## Transfer matrix analysis of backscattering and reflection effects on WDM-PON systems |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 23, pp. 27565-27577 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.027565

Acrobat PDF (1232 KB)

### Abstract

This paper proposes using power transfer matrix analysis to characterize the effects of Rayleigh backscattering and Fresnel reflection on WDM-PON systems. The modeling of a WDM-PON system can be carried out simply by matrix multiplication of the corresponding matrices for all the building blocks, where all possible guided backward lights and resonant configurations along the optical network can be accounted for. The total sum of all interferences affecting the bidirectional transmission that leads to an optical crosstalk-to-signal (C/S) ratio can be modeled as back-reflections through cascaded two-port networks for the downstream and upstream signals. This approach is simple, robust, efficient, and also accurate. Its accuracy is verified for simple system architectures and then applied to study more complicated cases. The results show its versatility to analyze a wide variety of bidirectional optical transmission systems.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. Y. Khan, C. X. Yu, X. J. Xin, A. Ali, A. Husain, and B. Liu, “Rayleigh backscattering minimization on single-fiber colorless WDM-PON using intensity remodulation technique,” Optoelectron. Lett. **8**(5), 380–383 (2012). [CrossRef]

9. J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models,” J. Lightwave Technol. **21**(4), 938–946 (2003). [CrossRef]

10. S. C. Lin, J. Y. Huang, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, S. C. Ko, and T. W. Liaw, “WDM-PON with 10 Gb/s bidirectional transmission using cross-remodulation and dual-wavelength lasers,” in *Proceedings of the 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference* (OECC, Hongkong, China, 2009), Paper TuH5. [CrossRef]

13. Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W. D. Zhong, C. J. Chae, X. F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express **15**(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, and P. D. Townsend, “Modeling of modulation formats for interferometric noise mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. **26**(17), 3190–3198 (2008). [CrossRef]

15. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. **6**(6), 765–776 (2007). [CrossRef]

1. Y. Khan, C. X. Yu, X. J. Xin, A. Ali, A. Husain, and B. Liu, “Rayleigh backscattering minimization on single-fiber colorless WDM-PON using intensity remodulation technique,” Optoelectron. Lett. **8**(5), 380–383 (2012). [CrossRef]

9. J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models,” J. Lightwave Technol. **21**(4), 938–946 (2003). [CrossRef]

15. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. **6**(6), 765–776 (2007). [CrossRef]

21. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **24**(2), 740–746 (2006). [CrossRef]

22. B. Lannoo, G. Das, M. De Groote, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Techno-economic feasibility study of different WDM/TDM PON architectures, “ in *Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks* (ICTON, Munich, Germany, 2010), Paper Mo.C4.3. [CrossRef]

24. J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **16**(5), 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]

## 2. Transfer matrix analysis for systems with back-reflections

*A*and

_{i}*B*represent the forward-going and backward-going powers at the

_{i}*i*-th port, where

*i*= 1 and 2, respectively. The transmission network structure can be divided into a number of sections, where the structure and material parameters are assumed to be homogeneous throughout each section. For structures consisting of several concatenated sections, the total power T-matrix for the complete structure is simply the matrix product of the individual matrices for all of the sections. With this method, the transmission and reflection characteristics of WDM-PON networks can be determined.

4. E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]

5. C. Arellano, K. D. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

3. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in *Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference* (OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, California, 2010), Paper OThG1. [CrossRef]

5. C. Arellano, K. D. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

16. S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, H. H. Lin, G. Keiser, and R. J. Ram, “Cross-seeding schemes for WDM-based next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(24), 3727–3736 (2011). [CrossRef]

_{s}is the initial seeding power sent from the light source at CO, and P

_{R}is the total received power of the upstream transmission at CO. P

_{BR-UL}is the total crosstalk power which comes from the accumulation of RB and FR effects on the loop-back upstream transmission.

**T**,

_{f}**T**,

_{RN}**T**, and

_{d}**T**are the power T-matrices for the feeder fiber, remote node, drop fiber, and optical network unit, respectively.

_{ONU}**T**is the T-matrix of the entire uplink direction. Each T-matrix shown in Fig. 4 can represent a series of passive or active components, and

_{u}**T**can be obtained by multiplying the matrices of all building blocks for the uplink.

_{u}**accounts for both the back-reflections of the downstream injected seeding light at CO (Type I) and the modulated upstream signal at ONU (Type II) [2**

_{BR-UL}2. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON employing remote EDFA,” in *Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference* (OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, California, 2011), Paper OMP1. [CrossRef]

4. E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]

5. C. Arellano, K. D. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

*P*,

_{T}*P*, and

_{Rdn}*P*stand for the transmitted downstream power, received downstream power, and back-reflected power, respectively. The T-matrix for the downstream transmission,

_{BR1}**T**

*, includes the one-way building blocks from the CO transmitter to the ONU receiver.*

_{dn}*P*from

_{Rdn0,}*P*Therefore, the C/S ratio for the downstream transmission is given by:where the superscript “*” refers to the matrix element for the downstream transmission without considering the RB and FR effects. Equation (5) will be applied in Section 4, Case B, for analyzing the upstream transmission case using tunable lasers as ONU transmitters.

_{Rdn.}15. G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. **6**(6), 765–776 (2007). [CrossRef]

### 2.1. Discontinuity (Fresnel reflection)

### 2.2. Feeder or drop fiber

*, and the loss of the feeder fiber section,*

_{f}*l*, as shown in Fig. 5(b). Similar modeling can be applied for a drop fiber section. The loss of a feeder or drop fiber can be written as

_{f}*α*being the fiber loss coefficients and

_{f,d}*L*the lengths. The subscripts

_{f,d}*f*and

*d*denote the feeder fiber and the drop fiber, respectively, and the relative RB power can be written as

*B*=

*Sα*is the RB coefficient [5

_{s}/2α**27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

9. J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models,” J. Lightwave Technol. **21**(4), 938–946 (2003). [CrossRef]

*S*being the fiber recapture coefficient (dimensionless) and

*α*[km

_{s}^{−1}] the fiber scattering coefficient.

### 2.2. Remote node (RN): passive and/or active components

*R*for a passive device and

_{p}*R*for an active device) and either insertion loss (

_{a}*l*

_{RN}) for a passive device or optical gain (

*G*

_{RN}) for an active device, as shown in Fig. 6(a). For clarity, return losses are not shown in this figure. In a WDM-PON, an array waveguide grating (AWG) module is usually used at the RN as a multiplexer (MUX) or demultiplexer (DEMUX). The RN may include optical amplifiers and optical splitters for long-reach WDM-PON systems.

### 2.3. Reflective ONU (RONU) → Transmissive ONU

*G*) by unfolding the device into one with double the original length and assuming zero reflectivity at both end facets as shown in Fig. 6(b). Thus, the loop-back upstream transmission (bidirectional link) is simplified as a unidirectional link, as illustrated in Fig. 3. Therefore, an RSOA can be modeled as a traveling-type SOA, and an REAM as an EAM.

_{ONU}## 3. C/S ratio of basic WDM-PON systems with loop-back scheme

2. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON employing remote EDFA,” in *Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference* (OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, California, 2011), Paper OMP1. [CrossRef]

4. E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]

**27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

**T**

*is the overall transmission matrix from CO to ONU, and*

_{g}**T**

*is the overall transmission matrix from the ONU back to the CO. We assume that*

_{h}*T*can be written as:We can compose this as:whereThe approximation in Eq. (9) is based on the assumption that;

_{g}*G*less than 20 dB. Under such conditions and from Eq. (3),

_{ONU}**22**(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]

## 4. Calculated results and discussion

*S*= 0.001,

*α*= 0.032/km, and

_{s}*α*= 0.046/km at λ = 1550 nm [4

**22**(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]

**27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

### Case A. WDM-PON systems with Fresnel reflections

**27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

**27**(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]

*l*and

_{t}*γ*stand for the loss and RB effect of the whole fiber, respectively, i.e.,

_{t}*l*). In the calculation, the reflection is assumed to occur at the ONU side, i.e.,

_{t}*l*= 1; in addition, the RB effect is neglected. The two methods generate the same results for the low-reflection case (

_{d}*R*= 60 dB), revealing a small discrepancy at the higher-gain regime for the R = 30 dB case. Both methods predict the steep increase in the C/S ratio as the gain approaches the return loss value, where the cyclic effects make the denominator of the third term in Eq. (16) close to zero.

_{ONU}= 28.7 dB. For similar derivation of Eqs. (7) to (12) in this particular case (

*l*= 1) but including the FR effect, it can be proved that

_{d}*T*

_{u}_{11}with the denominator of the third and fourth terms of Eq. (16). In Eq. (16), the cyclic effects of the RB and FR effects are treated separately whereas they are combined in T-matrix modeling. Therefore, when both effects are considered, the T-matrix predicts an earlier breakdown of the system performance when the ONU gain increases. In spite of the discrepancy at the extremely high-gain regime, the two methods give the same results for typical operation conditions.

16. S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, H. H. Lin, G. Keiser, and R. J. Ram, “Cross-seeding schemes for WDM-based next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(24), 3727–3736 (2011). [CrossRef]

*L*+

_{f}*L*) is 50 km. We observe that both methods obtain the same curves for every condition. With a very tiny reflection (

_{d}*R*= 70 dB), the crosstalk is dominated by RB, while for a high reflection (

*R*= 40 dB), the crosstalk by the discontinuity (FR) can be comparable or even larger than RB.

### Case B. Long-reach hybrid WDM/TDM PON systems

23. H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surveys Tutorials. **12**(1), 112–123 (2010). [CrossRef]

2. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON employing remote EDFA,” in

3. U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in

**21**(4), 938–946 (2003). [CrossRef]

## 5. Conclusions

## Acknowledgment

## References and links

1. | Y. Khan, C. X. Yu, X. J. Xin, A. Ali, A. Husain, and B. Liu, “Rayleigh backscattering minimization on single-fiber colorless WDM-PON using intensity remodulation technique,” Optoelectron. Lett. |

2. | U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON employing remote EDFA,” in |

3. | U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in |

4. | E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

5. | C. Arellano, K. D. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

6. | H. H. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects,” in |

7. | C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs,” Opt. Express |

8. | J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Rayleigh scattering reduction by means of optical frequency dithering in passive optical networks with remotely seeded ONUs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

9. | J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

10. | S. C. Lin, J. Y. Huang, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, S. C. Ko, and T. W. Liaw, “WDM-PON with 10 Gb/s bidirectional transmission using cross-remodulation and dual-wavelength lasers,” in |

11. | T. T. Pham, H. S. Kim, Y. Y. Won, and S. K. Han, “Colorless WDM-PON based on a Fabry-Pérot laser diode and reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers for simultaneous transmission of bidirectional gigabit baseband signals and broadcasting signal,” Opt. Express |

12. | E. K. MacHale, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, A. Borghesani, I. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, and D. W. Smith, “Extended-reach PON employing 10Gb/s integrated reflective EAM-SOA,” in |

13. | Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W. D. Zhong, C. J. Chae, X. F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express |

14. | G. Talli, C. W. Chow, and P. D. Townsend, “Modeling of modulation formats for interferometric noise mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

15. | G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw. |

16. | S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, H. H. Lin, G. Keiser, and R. J. Ram, “Cross-seeding schemes for WDM-based next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

17. | S. Gao, H. Hu, and H. Anis, “Impact of backreflections on single-fiber bidirectional transmission in WDM-PONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. |

18. | W. Y. Hong, N. G. Qiang, G. Pan, and G. Kun, “Theoretical analysis on coherent noise by Rayleigh backscattering,” in |

19. | K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM-PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

20. | J. H. Moon, K. M. Choi, S. G. Mun, and C. H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

21. | M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

22. | B. Lannoo, G. Das, M. De Groote, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Techno-economic feasibility study of different WDM/TDM PON architectures, “ in |

23. | H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surveys Tutorials. |

24. | J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

25. | L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications

(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks

**ToC Category:**

Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: July 17, 2013

Revised Manuscript: September 13, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: October 13, 2013

Published: November 4, 2013

**Citation**

Joni Welman Simatupang and San-Liang Lee, "Transfer matrix analysis of backscattering and reflection effects on WDM-PON systems," Opt. Express **21**, 27565-27577 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-23-27565

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### References

- Y. Khan, C. X. Yu, X. J. Xin, A. Ali, A. Husain, and B. Liu, “Rayleigh backscattering minimization on single-fiber colorless WDM-PON using intensity remodulation technique,” Optoelectron. Lett.8(5), 380–383 (2012). [CrossRef]
- U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Maximum reach of long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON employing remote EDFA,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC, Los Angeles, California, 2011), Paper OMP1. [CrossRef]
- U. H. Hong, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in long-reach RSOA-based WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, California, 2010), Paper OThG1. [CrossRef]
- E. T. Lopez, J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Optimization of Rayleigh-limited WDM-PONs with reflective ONU by MUX positioning and optimal ONU gain,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(2), 97–99 (2010). [CrossRef]
- C. Arellano, K. D. Langer, and J. Prat, “Reflections and multiple Rayleigh backscattering in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(1), 12–18 (2009). [CrossRef]
- H. H. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC, San Diego, California, 2008), Paper OTuH6. [CrossRef]
- C. W. Chow and C. H. Yeh, “Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs,” Opt. Express19(6), 4970–4976 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. A. Lazaro, C. Arellano, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Rayleigh scattering reduction by means of optical frequency dithering in passive optical networks with remotely seeded ONUs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(1), 64–66 (2007). [CrossRef]
- J. Ko, S. Kim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. S. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Estimation of performance degradation of bidirectional WDM transmission systems due to Rayleigh backscattering and ASE noises using numerical and analytical models,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(4), 938–946 (2003). [CrossRef]
- S. C. Lin, J. Y. Huang, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, S. C. Ko, and T. W. Liaw, “WDM-PON with 10 Gb/s bidirectional transmission using cross-remodulation and dual-wavelength lasers,” in Proceedings of the 14th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC, Hongkong, China, 2009), Paper TuH5. [CrossRef]
- T. T. Pham, H. S. Kim, Y. Y. Won, and S. K. Han, “Colorless WDM-PON based on a Fabry-Pérot laser diode and reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers for simultaneous transmission of bidirectional gigabit baseband signals and broadcasting signal,” Opt. Express17(19), 16571–16580 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- E. K. MacHale, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, A. Borghesani, I. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, and D. W. Smith, “Extended-reach PON employing 10Gb/s integrated reflective EAM-SOA,” in Proceedings of 34h European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC, Brussels, Belgium, 2008), Paper Th.2.F.1.
- Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W. D. Zhong, C. J. Chae, X. F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express15(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. Talli, C. W. Chow, and P. D. Townsend, “Modeling of modulation formats for interferometric noise mitigation,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(17), 3190–3198 (2008). [CrossRef]
- G. Talli, C. W. Chow, E. K. MacHale, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh noise mitigation in long-reach hybrid DWDM-TDM PONs,” J. Opt. Netw.6(6), 765–776 (2007). [CrossRef]
- S. C. Lin, S. L. Lee, H. H. Lin, G. Keiser, and R. J. Ram, “Cross-seeding schemes for WDM-based next-generation optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(24), 3727–3736 (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. Gao, H. Hu, and H. Anis, “Impact of backreflections on single-fiber bidirectional transmission in WDM-PONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.3(10), 797–805 (2011). [CrossRef]
- W. Y. Hong, N. G. Qiang, G. Pan, and G. Kun, “Theoretical analysis on coherent noise by Rayleigh backscattering,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Forum on Information Technology and Applications (IFITA, Chengdu, China, 2009).
- K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM-PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(10), 1286–1295 (2009). [CrossRef]
- J. H. Moon, K. M. Choi, S. G. Mun, and C. H. Lee, “Effects of back-reflection in WDM-PONs based on seed light injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(24), 2045–2047 (2007). [CrossRef]
- M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, and K. Iwatsuki, “Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(2), 740–746 (2006). [CrossRef]
- B. Lannoo, G. Das, M. De Groote, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Techno-economic feasibility study of different WDM/TDM PON architectures, “ in Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON, Munich, Germany, 2010), Paper Mo.C4.3. [CrossRef]
- H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surveys Tutorials.12(1), 112–123 (2010). [CrossRef]
- J. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1290–1297 (2010). [CrossRef]
- L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits 2nd Ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012).

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