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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 22 — Nov. 4, 2013
  • pp: 25834–25840
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Use of quasi-local photorefractive response to generated superficial self-written waveguides in lithium niobate

Eugenio Fazio, Silviu T. Popescu, Adrian Petris, Fabrice Devaux, Mauro Ragazzi, Mathieu Chauvet, and Valentin I. Vlad  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22, pp. 25834-25840 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.025834


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Abstract

We report the formation of surface self-written waveguides by means of surface pyrolitons in lithium niobate. By a specific orientation of the crystal axis the quasi-local slow photorefractive response of lithium niobate was used to induce a self-confined beam exactly at the crystal-air interface. The mode profile of the photo-induced waveguide is strongly asymmetric due to the interface presence.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

With the expression “self-written” waveguides we intend a guiding refractive pattern for light written inside a photosensitive material by light itself. The mechanism is based on the condition that the material refractive index increases after exposition to light. In this way a guiding channel is assembled by the light that propagates inside it. Due to the temporal and spatial evolution of the photo-induced refractive index modification, the writing beam experiences a self-confinement that is usually known as “spatial soliton” [1

1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13(15), 479–482 (1964). [CrossRef]

-3

3. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(7), 923–926 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Self-induced waveguides are usually generated in photosensitive media like polymers [4

4. S. J. Frisken, “Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079–1081 (2001). [CrossRef]

] or photorefractive media [8

8. M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21(13), 931–934 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], just to cite the most used ones.

Photorefractivity was reported for the first time as a dielectric damage of the material in 1966 by Ashkin et al. [9

9. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballmann, H. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically induced refractive index inhomogenities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(1), 72–74 (1966). [CrossRef]

] and only latter spatial solitons based on this nonlinear phenomenon were observed [10

10. G. C. Duree Jr, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(4), 533–536 (1993).

]. Photorefractive solitons got a very important role in the soliton waveguiding due to the ferroelectric domain inversion of the illuminated volume [11

11. M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, “Fixing the photorefractive soliton,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 77–79 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which allows either permanent or erasable or transitory waveguiding.

In 2003 spatial solitons were observed in lithium niobate [12

12. E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, “Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2193–2195 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In such work the authors showed that soliton channels remain active for very long time after their creation, realising almost permanent waveguides. Since then, a large literature was published on solitons and solitonic waveguides in lithium niobate due to the enormous amount of nonlinear properties this material possesses [13

13. K. K. Wong, ed., Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareviews Series No. 28 (INSPEC, London, UK, 2002).

], that make it very interesting for signal processing inside low-losses integrated circuits [14

14. V. I. Vlad, A. Petris, A. Bosco, E. Fazio, and M. Bertolotti, “3D-soliton waveguides in lithium niobate for femtosecond light pulse,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S477–S482 (2006). [CrossRef]

18

18. T. Fiumara and E. Fazio, “Design of a refractive-index sensor based on surface soliton waveguides,” J. Opt. , submitted to(2013).

].

The observation of bright spatial solitons supported by the pyroelectric effect [19

19. J. Safioui, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Pyroliton: pyroelectric spatial soliton,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22209–22216 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the so-called pyrolitons, opened the possibility to realise photorefractive solitonic beams at the surface of lithium niobate crystals [20

20. J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1254–1256 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In fact, using the pyroelectric effect no electric contacts are needed to bias the medium, getting access to the material interface.

Surface solitons were already predicted [21

21. M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2075–2077 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26

26. S. A. Chetkin and I. M. Akhmedzhanov, “Optical surface wave in a crystal with diffusion photorefractive nonlinearity,” Quantum Electron. 41(11), 980–985 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and observed in other materials like SBN [21

21. M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2075–2077 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,27

27. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3298–3300 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,28

28. B. A. Usievich, D. K. Nurligareev, V. A. Sychugov, L. I. Ivleva, P. A. Lykov, and N. V. Bogodaev, “Nonlinear surface waves on the boundary of a photorefractive crystal,” Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–440 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and BaTiO3 [29

29. I. I. Smolyaninov and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical study of photorefractive surface waves in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1367–1369 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In the present paper we show that the photorefractive nonlinearity can act as local along the ordinary crystallographic directions while remaining non-local along the extraordinary direction (optical axis) where the charge movement occurs. Thus, playing with the crystallographic orientations it is possible to force the self-confined beam to be localized exactly at the interface between linear and nonlinear media, thanks to the quasi-local response orthogonally to the optical axis.

Such technological innovation is fundamental for applications, allowing to use soliton waveguides as evanescent wave sensors [18

18. T. Fiumara and E. Fazio, “Design of a refractive-index sensor based on surface soliton waveguides,” J. Opt. , submitted to(2013).

].

2. Surface pyroliton and associated waveguide

In the first experiment on photorefractive surface solitons in lithium niobate [20

20. J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1254–1256 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the (001) surfaces was adopted to drive the beams. The natural bending [33

33. M. Chauvet, V. Coda, H. Maillotte, E. Fazio, and G. Salamo, “Large self-deflection of soliton beams in LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 30(15), 1977–1979 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] of solitons bows the light path towards the c^ direction, bringing it to knock the lower interface that traps the beam [21

21. M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2075–2077 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such dynamics is indeed governed by the photo-excited electric-charge movement which is defined by the equation of the [30

30. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22(1), 949–960 (1978). [CrossRef]

, 31

31. A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1520–1531 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
J=μkTne+μqneE+σPVI[NDND+]c^
(1)
where μ is the mobility inside the photorefractive medium of the electron spatial density ne, k is the Boltzmann constant, E is the local electric field, σPV the photovoltaic cross section, I the light intensity while ND and ND+ are the intrinsic and photo-excited donor densities.

The equilibrium between fixed (ρ) and moving J charges is indeed governed by the charge continuity equation:
ρt=J
(2)
The diffusion term μkTnein Eq. (1) is usually neglected with respect to μqneEbecause is lithium niobate an intense electric bias is needed to reach a positive variation of the refractive index inside the illuminated region. Among all, diffusion is the most isotropic of the current terms. Free and photo-voltaic conductions occur along the c^ direction which consequently acts as nonlocal direction. No significant charge movement occurs along the a^ and b^ directions corresponding to quasi-local directions. Such phenomenon was also observed during the soliton formation transient, where the nonlocal direction experiences much faster selfocusing than the quasi-local directions [12

12. E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, “Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2193–2195 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 34

34. E. Fazio, A. Petris, M. Bertolotti, and V. I. Vlad, “Optical bright solitons in lithium niobate and their applications,” in press on Rom. Rep. Phys. (September 2013).

].

In order to exploit the quasi-local nature of the photorefractivity along the [100] and [010] directions, we have generated Surface pyrolitons in the scheme shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental scheme.
.

A z-cut lithium niobate crystal from a commercial wafer was used, whose dimensions were 5 mm along [100] and 1 mm thick along the optical axis [001] (i.e. c^). The sample was mounted over a Peltier heater which created a nominal temperature gradient along the optical axis of about 11°C. Following the protocol defined by S.T. Popescu et alii [35

35. S. T. Popescu, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, “Fast writing of soliton waveguides in lithium niobate using low-intensity blue light,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 799–805 (2012). [CrossRef]

], the input laser @405nm was focused onto the input YZ face down to a spot with an elliptical shape of 8x14 μm2 [FWHM]. The effective input power was set at about 10 μW. The soliton was formed over the (010) interface.

An optical system (magnification 21) images the output (100) plane over a CCD camera. The experimental pictures of the output beam profile are reported in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental images of the output plane of the crystal. Spatial units are microns.
.

At the beginning (0 sec) diffraction was slightly collected by the crystal surface (0-100 sec) at the (100)-(010) edge. As time passes, the photorefractive nonlinearity becomes more and more active letting light to be selfocused along the diffraction pattern. Between 130 and 180 sec mainly two selfocused channels emerge from diffraction, one exactly at the surface and very similar to a (1D + 1) soliton and one slightly inside the substrate, very similar to a (2D + 1) self-confined structure.

After collapse, a single 2D self-confined channel stabilises at the surface, getting almost the whole energy trapped with a triangular shape: in fact the transverse mode is somehow elongated along the crystal surface (i.e. along the [001] direction) with a beam waist (FWHM) as large as 18 μm, while orthogonally to it (i.e. along the [010] direction) the beam core is 12 μm (FWHM).

A long tail is also present in the [010] direction (i.e. inside the crystal) that penetrates for about 25-30 μm within the substrate (Fig. 2 – image at 240 sec). Such tail is given by the untrapped diffraction orthogonally to the interface and it is few microns above the self-trapped beam. Actually we should say the contrary, i.e. the self-trapped beam is few microns below the untrapped tail, being this displacement originated by the usual bending of the trapped light along the (001) direction.

An enlargement of the output beam profile at 240sec from the starting time (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Enlargement of the output beam at 240 sec. Spatial dimensions are in microns.
) shows clearly the asymmetric triangular shape of the self-confined beam. Outside the crystal surface a diffraction pattern is still visible, sign that the (100)-(010) edge is indeed hit by light.

The self-confined beam has indeed written a superficial waveguide. It was checked by switching off the heater and letting the crystal cool down in the dark in order to make the material thermalize and consequently eliminate any residual pyro-electric field. Consequently, all transient effects are cut away even if the refractive index modification remains active.

The 405 nm light is still guided after long time (Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Propagation mode of the superficial soliton waveguide at different wavelengths. Spatial dimensions are in microns.
), with a triangular mode very similar to the writing self-confined beam. At longer wavelengths the guided mode tends to ovalize itself, even if the interface presence gives an asymmetric shape to the transmitted beam.

3. Numerical simulation

Numerical simulations has been performed using the dynamic three-dimensional photorefractive model introduced by Devaux et al. [36

36. F. Devaux, V. Coda, M. Chauvet, and R. Passier, “New time-dependent photorefractive three-dimensional model: application to self-trapped beam with large bending,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 1081–1086 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It is based on the temporal and spatial analysis of the photoexcited charges responsible of a local electric field which modifies the material refractive index by means of the electro-optic effect. This model considers that all spatial derivative operators are applied along the three dimensions of space, thus including possible influence of the three components of the space charge electric field on an anisotropic dielectrics. As a consequence, the local electric field induced by the photoexcited charges is calculated by solving the expression:
E(r)=14πε¯ρ(r')rr'|rr'|3dV
(3)
Such field is responsible for the refractive index modification by means the electro-optic effect:
Δnz=12ne3r33Ez
(4)
having called z the optical-axis direction.

In the simulation we have considered for the material a refractive index ne = 2.33, the electro-optic coefficient r33 = 32 pm/V and a donor concentration as high as 2.02⋅1015 cm−3. About the electro-magnetic field, we have considered a dark illumination as low as 1 μW/cm2, with an input power at 405 nm as high as 10 μW focused on a 16μm x16μm (FWHM). The input beam was set 20 μm below the surface, with a slight angle toward it. The photovoltaic field was ranging between −3 and −5⋅104 V/cm.

In regime of pure linear propagation of the injected light beam, the outgoing beam shapes as diffracted pattern consequence of the interference between the straight and the internally reflected light from the interface. (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulation of the surface soliton formation
– diffraction).

As soon as the nonlinearity grows up, the most intense interference fringe selfocuses, attracting the whole light beam inside the self-generated refractive channel. Such dynamics becomes bistable, evolving towards a final self-confined beam laying exactly at the air-dielectric interface. The beam gets a triangular shape, elongated along the interface, as experimentally observed (Fig. 3).

The refractive index modification is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulation of photoinduced refractive waveguide. (b) Fitting (with dotted back lines) of the numerical profiles: in red along the [010] direction and in blue along the [001] one.
. The whole photoinduced waveguide is indeed asymmetric with respect to the interface. The index profile shapes as hyperbolic secant in the direction orthogonal to the interface (i.e. along the [010] crystallographic direction), well approximated by the following formula:
nsoliton=nsubstrate+δnsech(zz0σ)
(5)
with fitting parameters δn = 6.7⋅10−4, z0 = 6 μm and σ = 9 μm. As a consequence, the profile gets the largest contrast at about 6 μm below the interface, decreasing towards the linear value of the refractive index in the bulk. In the transverse direction (i.e. along the [001] crystallographic direction) the central lobe gets almost a cosine shape, as shown in Fig. 6(b) with the back dotted lines. The effective waist (FWHM) is about 12 μm deep and 18 μm wide.

4. Conclusion

We report the formation of a solitonic waveguide exactly at the interface between the air and the dielectric lithium niobate. Such result was reached taking advantage of the quasi-local nature of the photorefractive nonlinearity moving in a direction orthogonal to the optical axis.

The associated superficial waveguide is very attractive for sensing applications, due to the low losses of soliton waveguides and due to their self-aligning nature.

Acknowledgments

The present work was partially supported by the Italian MIUR contract PRIN2008 N° 20088ZA8H9 AMDG.

References and links

1.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13(15), 479–482 (1964). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Barthelemy, S. Maneuf, and C. Froehly, “Propagation soliton et auto-confinement de faisceaux laser par non linearité optique de Kerr,” Opt. Commun. 55(3), 201–206 (1985). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(7), 923–926 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. J. Frisken, “Light-induced optical waveguide uptapers,” Opt. Lett. 18(13), 1035–1037 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. S. Kewitsch and A. Yariv, “Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 24–26 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Yoshimura, J. Roman, Y. Takahashi, W.-C. V. Wang, M. Inao, T. Ishitsuka, K. Tsukamoto, S. Aoki, K. Motoyoshi, and W. Sotoyama, “Self-organizing lightwave network (SOLNET) and its application to film optical circuit substrates,” IEEE Trans Comp. Pack. Technol. 24(3), 500–509 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Kagami, T. Yamashita, and H. Ito, “Light-induced self-written three-dimensional optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1079–1081 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

M. F. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21(13), 931–934 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballmann, H. J. Levinstein, and K. Nassau, “Optically induced refractive index inhomogenities in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9(1), 72–74 (1966). [CrossRef]

10.

G. C. Duree Jr, J. L. Shultz, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. J. Sharp, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, “Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(4), 533–536 (1993).

11.

M. Klotz, H. Meng, G. J. Salamo, M. Segev, and S. R. Montgomery, “Fixing the photorefractive soliton,” Opt. Lett. 24(2), 77–79 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

E. Fazio, F. Renzi, R. Rinaldi, M. Bertolotti, M. Chauvet, W. Ramadan, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, “Screening-photovoltaic bright solitons in lithium niobate and associated single-mode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2193–2195 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

K. K. Wong, ed., Properties of Lithium Niobate, EMIS Datareviews Series No. 28 (INSPEC, London, UK, 2002).

14.

V. I. Vlad, A. Petris, A. Bosco, E. Fazio, and M. Bertolotti, “3D-soliton waveguides in lithium niobate for femtosecond light pulse,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S477–S482 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

V. Coda, M. Chauvet, F. Pettazzi, and E. Fazio, “3-D integrated optical interconnect induced by self-focused beam,” Electron. Lett. 42(8), 463–465 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

S. T. Popescu, A. Petris, V. I. Vlad, and E. Fazio, “Arrays of soliton waveguides in lithium niobate for parallel coupling,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 12, 19–23 (2010).

17.

M. Chauvet, L. A. Fares, B. Guichardaz, F. Devaux, and S. Ballandras, “Integrated optofluidic index sensor based on self-trapped beams in LiNbO3 ,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 181104-1–181104-4 (2012).

18.

T. Fiumara and E. Fazio, “Design of a refractive-index sensor based on surface soliton waveguides,” J. Opt. , submitted to(2013).

19.

J. Safioui, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Pyroliton: pyroelectric spatial soliton,” Opt. Express 17(24), 22209–22216 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1254–1256 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

M. Cronin-Golomb, “Photorefractive surface waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2075–2077 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1571–1577 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

V. Aleshkevich, V. Vysloukh, and Y. Kartashov, “Localized surface waves at the interface between the linear dielectric and photorefractive medium with drift and diffusion nonlinearity,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(12), 1205–1221 (2001). [CrossRef]

24.

V. Aleshkevich, Y. Kartashov, A. Egorov, and V. Vysloukh, “Stability and formation of localized surface waves at the dielectric-photorefractive crystal boundary ,” Phys. Rev. E 64, 056610-1–056610-11 (2001).

25.

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26.

S. A. Chetkin and I. M. Akhmedzhanov, “Optical surface wave in a crystal with diffusion photorefractive nonlinearity,” Quantum Electron. 41(11), 980–985 (2011). [CrossRef]

27.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3298–3300 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

B. A. Usievich, D. K. Nurligareev, V. A. Sychugov, L. I. Ivleva, P. A. Lykov, and N. V. Bogodaev, “Nonlinear surface waves on the boundary of a photorefractive crystal,” Quantum Electron. 40(5), 437–440 (2010). [CrossRef]

29.

I. I. Smolyaninov and C. C. Davis, “Near-field optical study of photorefractive surface waves in BaTiO3,” Opt. Lett. 24(19), 1367–1369 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22(1), 949–960 (1978). [CrossRef]

31.

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1520–1531 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons ,” Phys. Rev. Lett . 98, 213901-1–213901-4 (2007).

33.

M. Chauvet, V. Coda, H. Maillotte, E. Fazio, and G. Salamo, “Large self-deflection of soliton beams in LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 30(15), 1977–1979 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

E. Fazio, A. Petris, M. Bertolotti, and V. I. Vlad, “Optical bright solitons in lithium niobate and their applications,” in press on Rom. Rep. Phys. (September 2013).

35.

S. T. Popescu, A. Petris, and V. I. Vlad, “Fast writing of soliton waveguides in lithium niobate using low-intensity blue light,” Appl. Phys. B 108(4), 799–805 (2012). [CrossRef]

36.

F. Devaux, V. Coda, M. Chauvet, and R. Passier, “New time-dependent photorefractive three-dimensional model: application to self-trapped beam with large bending,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 1081–1086 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.3730) Integrated optics : Lithium niobate
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.4350) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics at surfaces
(190.5330) Nonlinear optics : Photorefractive optics
(190.6135) Nonlinear optics : Spatial solitons

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 6, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 4, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 5, 2013
Published: October 22, 2013

Citation
Eugenio Fazio, Silviu T. Popescu, Adrian Petris, Fabrice Devaux, Mauro Ragazzi, Mathieu Chauvet, and Valentin I. Vlad, "Use of quasi-local photorefractive response to generated superficial self-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 21, 25834-25840 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-22-25834


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References

  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-trapping of optical beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett.13(15), 479–482 (1964). [CrossRef]
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