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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 22 — Nov. 4, 2013
  • pp: 25977–25984
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Tunable, multiwavelength Tm-doped fiber laser based on polarization rotation and four-wave-mixing effect

Xiong Wang, Yadong Zhu, Pu Zhou, Xiaolin Wang, Hu Xiao, and Lei Si  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22, pp. 25977-25984 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.025977


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Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a tunable multiwavelength fiber laser employing polarization-maintaining Tm-doped fiber based on polarization rotation and four-wave-mixing effect. Polarization-maintaining Tm-doped fiber and polarization controllers were employed to manipulate the polarization modes in the laser, and 400 m long single-mode passive fiber was used to enhance the four-wave-mixing effect and suppress the polarization mode competition. Stable fiber laser operation of 1-6 wavelengths around 1.9 μm was achieved at room temperatures. The wavelengths can be tuned through adjusting the polarization controllers. The optical signal-to-noise ratio of the laser is more than 31 dB. The wavelength shift is less than 0.05 nm and the peak fluctuation of each wavelength is analyzed. For most of the wavelengths the peak fluctuations are less than 3 dB and the peak fluctuations of wavelengths with more stability are below 1.5 dB.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable multiwavelength fiber laser around 1.9 μm based on polarization-maintaining Tm-doped fiber (PM-TDF). The polarization mode competition is suppressed employing polarization rotation method and FWM effect. Stable fiber laser operations of 1-6 wavelengths are achieved and the wavelengths can be tuned by adjusting the polarization controllers (PCs).

2. Experiment setup

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the tunable multiwavelength fiber laser. SMF: single mode fiber; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; PC1, PC2: polarization controller; PM-TDF: polarization-maintaining Tm-doped fiber; ISO: isolator.
Figure 1 depicts the system of tunable multiwavelength fiber laser employing PM-TDF. The PM-TDF laser is pumped by a 1550 nm fiber laser via a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM, 1550/2000). Two PCs are employed at both ends of the PM-TDF. The 5 m long single cladding PM-TDF serves as the gain medium of the fiber laser, and the core diameter is 9 μm and cladding diameter is 125 μm. The mode field diameter of the PM-TDF is 10.5 μm at 2000 nm and the absorption coefficient at 1550 nm is about 7 dB/m. The NA of the fiber is 0.15, and the birefringence is 2.5 × 10−4. A polarization independent isolator (ISO) is inserted into the cavity to force unidirectional operation of the ring laser. A piece of 400 m long single mode 9/125 fiber (SMF) is included in the system to enhance the FWM effect of laser. The multiwavelength laser output was realized by a 50:50 filter coupler near 2 μm. The spectra of the multiwavelength fiber laser were analyzed by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with resolution of 0.05 nm.

In our system, the PM-TDF introduces the anisotropic gain effects into the fiber laser operation [8

8. G. Das and J. W. Y. Lit, “L-band multiwavelength fiber laser using an elliptical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 606–608 (2002). [CrossRef]

11

11. Y. Liu, X. Feng, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Simultaneous four-wavelength lasing oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser with two high birefringence fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2056–2061 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The PCs can control the polarization states of the pump laser and signal laser. If the pump laser’s polarization direction is parallel to that of principal axis, for instance, the laser mode in the cavity with the same polarization state may oscillate and hence usually one wavelength operation is achieved. If the pump laser is polarized at 45° to the direction of principal axis, two or more polarization laser modes may oscillate simultaneously because of anisotropic gain effect. Furthermore, if the pump laser has several polarization states, multiwavelength operation is available. By changing the states of the PCs at both ends of the PM-TDF, we can control and select the polarization states of the laser modes in the cavity effectively. Employing the 400 m passive SMF to suppress the polarization mode competition based on FWM effect [16

16. X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, “Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1626–1628 (2005). [CrossRef]

19

19. Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, “Flexibly tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10134–10139 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], then tunable multiwavelength PM-TDF laser is achievable.

3. Tunable multiwavelength results

Fig. 2 Stable multiwavelength operation when SMF is not included in the fiber laser system.
Figure 2 shows the stable multiwavelength operation when the pump power is low and the SMF is not included in the system. One can find that the PM-TDF have enhanced the polarization hole-burning and thus enable the laser to operate in multiwavelength range. Although the maximum optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is only about 9 dB after adjusting the PCs, this multiwavelength operation is very stable and the peak fluctuations of the wavelengths are less than 0.2 dB. These results show that multiwavelength operation of PM-TDF with higher SNR is possible if the polarization mode competition is further suppressed effectively.

FWM effect is a useful method to suppress the homogenous broadening of rare-earth-doped fiber, and the polarization mode competition in laser cavity can be suppressed effectively [16

16. X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, “Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1626–1628 (2005). [CrossRef]

19

19. Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, “Flexibly tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10134–10139 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the later experiment, 400m long passive SMF was inserted into the laser system and the pump power was increased. When the laser modes propagate in the 400 m long SMF, nonlinear effects (owing to the Kerr effect, for example) are enhanced. Then FWM process and degenerate FWM process are produced in the laser cavity. The several processes of degenerate FWM can transfer the energy from the higher-energy resonance modes to the lower-energy resonance modes, hence the polarization mode competition in the TDF can be effectively degraded and stable multiwavelength resonance is achievable. The threshold of the multiwavelength fiber laser was about 230 mW, which is mainly attributed to the high loss caused by the 400 m long SMF and the 50:50 coupler. Finely adjusting the PCs and increasing the pump power properly, stable 1-6 wavelengths operations were achieved, as Figs. 3-8 show.Figure 3 shows the one wavelength operation at 1891.615 nm, the SNR is about 36 dB, and the pump power is 230 mW. Figure 4 depicts the two lines operation at 1886.923 and 1892.039 nm, the bandwidth is 1.6 dB, and the pump power is 460 mW. Increasing the pump power further and adjusting the PCs, more lines can be obtained.
Fig. 3 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 1 line.
Fig. 4 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 2 lines.
Fig. 5 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 3 lines.
Figure 5 shows the three lines operation at 1880.846, 1883.462 and 1885.962 nm, the wavelength spacing between adjacent wavelengths is about 2.5 nm. Four lines operation at 1880.577, 1883.039, 1885.654 and 1888.000 nm is shown in Fig. 6, the SNR is 32 dB and bandwidth is 3.3 dB.
Fig. 6 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 4 lines.
Fig. 7 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 5 lines.
Figure 7 depicts the five lines operation located at 1879.769, 1882.154, 1883.462, 1884.846 and 1887.231 nm. The wavelength spacing is not uniform but the bandwidth is only 1.7 dB. From Fig. 8 we can see the six lines operation at 1878.462, 1879.488, 1880.923, 1882.192, 1883.231 and 1884.577 nm. The SNR is 35 dB but the bandwidth is 7.7 dB.
Fig. 8 Stable multiwavelength operation of Tm-doped fiber laser with 6 lines.

The output spectra of each operation case of the multiwavelength laser were measured at every one minute in ten minutes, as shown in Figs. 3(b)-8(b). These results show the good stability of the wavelengths’ location as well as the spectral energy intensity. From the measured data we can find that the resonance wavelengths shift in a range of less than 0.05 nm in the experiment. The actual wavelengths’ shift may be only 0.02 nm or even less due to the limited resolution of the OSA. The peak fluctuations of the peak wavelengths in ten minutes are shown in Figs. 9-11.
Fig. 9 Peak fluctuations of peak wavelengths with (a) 1 line and (b) 2 lines.
Fig. 10 Peak fluctuations of peak wavelengths with (a) 3 lines and (b) 4 lines.
Fig. 11 Peak fluctuations of peak wavelengths with (a) 5 lines and (b) 6 lines.
One can find out that the peak fluctuations of most peak wavelengths are less than 3 dB. For the wavelengths with more stability, the peak fluctuations are less than 1.5 dB. The more lines that are oscillated in the multiwavelength laser cavity, the less stability of the spectral energy intensity can be obtained. The minimum peak fluctuation of three lines operation is about 1 dB, and the maximum peak fluctuation of six lines operation can reach to about 5 dB. The power fluctuation is mainly caused by the instability of pump laser’s polarization state, temperature fluctuation of the fiber and the vibration of the experiment circumstances. All those effects could affect the polarization states of the fiber laser, thus influencing the polarization mode competition and bringing power fluctuations of wavelengths.

The wavelengths can be tuned by adjusting the PCs, as shown in Fig. 12.
Fig. 12 Wavelength tuning of 3 lines.
When the pump power was fixed and adjusting the two PCs of the fiber laser, three lines of different wavelengths can be realized stably. That’s because the adjustment of the PCs selected different polarization mode in the cavity, and modes of different wavelengths can oscillate continuously. By adjusting the PCs, tunable multiwavelength operations with other number of lines can also be achieved stably.

4. Conclusion

We have proposed and demonstrated a tunable multiwavelength fiber laser near 1.9 μm using PM-TDF based on polarization rotation and FWM effect. A piece of 400 m long passive SMF is employed to suppress the polarization mode competition and thus realize stable multiwavelength operation at room temperatures. By adjusting the PCs, tunable and stable laser operations of 1-6 wavelengths are achieved and the optical SNR is more than 31 dB. The wavelength shift is less than 0.05 nm and the peak fluctuation of each wavelength is analyzed. This multiwavelength Tm-doped fiber laser’s stability and tunability can be improved in further endeavor.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the Graduate Student Innovation Foundation of National University of Defense Technology.

References and links

1.

S. Yamashita and K. Hotate, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen,” Electron. Lett. 32(14), 1298–1299 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Park and P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(11), 1459–1461 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

A. J. Poustie, N. Finlayson, and P. Harper, “Multiwavelength fiber laser using a spatial mode beating filter,” Opt. Lett. 19(10), 716–718 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-Band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3834–3839 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

L. Talaverano, S. Abad, S. Jarabo, and M. López-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser sources with Bragg-grating sensor multiplexing capability,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(4), 553–558 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

B. Frison, A. R. Sarmani, L. R. Chen, X. Gu, and M. Saad, “Multi-wavelength S-band Tm: ZBLAN fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011s (2013). [CrossRef]

7.

N. Kurukitkoson, S. K. Turitsyn, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Multiple output wavelength composite Raman fiber converter,” Laser Phys. 14(9), 1227–1230 (2004).

8.

G. Das and J. W. Y. Lit, “L-band multiwavelength fiber laser using an elliptical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 606–608 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, W. T. Han, Y. G. Han, and Y. Chung, “Tunable multi-wavelength SOA fiber laser based on a Sagnac loop mirror using an elliptical core side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8371–8376 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Zhang, L. Liu, Z. Liu, S. Zheng, R. Zhao, and S. Jian, “Tunable multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber and a polarization controller,” Opt. Commun. 284(10-11), 2550–2553 (2011). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Liu, X. Feng, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Simultaneous four-wavelength lasing oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser with two high birefringence fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2056–2061 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yao, and T. H. Yeap, “Single-longitudinal-mode multiwavelength fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(4), 1020–1022 (2004). [CrossRef]

13.

X. Liu, L. Zhan, S. Luo, Z. Gu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and Q. Shen, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror assisted by un-pumped EDF,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7088–7094 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Y. Zhou, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Multiwavelength single-longitudinal-mode Ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 385–388 (2013). [CrossRef]

15.

H. Ahmad, S. Shahi, and S. W. Harun, “Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 17(1), 203–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, “Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(8), 1626–1628 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

Y. G. Han, T. V. Tran, and S. B. Lee, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 697–699 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

P. Wang, D. Weng, K. Li, Y. Liu, X. Yu, and X. Zhou, “Multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave-mixing effect in single mode fiber and high nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12570–12578 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, “Flexibly tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10134–10139 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. Chow, G. Town, B. Eggleton, M. Ibsen, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(1), 60–62 (1996). [CrossRef]

21.

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3288–3293 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. Sun, D. S. Moon, A. Lin, W. T. Han, and Y. Chung, “Tunable multiwavelength fiber laser using a comb filter based on erbium-ytterbium co-doped polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3652–3658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a modified dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2135–2137 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. Zhang, Y. Jin, X. Feng, J. Zhou, Z. Li, and B. O. Guan, “Multiwavelength narrow linewidth erbium-doped fiber laser based on FP-LDs,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16928–16933 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, N. A. Hassan, and S. W. Harun, “S-band multiwavelength ring Brillouin/Raman fiber laser with 20 GHz channel spacing,” Appl. Opt. 51(11), 1811–1815 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Xia, and J. Lin, “Multiwavelength fiber laser with fine adjustment, based on nonlinear polarization rotation and birefringence fiber filter,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 324–326 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

S. Liu, S. Fu, M. Tang, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “A pump power controlled 1,060 nm multiwavelength fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation of SOA,” Appl. Phys. B 110(4), 445–449 (2013). [CrossRef]

28.

W. Wang, H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Wang, H. Xue, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Three channel-spacing switchable multiwavelength fiber laser with two segments of polarization-maintaining fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 470–472 (2012). [CrossRef]

29.

J. Tian, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, X. Yu, and D. Chen, “Multiwavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser employing nonlinear polarization rotation in a symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15160–15166 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, C. C. Chan, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Effects of active fiber length on the tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3622–3627 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “High power widely tunable Tm:fiber laser with spectral linewidth of 10 pm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(6), 450–453 (2010). [CrossRef]

32.

P. Zhou, X. Wang, Y. Ma, K. Han, and Z. Liu, “Stable all-fiber dual-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser and its coherent beam combination,” Laser Phys. 21(1), 184–187 (2011). [CrossRef]

33.

J. Geng, Q. Wang, J. Wang, S. Jiang, and K. Hsu, “All-fiber wavelength-swept laser near 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3771–3773 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

W. J. Peng, F. P. Yan, Q. Li, S. Liu, T. Feng, S. Y. Tan, and S. C. Feng, “1.94 μm switchable dual-wavelength Tm3+ fiber laser employing high-birefringence fiber Bragg grating,” Appl. Opt. 52(19), 4601–4607 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

W. Shin, Y. L. Lee, B. A. Yu, Y. C. Noh, and T. J. Ahn, “Wavelength-tunable thulium-doped single mode fiber laser based on the digitally programmable micro-mirror array,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 19(4), 304–308 (2013). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2390) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics, infrared
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 28, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 28, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2013
Published: October 23, 2013

Citation
Xiong Wang, Yadong Zhu, Pu Zhou, Xiaolin Wang, Hu Xiao, and Lei Si, "Tunable, multiwavelength Tm-doped fiber laser based on polarization rotation and four-wave-mixing effect," Opt. Express 21, 25977-25984 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-22-25977


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References

  1. S. Yamashita and K. Hotate, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fibre laser using intracavity etalon and cooled by liquid nitrogen,” Electron. Lett.32(14), 1298–1299 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Park and P. F. Wysocki, “24-line multiwavelength operation of erbium-doped fiber-ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(11), 1459–1461 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. A. J. Poustie, N. Finlayson, and P. Harper, “Multiwavelength fiber laser using a spatial mode beating filter,” Opt. Lett.19(10), 716–718 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-Band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express12(16), 3834–3839 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Talaverano, S. Abad, S. Jarabo, and M. López-Amo, “Multiwavelength fiber laser sources with Bragg-grating sensor multiplexing capability,” J. Lightwave Technol.19(4), 553–558 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Frison, A. R. Sarmani, L. R. Chen, X. Gu, and M. Saad, “Multi-wavelength S-band Tm: ZBLAN fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE8601, 86011s (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Kurukitkoson, S. K. Turitsyn, A. S. Kurkov, and E. M. Dianov, “Multiple output wavelength composite Raman fiber converter,” Laser Phys.14(9), 1227–1230 (2004).
  8. G. Das and J. W. Y. Lit, “L-band multiwavelength fiber laser using an elliptical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(5), 606–608 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. D. S. Moon, B. H. Kim, A. Lin, G. Sun, W. T. Han, Y. G. Han, and Y. Chung, “Tunable multi-wavelength SOA fiber laser based on a Sagnac loop mirror using an elliptical core side-hole fiber,” Opt. Express15(13), 8371–8376 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Zhang, L. Liu, Z. Liu, S. Zheng, R. Zhao, and S. Jian, “Tunable multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber and a polarization controller,” Opt. Commun.284(10-11), 2550–2553 (2011). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Liu, X. Feng, S. Yuan, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Simultaneous four-wavelength lasing oscillations in an erbium-doped fiber laser with two high birefringence fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express12(10), 2056–2061 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Liu, J. Yao, J. Yao, and T. H. Yeap, “Single-longitudinal-mode multiwavelength fiber ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(4), 1020–1022 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Liu, L. Zhan, S. Luo, Z. Gu, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and Q. Shen, “Multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror assisted by un-pumped EDF,” Opt. Express20(7), 7088–7094 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Zhou, P. C. Chui, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Multiwavelength single-longitudinal-mode Ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(4), 385–388 (2013). [CrossRef]
  15. H. Ahmad, S. Shahi, and S. W. Harun, “Multi-wavelength laser generation with Bismuthbased Erbium-doped fiber,” Opt. Express17(1), 203–207 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Tang, J. Ng, J. Hao, T. Y. Chai, E. Leong, and C. Lu, “Switchable and tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with fiber Bragg gratings and photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(8), 1626–1628 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. G. Han, T. V. Tran, and S. B. Lee, “Wavelength-spacing tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing of dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Lett.31(6), 697–699 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Wang, D. Weng, K. Li, Y. Liu, X. Yu, and X. Zhou, “Multi-wavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave-mixing effect in single mode fiber and high nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express21(10), 12570–12578 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, “Flexibly tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on four-wave mixing effect in dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Express13(25), 10134–10139 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Chow, G. Town, B. Eggleton, M. Ibsen, K. Sugden, and I. Bennion, “Multiwavelength generation in an erbium-doped fiber laser using in-fiber comb filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(1), 60–62 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, and C. C. Chan, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber laser with a continuously-tunable spacing,” Opt. Express14(8), 3288–3293 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Sun, D. S. Moon, A. Lin, W. T. Han, and Y. Chung, “Tunable multiwavelength fiber laser using a comb filter based on erbium-ytterbium co-doped polarization maintaining fiber loop mirror,” Opt. Express16(6), 3652–3658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a modified dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett.34(14), 2135–2137 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Zhang, Y. Jin, X. Feng, J. Zhou, Z. Li, and B. O. Guan, “Multiwavelength narrow linewidth erbium-doped fiber laser based on FP-LDs,” Opt. Express21(14), 16928–16933 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Ahmad, M. Z. Zulkifli, N. A. Hassan, and S. W. Harun, “S-band multiwavelength ring Brillouin/Raman fiber laser with 20 GHz channel spacing,” Appl. Opt.51(11), 1811–1815 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Zhang, L. Zhan, K. Xu, J. Wu, Y. Xia, and J. Lin, “Multiwavelength fiber laser with fine adjustment, based on nonlinear polarization rotation and birefringence fiber filter,” Opt. Lett.33(4), 324–326 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Liu, S. Fu, M. Tang, P. Shum, and D. Liu, “A pump power controlled 1,060 nm multiwavelength fiber ring laser using nonlinear polarization rotation of SOA,” Appl. Phys. B110(4), 445–449 (2013). [CrossRef]
  28. W. Wang, H. Meng, X. Wu, W. Wang, H. Xue, C. Tan, and X. Huang, “Three channel-spacing switchable multiwavelength fiber laser with two segments of polarization-maintaining fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 470–472 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Tian, Y. Yao, Y. Sun, X. Yu, and D. Chen, “Multiwavelength Erbium-doped fiber laser employing nonlinear polarization rotation in a symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Express17(17), 15160–15166 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Q. Ngo, C. C. Chan, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Effects of active fiber length on the tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Opt. Express11(26), 3622–3627 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Wang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Fan, and Q. S. Lu, “High power widely tunable Tm:fiber laser with spectral linewidth of 10 pm,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(6), 450–453 (2010). [CrossRef]
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