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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 22 — Nov. 4, 2013
  • pp: 26034–26043
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Broadband photoresponse and rectification of novel graphene oxide/n-Si heterojunctions

Rishi Maiti, Santanu Manna, Anupam Midya, and Samit K Ray  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22, pp. 26034-26043 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.026034


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Abstract

We report a novel graphene oxide (GO) based p-n heterojunction on n-Si. The fabricated vertical GO/n-Si heterojunction diode shows a very low leakage current density of 0.25 µA/cm2 and excellent rectification characteristics upto 1 MHz. The device on illumination shows a broadband (300–1100 nm) spectral response with a characteristic peak at ~700 nm, in agreement with the photoluminescence emission from GO. Very high photo-to-dark current ratio (>105) is observed upon illumination of UV light. The transient photocurrent measurements indicate that the GO based heterojunction diodes can be useful for UV and broadband photodetectors, compatible with silicon device technology.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Graphene, a two dimensional allotrope of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, has been studied extensively for last several years because of its unique mechanical [1

1. C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], thermal [2

2. A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] electrical [3

3. S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and optical properties [4

4. S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The high electron mobility (µ ~200,000 cm2·V−1·s−1) [5

5. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and high optical transmittance (~97.7%) from visible to infrared wavelength range make it a potential candidate for transparent conducting electrode [6

6. A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In spite of all intriguing properties, graphene-based opto-electronic devices have found limited applications since pristine graphene exhibits zero band gap [7

7. M. Freitag, “Graphene: nanoelectronics goes flat out,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 455–457 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Several attempts have been made to open the bandgap of graphene, such as by applying gate voltage [8

8. Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or by doping chemically [9

9. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Graphene oxide (GO), an intermediate product to form conducting graphene by chemical reduction, has attracted immense interests because of its availability and processability over a large area, solution based processing and interesting semiconducting properties [10

10. G. Eda, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. Kim, and M. Chhowalla, “Insulator to semimetal transition in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(35), 15768–15771 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Large area flexible thin films can be fabricated from pure GO or functionally reduced GO (rGO) at relatively low cost due to their compatibility with various substrates and solubility [11

11. G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(5), 270–274 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, the electronic and optical properties of GO can be tuned by chemical or thermal reduction process [12

12. S. Pei and H.-M. Cheng, “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon 50(9), 3210–3228 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Several reports have been published in the last few years, reporting the unique optical properties of GO/rGO based thin films, providing prospects for their use as transparent conductors [13

13. H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], thin-film transistors (TFTs) [14

14. G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene-based composite thin films for electronics,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 814–818 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], photovoltaics [15

15. Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, N. Zhang, L. Yang, S. Yin, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic cells based on an acceptor of soluble graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223303 (2008). [CrossRef]

], photo-detectors [16

16. J. H. Lin, J. J. Zeng, Y. C. Su, and Y. J. Lin, “Current transport mechanism of heterojunction diodes based on the reduced graphene oxide-based polymer composite and n-type Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153509 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and nonvolatile memory devices [17

17. X.-D. Zhuang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, P.-P. Li, C.-X. Zhu, E.-T. Kang, K.-G. Noeh, B. Zhang, J.-H. Zhu, and Y.-X. Li, “Conjugated-polymer-functionalized graphene oxide: synthesis and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1731–1735 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Generally, GO shows insulating behavior [18

18. S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007). [CrossRef]

] but controlling the oxygen density during the oxidation of graphite, results in a semiconducting characteristics with an optical bandgap (~1.7 eV) [19

19. M. Jin, H.-K. Jeong, W. J. Yu, D. J. Bae, B. R. Kang, and Y. H. Lee, “Graphene oxide thin film field effect transistors without reduction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135109 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. As-prepared GO film typically exhibits p-type behavior because it absorbs oxygen and water vapor from atmosphere. As a result of this unintentional doping of oxygen, graphene oxide based field effect transistor generally shows p-type channel conductivity in ambient and ambipolar behavior in vacuum [19

19. M. Jin, H.-K. Jeong, W. J. Yu, D. J. Bae, B. R. Kang, and Y. H. Lee, “Graphene oxide thin film field effect transistors without reduction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135109 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, a few reports have been published on GO/rGO based photodetector, where the GO was used either as an insulating layer in metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diode [20

20. C.-H. Lin, W.-T. Yeh, C.-H. Chan, and C.-C. Lin, “Influence of graphene oxide on metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 343 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or as a Schottky junction between rGO and metal contacts [21

21. S. Ghosh, B. K. Sarker, A. Chunder, L. Zhai, and S. I. Khondaker, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163109 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Here, we report the broadband photoresponse of a novel GO/n-Si heterojunction diode with a very high photo-to-dark current ratio (˃105). The heterojunction diode shows very good rectification behavior with a low leakage current density (~0.25 µA/cm2) and could be modulated up to a frequency of 1 MHz.

2. Experimental

Aqueous solution of graphene oxide (GO) was obtained from graphite powder using an improved Hummers and Offeman’s method [22

22. J. William, S. Hummers, and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958). [CrossRef]

]. For characterization of GO film, n-Si with resistivity 2-10 Ω-cm was cleaned by standard piranha cleaning method followed by the HF treatment to remove the native oxide. The cleaned Si samples were treated with a solution of NH4OH: H2O2:H2O in a volumetric ratio of 1:2:8 for 30 minutes to make their surface hydrophilic. Graphene oxide film was deposited on n-Si substrate by dip coating method from aqueous solution of GO. The surface morphology was investigated using a scanning probe microscope (Veeco Nanoscope-III). The micro Raman spectra of graphene oxide film on n-Si Substrate were acquired using MODEL T64000 (Jobin Yvon Horiba) spectrometer with an Argon-Krypton mixed ion gas laser (~514 nm). The chemical bonding of GO was studied using X- ray photo electron spectroscopy (PHI 5000 Versa Probe II, ULVAC − PHI, INC, Japan) with incident Al Kα X-ray of energy hν = 1486.6 eV. UV-vis absorption spectrum was obtained by using Parkin Elmar Lambda 2 spectrometer. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of GO on Si substrate were recorded at room temperature using He-Cd laser of wavelength 325 nm and TRIAX-320 monochromator equipped with Hamamatsu R928 photomultiplier detector.

For device fabrication, Al dots (0.2 mm2) were deposited as a gate electrode by thermal evaporation on the GO film at room temperature under a base pressure of ~1x10−7 torr. Al was also deposited over a large area for achieving ohmic back contact on n-Si, followed byvacuum annealing at 200°C for 5 min. A control sample was also fabricated without graphene oxide layer on n-Si. The schematic structure of the fabricated GO/n-Si heterojunction diode is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the Al/GO/n-Si heterojunction photo-diode.
The spectral photocurrent response was measured by standard lock in measurement using a broadband light source (xenon arc lamp). The current-voltage (I−V) characteristics of the photodetector were studied using a Keithley semiconductor parameter analyzer (model no. 4200-SCS). The photoresponse of the heterojunction was also investigated by illuminating with a He-Cd laser source of wavelength 325 nm and argon ion laser of wavelength 514 nm with different intensities. In order to measure the response time, we investigated the rise and decay of photocurrent by turning on and off the 325 nm laser source mechanically.

3. Results and discussion

Two dimensional surface morphology of the grown GO film studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 Typical AFM image of graphene oxide sheets and corresponding height profile.
It is evident from the AFM image and section analysis that the GO film used in the device consists of bilayer to few layers as the thickness of monolayer GO is 1-1.3 nm [23

23. J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, P. Solís-Fernández, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of graphene nanosheets derived from graphite oxide,” Langmuir 25(10), 5957–5968 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The average surface roughness for GO layer is found to be 1.3 nm.

Structural information of the graphene oxide sheets was obtained from the Raman spectra of GO film grown on n-Si substrate as shown in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 3 (a) Typical Raman spectra for graphene oxide showing D band (1356 cm−1) and G band (1590 cm−1); (b) High-resolution C1S XPS spectrum of graphene oxide showing different chemical bonding.
The prominent D peak (~1356 cm−1) with comparable intensity to G peak (~1590 cm−1) along with their large bandwidth indicate structural defects in GO. It is also noted that the G-peak of GO is blue shifted which is usually at 1580 cm−1 for mechanically exfoliated graphene, indicating the effect of chemical functionalization [24

24. A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 210–215 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on the GO films have been carried out to study the local chemical bonding. A broad and well resolved C1s peaks in XPS spectrum of the as-prepared GO films presented in Fig. 3(b), clearly shows that carbon atoms are connected with different oxygen functional groups. The binding energy peaks are attributed to the carbon in the non-oxygenated ring C = C bonds at 284.6 eV, C-O bonds at 286.4 eV (hydroxyl and epoxy), C = O bond at 288.5 eV (carbonyl) and O = C-OH bond at 289.7 eV (carboxyl) [25

25. D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice Jr, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The study shows that the GO film contains graphene sheet modified with different oxygen functional groups, which are required for optoelectronic devices.

Fig. 5 (a) I-V characteristics of GO/n-Si heterojunction device under dark condition and on illumination of white light. The rectification characteristics of the diode using ac input signal (b) 50 Hz, (c) 1 MHz.
Figure 5(a) presents the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of GO/n-Si heterojunction under dark condition. The device shows a very low dark current (~3 × 10−10 A) at −1 V, and exhibits a photo-to-dark current ratio of 105. The asymmetric I-V nature confirms the junction formation between n-Si and p-GO. The shift of photo I-V curve along the positive voltage axis is due to the generation of photovoltage. The dark I-V characteristic is fitted with the diode equation Id=I0exp(eV/nkBT)for small positive voltage, where n is the ideality factor, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and I0 is the dark saturation current density. The ideality factor (n) of the diode is found to be 1.9. The relatively large ideality factor is attributed to the structural disorder (D-band of Raman spectrum) and interfacial defects in solution processed GO layer deposited on n-Si by dip coating. The typical ac response of the heterojunction at 50 Hz is presented in Fig. 5(b), showing an excellent rectification. The heterojunction diode can be modulated up to a frequency of 1 MHz without any distortion, as shown in Fig. 5(c). The reduction of output voltage and a slight shift along the voltage axis is attributed to the parasitic capacitance of the connecting leads at 1 MHz. The result indicates that the GO/n-Si heterojunction is attractive for fabrication of electronic devices compatible to Si CMOS technology. The control device without any GO on n-Si exhibits almost a symmetric I-V characteristic (not shown here).

The current-voltage characteristics of GO/n-Si heterojunction device illuminated with 325 nm laser source is shown in Fig. 6(a).
Fig. 6 (a) I-V characteristics of the heterojunction using 325 nm laser with different illuminated powers; (b) The fitted plot of photocurrent as a function of illuminated power at −2 V.
More than two orders of magnitude change in photocurrent at a reverse bias of −2 V is observed on varying the power of illumination from 0.4 mW to 28 mW. The fitted plot of log (Iph) vs log (P) is depicted in the Fig. 6(b), using the following Eq., [33

33. S. Kazim, V. Alia, M. Zulfequar, M. Mazharul Haq, and M. Husain, “Electrical transport properties of poly [2-methoxy-5 (2'-ethyl hexyloxy)-1, 4- phenylene vinylene] thin films doped with Acridine orange dye,” Physica B 393(1–2), 310–315 (2007).

]
Iph=APm
(1)
where, Iph is the photocurrent, ‘A’ is a constant, ‘m’ is an exponent and ‘P’ is the illuminated power. The value of the exponent ‘m’ is found to be 1.3 ± 0.1 at −2 V. Since GO absorbs the UV radiation (as shown Fig. 4(a)), the GO/n-Si heterojunction photodiode shows efficient photodetection in the UV range [34

34. B. Chitara, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113114 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

We have also measured the spectral photo-response of GO/n-Si heterojunction diode using lock-in detection technique. The responsivity (R) of the detector is defined as the ratio of photocurrent density to the intensity of incident light corresponding to a particular wavelength: R(λ)=Jph/Popt,where Jph is the photocurrent density and Popt is the incident light intensity. The spectral responsivity of Al/GO/n-Si photodetector plotted for different bias (0 V,-1.5 V and −2.0 V) is shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 7 Broadband spectral responsivity of GO/n-Si heterojunction diode at different bias voltages. The photocurrent of the junction in UV wavelength range is shown in the inset.
The GO/n-Si heterojunction device shows peak responsivity at around 700 nm, with corresponding values of 0.21 A/W, 0.20 A/W, and 0.18 A/W at −2 V, −1.5 V, and 0 V bias, respectively. The fabricated GO/n-Si photodiode exhibits an enhanced broadband response over the spectral range 300 nm to 1100 nm. The zero bias photocurrent zoomed in the UV region (300–400 nm) is shown in the inset of Fig. 7. The spectral response curve shows mainly two broad peaks at 700 nm and 1010 nm. The first one is attributed to the absorption due to disorder induced localized states in GO (~700 nm), the second one is due to the self-absorption region of silicon (~1100 nm). The broad spectral response in the visible wavelength range in the photodiode is in good agreement with the PL emission.

The observed photocurrent response can be explained by the schematic energy band diagram of the GO/n-Si heterojunction device at reverse bias, as shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 8 Schematic band diagram of GO/n-Si heterojunction at reverse bias.
The Si material parameters are taken from the reported data, while the bandgap of GO is taken as 1.7 eV [19

19. M. Jin, H.-K. Jeong, W. J. Yu, D. J. Bae, B. R. Kang, and Y. H. Lee, “Graphene oxide thin film field effect transistors without reduction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135109 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The band diagram has been drawn assuming Type-I heterojunction and does not represent the true band offset values, since electron affinity of GO is not known. In thermal equilibrium, the band offset in heterostructure results in a built-in electric field in the depletion region of the junction. Upon light illumination, the generated electron-hole pairs within the one diffusion length of the depletion region of the diode are swept away by the built-in electric field, resulting in photocurrent even at zero bias. The responsivity of the photodetector increases with increase in reverse bias with enhanced carrier separation, which leads to the efficient collection of photocarriers at the metal electrodes.

We have also studied the switching characteristics of the GO/n-Si heterojunction with different bias voltages and powers of illumination at 514 nm. The switching response using −1 V and −3 V bias at 1 µW power is shown in Fig. 9(a).
Fig. 9 Switching characteristics of GO/n-Si heterojunction photodiode under 514 nm excitation for (a) different bias voltages (b) different illuminated powers.
The device shows higher current ON/OFF ratio at −3 V than that at −1 V, since a higher electric field in the former causes efficient extraction of charge carriers before recombination. By varying the power (1 µW and 2.4 µW) at −1 V, the higher current ON/OFF ratio is observed for 2.4 µW, as shown in Fig. 9(b). As expected, higher power generates more electron hole pairs, resulting in the increase of photocurrent.

The response time of a photodetector is a very important parameter for the high speed application of optoelectronic devices. Figures 10(a)
Fig. 10 The time response of photocurrent (a) rise and (b) decay for GO/n-Si junction in response the incident UV illumination (325 nm). The open circles are the experimental points and the solid lines are a fit to the equations.
Figures 10(a) and 10(b) show the time response of photocurrent rise and decay for GO/n-Si hetero junction in response to the UV illumination (325 nm). The time dependent photoresponse of the device under illumination can be described by following Equations [21

21. S. Ghosh, B. K. Sarker, A. Chunder, L. Zhai, and S. I. Khondaker, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163109 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 35

35. N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

For rise,
I(t)=I0+A0[exp(t/t1)],
(2)
and for decay,
I(t)=I0+A0[exp(t/t1)],
(3)
where, t1 is the time constant, I0 is the dark current, and A0 is a constant.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated the formation of high quality GO/n-Si heterojunction using solution processed GO film. Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy have shown the growth of bilayer/few layers of GO with comparable intensity of D-band and G-band. The photoluminescence spectroscopy has shown the emission from disorder-induced localized transition, due to the presence of oxygen containing functional groups in GO. The fabricated GO/n-silicon heterojunction shows a very low dark current and efficient rectification characteristics upto a frequency of 1 MHz. The device shows a unique broad band spectral response of peak responsivity 0.21 A/W, with very high current on-off ratio. The results indicate that the solution processed graphene oxide behaves as a p-type semiconductor and can be used for flexible and transparent optoelectronic devices, compatible with Si CMOS technology. Further optimization of growth, device fabrication and passivation of the junction is required for their application in future nanoscale systems.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science 321(5887), 385–388 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. A. Balandin, S. Ghosh, W. Bao, I. Calizo, D. Teweldebrhan, F. Miao, and C. N. Lau, “Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(3), 902–907 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Pisana, M. Lazzeri, C. Casiraghi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and F. Mauri, “Breakdown of the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation in graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 198–201 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. B. Kuzmenko, E. van Heumen, F. Carbone, and D. van der Marel, “Universal optical conductance of graphite,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(11), 117401 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Freitag, “Graphene: nanoelectronics goes flat out,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 455–457 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3430–3434 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

G. Eda, C. Mattevi, H. Yamaguchi, H. Kim, and M. Chhowalla, “Insulator to semimetal transition in graphene oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(35), 15768–15771 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(5), 270–274 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Pei and H.-M. Cheng, “The reduction of graphene oxide,” Carbon 50(9), 3210–3228 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

G. Eda and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene-based composite thin films for electronics,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 814–818 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Q. Liu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, N. Zhang, L. Yang, S. Yin, and Y. Chen, “Organic photovoltaic cells based on an acceptor of soluble graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223303 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

J. H. Lin, J. J. Zeng, Y. C. Su, and Y. J. Lin, “Current transport mechanism of heterojunction diodes based on the reduced graphene oxide-based polymer composite and n-type Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153509 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

X.-D. Zhuang, Y. Chen, G. Liu, P.-P. Li, C.-X. Zhu, E.-T. Kang, K.-G. Noeh, B. Zhang, J.-H. Zhu, and Y.-X. Li, “Conjugated-polymer-functionalized graphene oxide: synthesis and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect,” Adv. Mater. 22(15), 1731–1735 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. Stankovich, D. A. Dikin, R. D. Piner, K. A. Kohlhaas, A. Kleinhammes, Y. Jia, Y. Wu, S. T. Nguyen, and R. S. Ruoff, “Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide,” Carbon 45(7), 1558–1565 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Jin, H.-K. Jeong, W. J. Yu, D. J. Bae, B. R. Kang, and Y. H. Lee, “Graphene oxide thin film field effect transistors without reduction,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(13), 135109 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

C.-H. Lin, W.-T. Yeh, C.-H. Chan, and C.-C. Lin, “Influence of graphene oxide on metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 343 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Ghosh, B. K. Sarker, A. Chunder, L. Zhai, and S. I. Khondaker, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163109 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

J. William, S. Hummers, and R. E. Offeman, “Preparation of graphitic oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80(6), 1339 (1958). [CrossRef]

23.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, P. Solís-Fernández, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of graphene nanosheets derived from graphite oxide,” Langmuir 25(10), 5957–5968 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 210–215 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

D. Yang, A. Velamakanni, G. Bozoklu, S. Park, M. Stoller, R. D. Piner, S. Stankovich, I. Jung, D. A. Field, C. A. Ventrice Jr, and R. S. Ruoff, “Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and micro-Raman spectroscopy,” Carbon 47(1), 145–152 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, J. M. Tascón, and J. M. D. Tascon, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(11), 111909 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem. 2(12), 1015–1024 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. A. Yan, L. Xian, and M. Y. Chou, “Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(8), 086802 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

C.-T. Chien, S.-S. Li, W.-J. Lai, Y.-C. Yeh, H.-A. Chen, I.-S. Chen, L. Chen, K.-H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C.-W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51(27), 6662–6666 (2012). [CrossRef]

31.

J. Shang, L. Ma, J. Li, W. Ai, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “The origin of fluorescence from graphene oxide,” Sci. Rep. 2(792), 1–8 (2012).

32.

R. J. W. E. Lahaye, H. K. Jeong, C. Y. Park, and Y. H. Lee, “Density functional theory study of graphite oxide for different oxidation levels,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125435 (2009). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Kazim, V. Alia, M. Zulfequar, M. Mazharul Haq, and M. Husain, “Electrical transport properties of poly [2-methoxy-5 (2'-ethyl hexyloxy)-1, 4- phenylene vinylene] thin films doped with Acridine orange dye,” Physica B 393(1–2), 310–315 (2007).

34.

B. Chitara, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(11), 113114 (2011). [CrossRef]

35.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010). [CrossRef]

36.

W.-C. Wang, “ Optical Detectors,” http://depts.washington.edu/mictech/optics/sensors/detector.pdf

OCIS Codes
(230.0040) Optical devices : Detectors
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.0250) Optical devices : Optoelectronics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: July 24, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: September 21, 2013
Published: October 23, 2013

Citation
Rishi Maiti, Santanu Manna, Anupam Midya, and Samit K Ray, "Broadband photoresponse and rectification of novel graphene oxide/n-Si heterojunctions," Opt. Express 21, 26034-26043 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-22-26034


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  26. J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, J. M. Tascón, and J. M. D. Tascon, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir24(19), 10560–10564 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Z. Luo, P. M. Vora, E. J. Mele, A. T. C. Johnson, and J. M. Kikkawa, “Photoluminescence and band gap modulation in graphene oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(11), 111909 (2009). [CrossRef]
  28. K. P. Loh, Q. L. Bao, G. Eda, and M. Chhowalla, “Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications,” Nat. Chem.2(12), 1015–1024 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. A. Yan, L. Xian, and M. Y. Chou, “Structural and electronic properties of oxidized graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(8), 086802 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C.-T. Chien, S.-S. Li, W.-J. Lai, Y.-C. Yeh, H.-A. Chen, I.-S. Chen, L. Chen, K.-H. Chen, T. Nemoto, S. Isoda, M. Chen, T. Fujita, G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, M. Chhowalla, and C.-W. Chen, “Tunable photoluminescence from graphene oxide,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.51(27), 6662–6666 (2012). [CrossRef]
  31. J. Shang, L. Ma, J. Li, W. Ai, T. Yu, and G. G. Gurzadyan, “The origin of fluorescence from graphene oxide,” Sci. Rep.2(792), 1–8 (2012).
  32. R. J. W. E. Lahaye, H. K. Jeong, C. Y. Park, and Y. H. Lee, “Density functional theory study of graphite oxide for different oxidation levels,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125435 (2009). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Kazim, V. Alia, M. Zulfequar, M. Mazharul Haq, and M. Husain, “Electrical transport properties of poly [2-methoxy-5 (2'-ethyl hexyloxy)-1, 4- phenylene vinylene] thin films doped with Acridine orange dye,” Physica B393(1–2), 310–315 (2007).
  34. B. Chitara, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Solution processed reduced graphene oxide ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(11), 113114 (2011). [CrossRef]
  35. N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(7), 1973–1979 (2010). [CrossRef]
  36. W.-C. Wang, “ Optical Detectors,” http://depts.washington.edu/mictech/optics/sensors/detector.pdf

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