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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 23 — Nov. 18, 2013
  • pp: 27992–28000
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Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles

Tao Jiang, Zhe Kang, Guanshi Qin, Jun Zhou, and Weiping Qin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 23, pp. 27992-28000 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.027992


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Abstract

We demonstrate a novel method to reduce the mode-locking threshold of erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on saturable absorber (SA). The SA was prepared by mixing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes in sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The mode-locking threshold of EDFL was adjusted through simple changing the concentration of GNPs in the SA. The variation range of the threshold was as large as 21.5 mW. A lowest threshold of ~16 mW was obtained with the concentration of GNPs as 0.006 mmol/ml. The largest decreased ratio of the initial threshold was 47.5%. Surface plasmon field enhancement effect was speculated as the main reason for the reduced mode-locking threshold.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Ultrafast pulse lasers are of unprecedented interest for their wide applications in optical communication, military, industry, medicine, and fundamental research [1

1. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]

5

5. K. König, I. Riemann, and W. Fritzsche, “Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 819–821 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Passively mode-locked fiber lasers are among the best pulse sources available today due to their structural simplicity and their ability to generate picosecond and subpicosecond optical pulses [6

6. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, and P. S. J. Russell, “Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 561–563 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In recent years, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been mostly used as saturable absorbers (SAs) in passively mode-locked fiber lasers. Compared with traditional SAs, SWCNTs exhibit many advantages, including subpicosecond recovery time, wide operating bandwidth, and mechanical and environmental stability [8

8. S. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004). [CrossRef]

11

11. K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Besides, good compatibility with fiber has been realized by incorporating SWCNTs into polymers to form SAs [12

12. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In order to promote the practical applications of passively mode-locked fiber lasers, much research has been carried out to attain good mode-locking performance such as tunable laser operating wavelength, short pulse width, low insertion loss, and high optical-to-optical efficiency [9

9. P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008). [CrossRef]

13

13. K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Particularly, low mode-locking threshold power is significant for reducing the cost of pulse fiber lasers [11

11. K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Numerous attempts have been done to realize this purpose, for example changing polymer matrices, tuning the mixing ratio of SWCNTs and polymer, and producing polymer-free SAs [12

12. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the extent of the threshold power reduction is limited. It is still a challenge to achieve pulse fiber laser with acceptable mode-locking threshold.

In the case of noble metal nanocrystals (NCs), the extraordinary physical properties of them are mainly arise from their surface plasmon (SP). The interaction between the SP and incident electromagnetic field bring about a number of interesting optical events such as surface enhanced Raman scattering [15

15. K. M. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. J. Yoon, and D. Kim, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1472–1478 (2008). [CrossRef]

], large third-order nonlinearity [16

16. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(15), 1817–1819 (1998). [CrossRef]

], and much efficient fluorescence [17

17. A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Two possible reasons (SP resonance and SP field enhancement) have been proposed to explain these phenomenons [18

18. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Surface plasmon field enhancement (SPFE) is attributed to the collective motion of free electrons restricted to narrow regions, similar to that observed in colloidal nanoparticles exposed to an external electromagnetic field. The degree of field enhancement induced by SP is extremely sensitive to the shape and the distribution of the nanostructure. Therefore, large electromagnetic density and low excitation threshold can be induced in a proper designed material structure. For instance, ultra-low threshold high-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement has been obtained [21

21. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have also reported the highly enhanced local field density of SP leading to low pump threshold for upcoversion emissions [22

22. N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7671–7673 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci. 377(1), 81–87 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, a terahertz emitter consists of gold photoconductive antenna has been studied by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. Less pump power and higher terahertz output power were achieved by the enhancement of the local electric field [24

24. S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online 6(2), 153–156 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The strongly confined and enhanced electromagnetic field on the surface is particularly useful for the excitation of materials with very small absorption section, such as thin films. If the noble metal NCs were introduced into the SWCNTs-based SAs, low mode-locking threshold may also be obtained by the field enhancement in pulse fiber lasers.

Herein we present a new technique to decrease the mode-locking threshold of pulse fiber laser through integrating of SWCNTs with gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Firstly, a ring cavity erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) was set up based on SWCNTs. Stable passively mode-locking was achieved for a threshold of ~30.5 mW, with a repetition rate of 33 MHz at 1559 nm. The pulse width was 639 fs at a pump power of ~90 mW. Secondly, water soluble GNPs were easily mixed with SWCNTs in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) to form new SAs. The stable mode-locked pulse outputs were achieved in all the EDFLs using these SAs. The mode-locking threshold of these lasers decreased first and then increased with the concentration of GNPs in the SAs increasing. The variation range of the mode-locking threshold was up to 21.5 mW. When the concentration was 0.006 mmol/ml, the threshold reached the lowest value as 16 mW. The mechanism associated with the mode-locking threshold reduction was discussed based on the SPFE effect.

2. Experimental

2.1 Preparation and characterization of SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC and SWCNTs-NaCMC films

SWCNTs with diameters of 1-1.5 nm used in these experiments were commercially available from Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc. Stable suspensions of SWCNTs (4 mg) in 1 wt% aqueous solution (10 ml) of NaCMC (medium viscosity, Sigma) were prepared by ultrasonication. The concentration of SWCNTs was 0.04 wt%. This suspension was kept for 48 h and no precipitation was observed. GNPs were synthesized through reducing hydrochloroauric acid by trisodium citrate at 99 °C for 20 min. The GNPs were then separated via centrifugation and redispersed in aqueous solution to form ten GNPs solutions (10 ml) with increased concentration (0.002, 0.004, 0.006, 0.008, 0.01, 0.012, 0.014, 0.016, 0.018, and 0.02 mmol/ml). These GNPs solutions were mixed with ten same SWCNTs-NaCMC solutions (10 ml) by ultrasonication, separately. To avoid the impact of the decreased SWCNT concentration on the threshold power, 10 ml aqueous solution without GNPs was also mixed with 10 ml of SWCNTs-NaCMC solution to serve as the compared sample. SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC and SWCNTs-NaCMC films were formed by casting these solutions onto flat substrates, followed by a slow drying at room temperature.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the SWCNTs and the GNPs. Individual SWCNT strain can be resolved from the nanotube bundles, confirming that the sample indeed contains high-quality SWCNTs as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 TEM images of (a) the SWCNTs and (b) the SWCNTs@GNPs (Insert: TEM image of the GNPs). AFM images of (c) the SWCNTs-NaCMC film and (d) the SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml).
. The SWCNTs are found to be attached by the aggregated GNPs in Fig. 1(b), because they were only mixed by ultrasonication. The average diameters of these GNPs are about 20 nm as can be seen from the insert of Fig. 1(b). For conciseness, only atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the SWCNTs-NaCMC film and one SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) are shown in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d). The surfaces of the two thin films are both smooth and crack-free.

2.2 Setup of EDFL

These obtained films were placed between two fiber connectors to form fiber-compatible SAs and then integrated into a laser cavity respectively as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of the mode-locked EDFL.
. The fiber laser was pumped by a 980 nm laser diode (LD) through a 980/1550 nm wavelength-division multiplexer (WDM). A 20-cm-long single-mode EDF was used as the gain medium. Unidirectional light propagation was ensured by an optical isolator (ISO). The mode-locked laser pulse was output from the 10% port of the 10 dB WDM coupler. The rest of the cavity consisted of a SMF-28 single-mode fiber and the total cavity length was 6 m. The output lasers were analyzed by using an optical spectrum analyzer, a digital oscilloscope and an autocorrelator.

3. Results and discussion

Ten SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC films were inserted into the same ring cavity respectively. The stable mode-locked pulse outputs were obtained in all these EDFLs. Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Dependence of (a) the mode-locking threshold and (b) the CW threshold on the GNP concentration, (c) the output power of the EDFL mode-locked with a SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) as a function of the pump power, and distributions of excitation power density around GNPs with mutual distance as (d) 10, (e) 5, and (f) 1 nm in the x-y plane.
shows the mode-locking threshold variation of these EDFLs. With the increase of GNP concentration from 0 to 0.01 mmol/ml, the threshold decreased first and then increased. When the concentration of GNPs increased to 0.006 mmol/ml, the threshold reached the lowest value as 16 mW. Since the initial mode-locking threshold of the EDFL based on the SA without GNPs was 30.5 mW, the largest decrease ratio of the threshold was 47.5%. However, with the increase of the GNPs further, the threshold increased inversely. When the concentration of GNPs was as high as 0.01 mmol/ml, the mode-locking threshold increased to 37.5 mW. If the concentration of GNPs was higher than 0.01 mmol/ml, only Q-switched pulse outputs without sign of mode-locking were observed for a large range of the pump power. Therefore, the variation range of the mode-locking threshold was up to 21.5 mW. The CW threshold variation of these EDFLs is almost the same as that of the mode-locking threshold as shown in Fig. 5(b). With the increase of GNP concentration from 0 to 0.01 mmol/ml, the threshold also decreased first and then increased. The lowest value of the CW threshold reached 10 mW with the concentration of GNPs as 0.006 mmol/ml. The variation range of the CW threshold was 17 mW and the largest decrease ratio was 50%. Figure 5(c) shows the relationship between the output power and incident pump power of the mode-locked EDFL with a SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml). The output power increases linearly from 0.1 to 3.1 mW with increasing the pump power from 16 to 70 mW and the resulting optical-to-optical slope efficiency is about 5%. When the incident pump power was higher than 70 W, the output power decreased slowly and the absorber was damaged.

The thicknesses of these films are about 40 μm. When the thickness was changed, the insertion loss of the film was different, but the optimal concentration of GNPs was nearly not affected. For example, the insertion loss increased with the thickness of the film as 60 μm. As a consequence, the initial mode-locked threshold also increased to 36 from 30.5 mW. The optimal concentration of GNPs was still 0.006 mmol/ml, but the lowest mode-locking threshold changed to 23 mW. If the film became further thicker, the insertion loss became higher and the pulsed laser operation was difficult to obtain. By contrast, when the film became thinner, the absorption was too low to achieve stable single pulse operation and multiple pulse operation was obtained. As a consequence, we fixed the film thickness as about 40 μm in our experiment. On the other hand, if the concentration of SWCNTs was tuned, the optimal concentration of GNPs became a little different. When the concentration of SWCNTs was reduced by half, the mode-locking of the EDFL based on SWCNTs started at ~26 mW. The optimal concentration of GNPs changed to 0.005 mmol/ml and the minimum mode-locking threshold increased to 20 mW, which is probably because that the scattering loss caused by the aggregation of GNPs became more obvious with less SWCNTs. However, a rise of the SWCNT concentration made the formation of bundles and the film can be easily damaged at low pump powers.

The spectrum, autocorrelation trace, and output pulse trains of the laser with the lowest mode-locking threshold were compared with those of the bare SWCNTs-based one as shown in Figs. 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a), (b) Emission spectra, (c), (d) single pulse profiles, and (e), (f) output pulse trains of EDFLs mode-locked with a SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC film (the concentration of GNPs is 0.006 mmol/ml) and a SWCNTs-NaCMC film.
-6(f). The two mode-locked lasers both show broad spectra with 3-dB widths as approximately 3.3 and 3.4 nm at the pump power of 16 and 30.5 mW. The Kelly-sidebands of the two spectra indicate the signature of soliton mode-locking. The establishing of mode-locking can also be confirmed by the phenomena that single pulse and pulse train appeared in the autocorrelator and digital oscilloscope, respectively [26

26. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 29

29. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11337–11343 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the pedestals in the two autocorrelations are both distinct because of the low pump powers as shown in Figs. 6(c) and 6(d). The pedestal in the autocorrelation data is also an evidence of a little large noise in the cavity. The intercavity noise is probably caused by insertion losses and non-saturable absorbance of GNPs and polymer matrix. The FWHM of the autocorrelation traces are 1.332 and 1.185 ps, respectively. After being well fitted by a sech2 function, the real pulse durations are 865 and 769 fs, resulting time-bandwidths as 0.3238 and 0.3334, which are both higher than the transform-limited value. The output pulse trains are very stable with the same repetition frequency of 33 MHz, which is determined by the length of the laser cavity.

The synthesized GNPs were simply mixed with SWCNTs by ultrasonication in our experiment. The orientation of GNPs is difficult to be detected exactly due to their random distribution. However, the mode-locking threshold decrease is obvious. So far, several methods have been developed to coat metals onto SWCNTs with more regular morphology, such as impregnation, self-assembly, electrochemically deposition, and vapor deposition [30

30. Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry 12(9), 2542–2549 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the future, we will try to use these methods to synthesize SWCNTs@GNPs-NaCMC films. The influence of interaction between GNPs and SWCNTs on the mode-locking threshold power and the effect of polarization state on the final output will be further studied.

4. Conclusion

In summary, the mode-locking threshold of EDFL was successfully reduced by mixing GNPs with SWCNTs as SA. A ring cavity EDFL was firstly set up based on SWCNTs. Stable passively mode-locking was achieved for a threshold of ~30.5 mW, with a repetition rate of 33 MHz at 1559 nm. The pulse width was 639 fs for a pump power of ~90 mW. Water soluble GNPs were synthesized by using citrate as reductant. These GNPs were easily mixed with SWCNTs in sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) aqueous solution to form new SAs. When these SAs were used in the EDFL, the mode-locking threshold firstly decreased from 30.5 to 16 mW, and then increased to 37.5 mW with the increase of GNPs. The concentration of GNPs in the SA for the lowest mode-locking threshold of EDFL is 0.006 mmol/ml. The largest decrease ratio of the initial threshold is 47.5%. The possible reason for the improved mode-locking threshold was attribute to the SPFE effect based on FDTD calculations. Our experiment results offer a promising strategy to reduce the mode-locking threshold of pulse lasers.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 60908001, 61077033, 61275153, 61378004,51072065,11274139, and 61320106014) and K. C. Wong Magna Foundation in Ningbo University, China.

References and links

1.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hart, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

K. König, I. Riemann, and W. Fritzsche, “Nanodissection of human chromosomes with near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 819–821 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultrafast fiber laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, and P. S. J. Russell, “Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 561–563 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 51–56 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

K. Jiang, S. Fu, P. Shum, and C. L. Lin, “A wavelength-switchable passively harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with low pumping threshold using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 754–756 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. M. Byun, M. L. Shuler, S. J. Kim, S. J. Yoon, and D. Kim, “Sensitivity enhancement of surface plasmon resonance imaging using periodic metallic nanowires,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(11), 1472–1478 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au: TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(15), 1817–1819 (1998). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Fujiki, T. Uemura, N. Zettsu, M. A. Kasaya, A. Saito, and Y. Kuwahara, “Enhanced fluorescence by surface plasmon coupling of Au nanoparticles in an organic electroluminescence diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 043307 (2010). [CrossRef]

18.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Fluorescence Spectral Properties of Indocyanine Green on a Roughened Platinum Electrode: Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

N. Liu, W. Qin, G. Qin, T. Jiang, and D. Zhao, “Highly plasmon-enhanced upconversion emissions from Au@β-NaYF4:Yb,Tm hybrid nanostructures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7671–7673 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

T. Jiang, Y. Liu, S. Liu, N. Liu, and W. Qin, “Upconversion emission enhancement of Gd3+ ions induced by surface plasmon field in Au@NaYF4 nanostructures codoped with Gd3+-Yb3+-Tm3+ ions,” J. Coll. Int. Sci. 377(1), 81–87 (2012). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Zhong, Y. Shen, H. Shen, and Y. Huang, “FDTD study of a novel terahertz emitter with electrical field enhancement using surface plasmon resonance,” PIERS Online 6(2), 153–156 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–807 (1992). [CrossRef]

26.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 137–146 (2004). [CrossRef]

27.

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2229–2233 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11337–11343 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

Y. Wang, X. Xu, Z. Tian, Y. Zong, H. Cheng, and C. Lin, “Selective heterogeneous nucleation and growth of size-controlled metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in solution,” Chemistry 12(9), 2542–2549 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.5560) Lasers and laser optics : Pumping
(160.3900) Materials : Metals
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 12, 2013
Revised Manuscript: September 25, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 22, 2013
Published: November 7, 2013

Citation
Tao Jiang, Zhe Kang, Guanshi Qin, Jun Zhou, and Weiping Qin, "Low mode-locking threshold induced by surface plasmon field enhancement of gold nanoparticles," Opt. Express 21, 27992-28000 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-23-27992


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References

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