.-T. Lim, Y.-S. Kim, Y.-S. Ra, J. Bae, and Y.-H. Kim, “Experimental realization of an approximate partial transpose for photonic two-qubit systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

14. | Y.-S. Kim, J.-C. Lee, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “Protecting entanglement from decoherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal,” Nature Phys. |

15. | R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Experimental investigation of the robustness of partially entangled qubits over 11 km,” Phys. Rev. A |

16. | J. F. Dynes, H. Takesue, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, K. Harada, T. Honjo, H. Kamada, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and A. J. Shields, “Efficient entanglement distribution over 200 kilometers,” Opt. Express |

17. | J. D. Franson, “Bell inequality for position and time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

18. | J. Brendel, E. Mohler, and W. Martienssen, “Time-resolved dual-beam two-photon interferences with high visibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

19. | J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, “Fourth-order interference effects at large distances,” Phys. Rev. A |

20. | Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and M. H. Rubin, “Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state for space-time variables in a two-photon interference experiment,” Phys. Rev. A |

21. | P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, “High-visibility interference in a Bell-inequality experiment for energy and time,” Phys. Rev. A |

22. | D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, and P. G. Kwiat, “Postselection-free energy-time entanglement,” Phys. Rev. A |

23. | T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of energy-time entangled photon pairs in 1.5-μ m band with periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Express |

24. | J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

25. | W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

26. | I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A |

27. | W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

28. | A. V. Burlakov, M. V. Chekhova, O. A. Karabutova, and S. P. Kulik, “Biphoton interference with a multimode pump,” Phys. Rev. A |

29. | S.-Y. Baek, O. Kwon, and Y.-H. Kim, “High-resolution mode-spacing measurement of the blue-violet diode lase using interference of fields created with time delays greater than the coherence time,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

30. | O. Kwon, Y.-S. Ra, and Y.-H. Kim, “Coherence properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a multi-mode cw diode laser,” Opt. Express |

31. | J. F. Clauser and M. A. Horne, “Experimental consequences of objective local theories,” Phys. Rev. D |

32. | J. Galinis, M. Karpiński, G. Tamošauskas, K. Dobek, and A. Piskarskas, “Photon coincidences in spontaneous parametric down-converted radiation excited by a blue LED in bulk LiIO3 crystal,” Opt. Express |

**OCIS Codes**

(270.5570) Quantum optics : Quantum detectors

(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

(270.5585) Quantum optics : Quantum information and processing

**ToC Category:**

Quantum Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: September 4, 2013

Revised Manuscript: October 6, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: October 9, 2013

Published: October 17, 2013

**Citation**

Osung Kwon, Kwang-Kyoon Park, Young-Sik Ra, Yong-Su Kim, and Yoon-Ho Kim, "Time-bin entangled photon pairs from spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by a cw multi-mode diode laser," Opt. Express **21**, 25492-25500 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-21-25492

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### References

- J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, “Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A361, 1655–1674 (2003). [CrossRef]
- M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge University, 2000).
- A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 661–663 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crépeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, “Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett.70, 1895–1899 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental quantum teleportation,” Nature390, 575–579 (1997). [CrossRef]
- Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, “Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete Bell state measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86, 1370–1373 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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