OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 22 — Nov. 4, 2013
  • pp: 26506–26512
« Show journal navigation

Cr:ZnS saturable absorber passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser

Yanqiu Du, Baoquan Yao, Xiaoming Duan, Zheng Cui, Yu Ding, Youlun Ju, and Zuochun Shen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 22, pp. 26506-26512 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.026506


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1061 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser operating at cryogenic temperature with a Cr2+:ZnS saturable absorber pumped with continuous wave LDs was demonstrated. The performance of the laser was investigated through changing the distance between Cr2+:ZnS and output coupler. The maximum pulse energy of 70.5 μJ was obtained at 10 W input power. The maximum average output power of PQS laser was up to 3.2 W at the pump power of 22.8 W, corresponding to CW output power of 7.4 W, pulse repetition frequency of 52 kHz, and a pulse width of 389 ns. The M2 factor measured by the traveling knife-edge method was ~1.1 in x and y directions with near-diffraction limited beam quality.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Diode-pumped Q-switched solid state lasers operating in the 2 μm eye-safe spectral range are applied to environmental atmosphere monitoring, wind lidar [1

1. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 microm using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. H. Iwai, S. Ishii, R. Oda, K. Mizutani, S. Sekizawa, and Y. Murayama, “Performance and technique of coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar for wind measurement,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(3), 429–449 (2013). [CrossRef]

], medicine [4

4. N. S. Nishioka and Y. Domankevitz, “Comparison of tissue ablation with pulsed holmium and thulium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2271–2275 (1990). [CrossRef]

], and so on. Especially, 2 μm Q-switched lasers are attractive pumping sources for OPOs and solid state lasers which can efficiently convert radiation to the mid-infrared spectral range [5

5. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, G. L. Zhu, P. B. Meng, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Comparative investigation of long-wave infrared generation based on ZnGeP2 and CdSe optical parametric oscillators,” Chin. Phys. B 21(3), 0342131–0342136 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

Passively Q-switched (PQS) lasers with saturable absorbers (SAs) were usually accompanied with significant advantages such as inherent compactness, simplicity, and low cost of cavity design. Up to now, several PQS Tm-doped [6

6. L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Titov, V. V. Badikov, S. G. Sheina, V. L. Panyutin, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, “Efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser operation around 1.9 μm and self-frequency Raman conversion of Tm-doped KY(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2926–2928 (2002). [CrossRef]

11

11. R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Ho-doped [12

12. A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, M. I. Demchuk, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Passively Q-switched Ho3+:Y3Al5O12 laser using a PbSe-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 572–573 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and Tm,Ho-codoped [13

13. X. L. Zhang, X. J. Bao, L. Li, H. Li, and J. H. Cui, “Laser diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser with Cr:ZnS as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2122–2127 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] lasers emitting in ~2 μm have been reported with different SAs based on semiconductor and nanometer materials. Tm-doped lasers’ Q-switching performance is inferior to Ho-doped ones because of smaller stimulated emission cross section and shorter lifetime of excited state energy level comparing with Ho3+ ions [15

15. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. Tm,Ho-codoped laser crystals are favorable owing to strong absorption of Tm3+ ions as sensitization ions at 800nm. Compared with other hosts, the GdVO4 host is superior with a stronger and broader absorption band. This favorable spectroscopic property allows us to efficiently pump these lasers by commercially available high-power LDs which is beneficial for realizing all-solid-state laser system [16

16. B. Q. Yao, W. J. He, Y. Z. Wang, X. B. Zhang, and Y. F. Li, “High efficiency continuous-wave Tm:Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by a diode,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21(11), 2182–2183 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Besides, Tm,Ho-codoped lasers have to operate with quasi-three level at room temperature which results in very high excited state densities to achieve population inversion. While the upconversion processes (5I7, 3F45I5, 3H6) of the Tm:Ho-codoped laser are sensitive to excited state (5I7) densities. High 5I7 upper level density not only leads up to upconversion losses, but also decreases leaving holmium ions for the Tm 3F4→Ho 5I7 energy transfer. At cryogenic temperature, the quasi-four level nature of Tm,Ho-codoped laser not only provides low excited state densities which are benefit for decreasing upconversion losses but also obtains the higher output power and better beam quality by weakening thermal effect of the gain medium originating the large thermal conductivity of GdVO4 (0.117 Wcm−1K−1) [17

17. W. J. He, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Diode-pumped efficient Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with near-diffraction limited beam quality,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11653–11659 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In addition, the suitable SAs are considerably important for the effectively operating of PQS lasers. Compared with other SAs, the Cr2+:ZnS material naturally possesses higher optical damage threshold (1.5 J/cm2) [18

18. D. M. Simanovskii, H. A. Schwettman, H. Lee, and A. J. Welch, “Midinfrared optical breakdown in transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 107601 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and larger thermal conductivity (0.27 Wcm−1K−1) [19

19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28947–28952 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], thus leading to weaker thermal lens effect. Particularly, Cr2+:ZnS SAs are very promising for passively Q-switching of the rare-earth lasers owing to about two orders of magnitude greater absorption and emission cross-sections than that of the rare-earth ions [20

20. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Based on the predominance mentioned, we reported the output characteristics of a PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser using Cr2+:ZnS as SA at liquid nitrogen cooling. The influence of the Q-switch position was particularly investigated.

2. Experimental setup

The PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser setup with dual crystals was schematically shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser. (b) Absorption coefficient of Cr:ZnS between 1.2 and 2.2 μm .
. The laser resonator was composed of the cavity mirror M1-M5. The M1-M4 plane mirrors were anti-reflection (AR) coated around ~798 nm and high-reflection coated at ~2 μm. The output coupler M5 had 500 mm radius of curvature and transmittance of 40% at 2 μm. The distances among M1-M5 were orderly 50 mm, 130 mm, 50 mm and 45 mm, with a total cavity length of 275 mm. The emission wavelength of the LD1 and LD2 were in the range of 798-802 nm depending on the heat sink temperature and the pump current, with fiber diameter of 400 μm and numerical aperture of 0.22. Each collimated pump laser was averaged into two beams by a spectroscope and were coupled into Tm,Ho:GdVO4 crystals from two sides by lenses. The focused pump beam in the laser media had a diameter of ~800 μm. Both a-cut Tm,Ho:GdVO4 crystals with the same Tm3+ (4 at.%) and Ho3+ (0.4 at.%) doping concentration had a cross section of 4 × 4 mm2 and length 8 mm (crystal 1) and 10 mm (crystal 2) respectively. To effectively remove the heat generated in the crystals for high power operation, they were respectively wrapped in indium foil and held in copper heat-sinks connected with two small dewars with each filled with liquid-N2. In addition, the dual crystals configuration with dual-end pumped for each gain crystal cannot only further facilitate the distribution of the thermal load but also be benefit for adjusting the mode-coupling efficiency for each crystal. The configuration can be simplified as a plano-concave resonator with two thin thermal lenses. Our group had analyzed the thermal effect of Tm,Ho-codoped vanadates laser crystal [17

17. W. J. He, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Diode-pumped efficient Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with near-diffraction limited beam quality,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11653–11659 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. L. J. Li, B. Q. Yao, C. T. Wu, Y. L. Ju, Y. J. Zhang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Thermal focal length measurement of an LD-end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. 19(6), 1213–1215 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. By the equation in [22

22. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and the parameters in [17

17. W. J. He, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Diode-pumped efficient Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with near-diffraction limited beam quality,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11653–11659 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the estimated thermal focal length was ~60 cm for each Tm,Ho:GdVO4 at the pump power of 35 W, considering the well-known ABCD matrix, corresponding to |A + D|/2 value of the resonator lower than 0.82, which indicated the resonator always keep stable. The radii of TEM00 mode on the laser crystal 1 and 2 calculated were respectively ~370 μm and ~480 μm at the pump power of ~10 W. It should be pointed out that the actual thermal focal length may be much shorter than the estimated value at the liquid-N2 cooling from the thermal parameters’ change [23

23. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, and M. Dubinskii, “Linear thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of YVO4 crystals the 80-320 K temperature range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1624–1631 (2012). [CrossRef]

], however no power degradation or resonator instability was observed in the experiment.

A thin Cr2+:ZnS SA produced by a diffusion doped method was cut into 9 × 9 mm2 cross section and 2 mm thickness with small-signal transmission of ~82%. The absorption coefficient of Cr2+:ZnS is shown in Fig. 1(b). The ground-state absorption cross section is approximately 8.9 × 10−20 cm2 at 2.05 μm. The saturation fluence was 1.1 J/cm2. The SA was placed in the resonator with a variable distance L from the output coupler to change the mode radius on it. And, it was mounted in a copper heat sink which was cooled by water. The radii of the TEM00 mode on SA with different L calculated were respectively ~520 μm (L = 25 mm), ~530 μm (L = 15 mm), ~540 μm (L = 7 mm) at the pump power of 10 W.

3. Experimental results and discussion

The change of CW output power with the pump power is shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Output power of (a) CW and (b) PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser.
. The CW output power of the Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser at 77 K increases linearly with the pump power with a slope efficiency of 35.5%. The maximum output power is up to 10.5 W at the pump power of 32.2 W and no power saturation is observed. The higher output power and slope efficiency, compared with ones at room temperature [14

14. X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is attributed to cryogenic cooling to reduce greatly thermo-optic effects [24

24. T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 13(3), 448–459 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and decrease effectively upconversion losses [16

16. B. Q. Yao, W. J. He, Y. Z. Wang, X. B. Zhang, and Y. F. Li, “High efficiency continuous-wave Tm:Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by a diode,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21(11), 2182–2183 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

The variation of the single pulse energy and pulse width versus the pump power at the different L is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Pulse energy and (b) pulse width versus pump power for different L.
. It is different from other references reported with almost constant pulse energy to pump power [11

11. R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 14

14. X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. From Fig. 3, the pulse energy of ~10 μJ and the pulse width of microsecond magnitude are obtained at the pump power of ~3.5 W. These results are close to ones of PQS Tm,Ho-codoped laser at room temperature [13

13. X. L. Zhang, X. J. Bao, L. Li, H. Li, and J. H. Cui, “Laser diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser with Cr:ZnS as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2122–2127 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Figure 3(a) shows also that the pulse energy at L of 25 mm increases abruptly with the pump power, and reaches the maximum value of 70.5 μJ at the pump power of ~10 W, then decreases to 53 μJ. For L of 15 mm, the maximum pulse energy of 51.9 μJ occurs also at the pump power of 10 W, and the pulse energy changes slightly between 51.9 μJ and 43.3 μJ at the pump power of >10 W. As comparison, the maximum pulse energy for L of 7 mm appears at pump power of 18.3 W. From Fig. 3(b), for the pump power of <10 W, the pulse width decreases fast monotonically from a few microseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the pulse width exhibits no obvious dependence on the larger pump power than 10 W. And at L of 25 mm, the minimum pulse width of ~350 ns is obtained. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) versus pump power for different L.
shows the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) with the pump power at the different L. The PRF increases monotonically from 8 kHz to 57 kHz with the pump power though the change among different L is unobvious. Base on the above analysis, it is found that the maximum single pulse energy of 70.5 μJ was obtained, corresponding to the pulse width of 354 ns and PRF of 16.7 kHz at the pump power of 9.9 W at L of 25 mm. When the L equaled 15 mm, the pulse energy keeps almost constant when the input power changes from 10 W to 22.8 W.

The pulse temporal trace was recorded by a Lecroy digital oscilloscope (600 MHz bandwidth) with a fast PIN photodiode. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Typical expanded shape of a single pulse, and a train of output pulses at 9.9W pump power (L = 25 mm). (b) The unstable pulses at 22.8 W pump power (L = 25 mm).
shows the oscilloscope trace of a single expanded shape pulse at the pump power of 9.9 W (L = 25 mm). The inset in Fig. 5(a) shows the stable pulses for this pump power and distance. When the pump power was more than 16.1 W (L = 25 mm), 22.8 W (L = 15 mm), and 24.3 W (L = 7 mm), we can’t observed the stable pulses train. Figure 5(b) shows the unstable train of output pulses at the pump power of 22.8 W for the distance L of 25 mm. It is meaningless to measure the PRF and pulse width in this unstable condition. So, the parameters for the pump power weren’t given in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. The instabilities in the pulse spacing (“jitter”) observed in Fig. 5(b) had previously been attributed to technical factors such as thermal and mechanical instability of the SAs. The recent researches showed that the poor pulse-to-pulse stability of the laser could be induced by the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the system, and was ruled by low-dimensional deterministic chaos [25

25. M. Kovalsky and A. Hnilo, “Chaos in the pulse spacing of passive Q-switched all-solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3498–3500 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 26

26. D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Deterministic chaos in a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 325–327 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, local heating of the active channel from the uniformity of the dopant concentration could also induce visible instability of the Q-switching pulses [27

27. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3560–3566 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The laser beam quality was measured by the traveling knife-edge method along x- and y-axis. By fitting Gaussian beam to these data, the M2 factors were determined to be 1.10 and 1.14 in x and y directions respectively [see Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Beam radius versus the distance from a lens at 22.8 W pump power.
]. The inset shows the transverse output beam profile measured by a beam analyzer with a close to fundamental transverse electromagnetic mode.

The emission spectrum of CW and corresponding Q-switched laser was also recorded with a WDG-30 monochrometer with entry slice of less than 0.04mm. The emission spectrum of CW laser kept good consistency when the CW laser output power was increased from 2W to 10.5W. At the beginning of Q-switching, for the pump power of 7.6W, the spectral width of the Q-switched laser was broadened [see Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 Output spectrum of CW and PQS laser for (a) different pump power (L = 7mm), and (b) different L at 10 W pump power.
]. With the increase of pump power, the PQS laser brings the narrowing spectral width and lengthening wavelength. At the fixed pump power such as 10W, the emission central wavelength of PQS laser, comparison with CW operation, generates also slightly red shift from 2.051um to 2.053um for different L [see Fig. 7(b)]. The slightly red shift of the central wavelength results possibly from the combined effect of both the emission cross section relation to emitting wavelength and the change of intracavity losses for inserted the SA [28

28. S. J. Shu, T. Yu, J. Y. Hou, R. T. Liu, M. J. Huang, and W. B. Chen, “End-pumped all solid-state high repetition rate Tm,Ho:LuLF laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(2), 021401 (2011).

].

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we realized, first, to our knowledge, diode-pumped PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser cooled by liquid-N2 with a Cr2+:ZnS SA. The influence of the different distance of Cr2+:ZnS from the output coupler was investigated. The highest pulse energy of 70.5 μJ was obtained at input power of 10 W at the appropriate position L of 25 mm, corresponding to pulse repetition frequency of 16.8 kHz and a pulse width of 354 ns. The maximum Q-switch efficiency is up to 48.8% for ~16.1 W pump power at L of 25 mm. Furthermore, the M2 factor of ~1.1 in x and y directions shows near-diffraction limited beam quality. The stable PQS Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser is useful for generating different wavelength laser inside nonlinear optical media.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (60878011, 61078008, 61308009), Fundamental Research funds for the Central Universities (Hit.NSRIF.2014044), and Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-10-0067).

References and links

1.

S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 microm using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Single mode Tm and Tm,Ho:LuAG lasers for LIDAR applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(6), 285–290 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Iwai, S. Ishii, R. Oda, K. Mizutani, S. Sekizawa, and Y. Murayama, “Performance and technique of coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar for wind measurement,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(3), 429–449 (2013). [CrossRef]

4.

N. S. Nishioka and Y. Domankevitz, “Comparison of tissue ablation with pulsed holmium and thulium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2271–2275 (1990). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Q. Yao, G. Li, G. L. Zhu, P. B. Meng, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Comparative investigation of long-wave infrared generation based on ZnGeP2 and CdSe optical parametric oscillators,” Chin. Phys. B 21(3), 0342131–0342136 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Titov, V. V. Badikov, S. G. Sheina, V. L. Panyutin, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, “Efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser operation around 1.9 μm and self-frequency Raman conversion of Tm-doped KY(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 2926–2928 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

M. Gaponenko, A. Onushchenko, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, K. Yumashev, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser with 8 ns/30μJ pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(4), 291–294 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

B. Q. Yao, Y. Tian, G. Li, and Y. Z. Wang, “InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13574–13579 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Z. S. Qu, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Performance of 2 μm Tm:YAP pulse laser based on a carbon nanotube absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 109(1), 143–147 (2012). [CrossRef]

10.

H. H. Yu, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 laser with 1.26 mJ output energy,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2544–2546 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, M. I. Demchuk, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Passively Q-switched Ho3+:Y3Al5O12 laser using a PbSe-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 572–573 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

X. L. Zhang, X. J. Bao, L. Li, H. Li, and J. H. Cui, “Laser diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser with Cr:ZnS as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2122–2127 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Q. Yao, W. J. He, Y. Z. Wang, X. B. Zhang, and Y. F. Li, “High efficiency continuous-wave Tm:Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by a diode,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 21(11), 2182–2183 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

W. J. He, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Diode-pumped efficient Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with near-diffraction limited beam quality,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11653–11659 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

D. M. Simanovskii, H. A. Schwettman, H. Lee, and A. J. Welch, “Midinfrared optical breakdown in transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(10), 107601 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28947–28952 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

L. J. Li, B. Q. Yao, C. T. Wu, Y. L. Ju, Y. J. Zhang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Thermal focal length measurement of an LD-end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. 19(6), 1213–1215 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, and M. Dubinskii, “Linear thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of YVO4 crystals the 80-320 K temperature range,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1624–1631 (2012). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 13(3), 448–459 (2007). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Kovalsky and A. Hnilo, “Chaos in the pulse spacing of passive Q-switched all-solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3498–3500 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Deterministic chaos in a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(5), 325–327 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3560–3566 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

S. J. Shu, T. Yu, J. Y. Hou, R. T. Liu, M. J. Huang, and W. B. Chen, “End-pumped all solid-state high repetition rate Tm,Ho:LuLF laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(2), 021401 (2011).

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 8, 2013
Published: October 28, 2013

Citation
Yanqiu Du, Baoquan Yao, Xiaoming Duan, Zheng Cui, Yu Ding, Youlun Ju, and Zuochun Shen, "Cr:ZnS saturable absorber passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser," Opt. Express 21, 26506-26512 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-22-26506


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, and A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 microm using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett.16(10), 773–775 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Scholle, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Single mode Tm and Tm,Ho:LuAG lasers for LIDAR applications,” Laser Phys. Lett.1(6), 285–290 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. H. Iwai, S. Ishii, R. Oda, K. Mizutani, S. Sekizawa, and Y. Murayama, “Performance and technique of coherent 2-μm differential absorption and wind lidar for wind measurement,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.30(3), 429–449 (2013). [CrossRef]
  4. N. S. Nishioka and Y. Domankevitz, “Comparison of tissue ablation with pulsed holmium and thulium lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(12), 2271–2275 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, G. L. Zhu, P. B. Meng, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Comparative investigation of long-wave infrared generation based on ZnGeP2 and CdSe optical parametric oscillators,” Chin. Phys. B21(3), 0342131–0342136 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. L. E. Batay, A. N. Kuzmin, A. S. Grabtchikov, V. A. Lisinetskii, V. A. Orlovich, A. A. Demidovich, A. N. Titov, V. V. Badikov, S. G. Sheina, V. L. Panyutin, M. Mond, and S. Kuck, “Efficient diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser operation around 1.9 μm and self-frequency Raman conversion of Tm-doped KY(WO4)2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2926–2928 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Gaponenko, A. Onushchenko, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, K. Yumashev, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser with 8 ns/30μJ pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett.9(4), 291–294 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. B. Q. Yao, Y. Tian, G. Li, and Y. Z. Wang, “InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers,” Opt. Express18(13), 13574–13579 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. S. Qu, Y. G. Wang, J. Liu, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Performance of 2 μm Tm:YAP pulse laser based on a carbon nanotube absorber,” Appl. Phys. B109(1), 143–147 (2012). [CrossRef]
  10. H. H. Yu, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, and M. Tonelli, “Compact passively Q-switched diode-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 laser with 1.26 mJ output energy,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2544–2546 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Faoro, M. Kadankov, D. Parisi, S. Veronesi, M. Tonelli, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Segura, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched Tm:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1517–1519 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, M. I. Demchuk, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Passively Q-switched Ho3+:Y3Al5O12 laser using a PbSe-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78(5), 572–573 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. X. L. Zhang, X. J. Bao, L. Li, H. Li, and J. H. Cui, “Laser diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF laser with Cr:ZnS as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun.285(8), 2122–2127 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. X. L. Zhang, L. Yu, S. Zhang, L. Li, J. Q. Zhao, and J. H. Cui, “Diode-pumped continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express21(10), 12629–12634 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Q. Yao, W. J. He, Y. Z. Wang, X. B. Zhang, and Y. F. Li, “High efficiency continuous-wave Tm:Ho:GdVO4 laser pumped by a diode,” Chin. Phys. Lett.21(11), 2182–2183 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. W. J. He, B. Q. Yao, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “Diode-pumped efficient Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with near-diffraction limited beam quality,” Opt. Express14(24), 11653–11659 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. M. Simanovskii, H. A. Schwettman, H. Lee, and A. J. Welch, “Midinfrared optical breakdown in transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(10), 107601 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Sorokin, N. Tolstik, K. I. Schaffers, and I. T. Sorokina, “Femtosecond SESAM-modelocked Cr:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express20(27), 28947–28952 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progress in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. L. J. Li, B. Q. Yao, C. T. Wu, Y. L. Ju, Y. J. Zhang, and Y. Z. Wang, “Thermal focal length measurement of an LD-end-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser,” Laser Phys.19(6), 1213–1215 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. B. Q. Yao, G. Li, P. B. Meng, G. L. Zhu, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “High power diode-pumped continuous wave and Q-switch operation of Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(12), 857–861 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. N. Ter-Gabrielyan, V. Fromzel, and M. Dubinskii, “Linear thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients of YVO4 crystals the 80-320 K temperature range,” Opt. Mater. Express2(11), 1624–1631 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. T. Y. Fan, D. J. Ripin, R. L. Aggarwal, J. R. Ochoa, B. Chann, M. Tilleman, and J. Spitzberg, “Cryogenic Yb3+-doped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.13(3), 448–459 (2007). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Kovalsky and A. Hnilo, “Chaos in the pulse spacing of passive Q-switched all-solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3498–3500 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Y. Tang, S. P. Ng, L. J. Qin, and X. L. Meng, “Deterministic chaos in a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser passively Q switched by a Cr4+:YAG crystal,” Opt. Lett.28(5), 325–327 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,” Opt. Express12(15), 3560–3566 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. J. Shu, T. Yu, J. Y. Hou, R. T. Liu, M. J. Huang, and W. B. Chen, “End-pumped all solid-state high repetition rate Tm,Ho:LuLF laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett.9(2), 021401 (2011).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited