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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 23 — Nov. 18, 2013
  • pp: 28344–28358
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Plasmonic angular momentum on metal-dielectric nano-wedges in a sectorial indefinite metamaterial

Dafei Jin and Nicholas X. Fang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 23, pp. 28344-28358 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.028344


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Abstract

We present an analytical study in the structure-modulated plasmonic angular momentum, which is trapped in the core region of a sectorial indefinite metamaterial. This metamaterial consists of periodically arranged metal-dielectric nano-wedges along the azimuthal direction. Employing a transfer-matrix calculation and a conformal-mapping technique, our theory can deal with an arbitrary number of wedges with realistically rounded tips. We demonstrate that in the deep-subwavelength regime, strong electric fields that carry large azimuthal variations can exist only within ten-nanometer length scale around the structural center. They are naturally bounded by a characteristic radius on the order of a hundred nanometers from the center. These extreme confining properties suggest that the structure under investigation can be superior to the conventional metal-dielectric cavities in terms of nanoscale photonic manipulation.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Among the extensive studies in various metamaterials in the recent years, the so-called indefinite metamaterials (or hyperbolic metamaterials) have attracted particular attention [1

1. D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6, 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. These artificial materials are commonly constructed with multiple metal-dielectric layers (flat or curved, connected or trenched), so that the effective permittivity tensor brings on different signs in different directions. This construction results in plasmon-polariton-assisted singular density of states [2

2. I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067402 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science 336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such characteristics has been harnessed to achieve hyperlensing that can transmit near-field photonic information to far field [6

6. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. J. Li, L. Fok, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of an acoustic magnifying hyperlens,” Nat. Mater. 11, 931–934 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and to tune the lifetime of quantum emitters placed inside these metamaterials [5

5. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science 336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we consider a seemingly basic but far less-studied sectorial construction of indefinite metamaterials, as shown in Fig. 1. It consists of two elementary media: metal (medium 1) and dielectric (medium 2). They are periodically arranged in the azimuthal ϕ-direction, and uniformly extended in both the radial r-direction and axial z-direction [9

9. J. Li, L. Fok, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of an acoustic magnifying hyperlens,” Nat. Mater. 11, 931–934 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. J. Li, L. Thylen, A. Bratkovsky, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical magnetic plasma in artificial flowers,” Opt. Express 17, 10800–10805 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The angular span of each sector is either γ1 for medium 1 or γ2 for medium 2. The angular periodicity of one primitive unit (composed of an adjacent pair of medium 1 and medium 2) is γ = γ1 + γ2, and the total number of units is N = 2π/γ. This structure was once proposed by Jacob et al. [7

7. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] as an alternative hyperlensing construction in parallel with the concentric multilayer one. In their paper, they mainly discussed the hyperlensing functionality in the presence of extrinsic sources, using a two-dimensional effective medium theory (taking the continuous limit N → ∞, γ → 0, and letting the axial wavenumber kz → 0). In our work, we focus on the intrinsic plasmonic edge modes [11

11. L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, “Electrostatic edge modes in a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810–3815 (1972). [CrossRef]

14

14. E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] in this structure, under more realistic circumstances when the effective medium theory likely fails. Numerical simulation for similar structures suffering sharp wedges often involves instability or inefficiency. By contrast, our transfer-matrix calculation and conformal-mapping technique allow analytically treating an arbitrary number of sectors and rounded wedge tips, providing a powerful and reliable toolbox for comprehensive exploration. We are able to systematically compute the eigen-spectrum and field profiles for various structure-modulated [15

15. A. Ferrando, “Discrete-symmetry vortices as angular Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036612 (2005). [CrossRef]

] plamsonic angular momentum in the deep-subwavelength regime.

Fig. 1 Schematics of a sectorial construction of indefinite metamaterial consisting of medium 1 and medium 2, which are periodically arranged in the azimuthal ϕ-direction with alternating angular span γ1 and γ2 respectively.

Angular momentum of photons has been a topic of great interest for some years, and has found its applications in many fields [16

16. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is regarded as a promising candidate for encoding and delivering information in the next-generation optical communication. Angular momentum of plasmons, when metals are incorporated into material design, has also triggered a lot of interest [19

19. H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10, 529–536 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. Z. Shen, Z. J. Hu, G. H. Yuan, C. J. Min, H. Fang, and X.-C. Yuan, “Visualizing orbital angular momentum of plasmonic vortices,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4627–4629 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Most studies so far are for relatively long length scale on the order of several hundred nanometers. Exploiding the signature of indefinite metamaterials, we demonstrate that, in the deep-subwavelength regime, the electric fields carrying large azimuthal variations can be extremely intense around the structural center, where all the nano-sized wedge tips meet. Structure-modulated plasmonic angular momentum in ten-nanometer length scale can form there. For a fixed frequency ω and a fixed axial wavenumber kz, higher-angular-momentum modes tend to oscillate more drastically and distribute more widely in the radial direction from the structural center. Nevertheless, there always exists a characteristic bounding radius that naturally encapsulates all the field intensity into a region of just a hundred nanometers. In comparison, metal-dielectric circular cavities from conventional designs are incapable of confining this high photonic or plasmonic angular momentum in such small length scale, due to the geometrical and physical restrictions [21

21. C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

23

23. Q. Li and M. Qiu, “Plasmonic wave propagation in silver nanowires: guiding modes or not?” Opt. Express 21, 8587–8595 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Hence the remarkable properties of the structure under exploration can be potentially useful to the manipulation of photons and plasmons in extreme nanoscale [24

24. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013812 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

2. General formalism

We shall treat the eigenmode problem of our structure as a waveguide problem [21

21. C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

,27

27. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley, 1998).

], in the sense that the electromagnetic waves of interest are primarily propagating in the longitudinal direction along the z-axis but bounded in the transverse direction in the -plane. (We do not consider problems of radially outgoing or incoming waves emitted from or scattered by this structure.) Employing a more convenient representation, we may fully describe the problem with two scalar potentials, ΦE and ΦH, instead of the more familiar E and H fields. ΦE stands for the Ez-waves (or transverse-magnetic waves), and ΦH stands for the Hz-waves (or transverse-electric waves). They both satisfy the two-dimensional scalar Helmholtz equation,
[r2+1r2ϕ2+ω2c2μεkz2]ΦE=0,[r2+1r2ϕ2+ω2c2μεkz2]ΦH=0.
(2)
The general eigenmodes in sectorial structures are necessarily Ez-Hz-hybridized modes. So the ΦEH-combined electric and magnetic fields can be generated via
E=ΦE+iμεω2c2kzΦEezμωckz×[ΦHez],
(3)
H=ΦH+iμεω2c2kzΦHez+εωckz×[ΦEez],
(4)
which contain both the longitudinal and transverse components with respect to the unit vector ez. The boundary conditions across the wedge interfaces are the continuities of Ez, Er, εEϕ, Hz, Hr, and μHϕ.

To solve the waveguide modes in our metal-dielectric construction, κr must be real-valued (neglecting dissipation) in both media [12

12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]

], which demands kz to lie outside the light cone of the dielectric according to Eq. (1). It turns out that the index ς would have to be real-valued as well, to support the unique plasmonic edge modes [11

11. L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, “Electrostatic edge modes in a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810–3815 (1972). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. Given a set of state parameters {κr, ς, kz}, the scalar potentials ΦE and ΦH in a specific sector take the forms of
ΦE(r,ϕ,z;κr,ς,kz)=1εκrKiς(κrr)[Aςeςϕ+Bςe+ςϕ]eikzz,
(5)
ΦH(r,ϕ,z;κr,ς,kz)=1μκrKiς(κrr)[Cςeςϕ+Dςe+ςϕ]eikzz,
(6)
in which we have omitted the time-harmonic factor e−iωt. Aς, Bς, Cς and Dς are all undetermined coefficients. Kν is the νth-order modified Bessel function of the second kind. This type of Bessel function guarantees convergence as r → ∞ for arbitrarily complex-valued orders, ν = iς, and arguments, κrr = −ikrr [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

]. In Fig. 2, we plot Kiς (κrr) for real-valued ς in both the κrr scale and ln(κrr) scale. This function exhibits source-free indefinite oscillations at small argument, κrr → 0 or ln(κrr) → −∞, but evanescent decay at large argument. This behavior is completely different from the function Kν (κrr) for real-valued ν, in which case Kν (κrr) undergoes straight exponential decay (from potentially a line source at r = 0) [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

]. If measured in terms of the coordinate r, the oscillating and decaying regions of Kiς (κrr) are separated approximately by
rςκrb.
(7)
b defines a natural bounding radius. The waves are standing in the region rb and only weakly penetrating into the region rb. No matter how large b is, these waves are always radially bounded (non-radiative), even though the material itself is radially unbounded. As we shall discuss in detail below (particularly in Sec. 4), this is a hallmark of the plasmonic edge modes at deep axial subwavelength on metal-dielectric wedges [11

11. L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, “Electrostatic edge modes in a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810–3815 (1972). [CrossRef]

14

14. E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 2 Plots of the complex-order modified Bessel function of the second kind Kiς (κrr)/Kiς (1) with ς = 1, 2.5, 5.5, 10, when the abscissa is taken as (a) κrr and (b) ln(κrr). The denominator Kiς (1) is introduced to cancel some large prefactors and optimize the visualization.

Implementing the boundary conditions for an arbitrary axial wavenumber kz in the systems containing sharp wedges is mathematically challenging. Rigorous derivation requires the complicated Kontorovich-Lebedev integral transform over the index ς [29

29. A. D. Rawlins, “Diffraction by, or diffusion into, a penetrable wedge,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 455, 2655–2686 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. To reveal the crucial physics most relevant to our interest, we will make use of the indefinite signature of metal-dielectric structures and particularly investigate the eigenmodes at deep axial subwavelength, kz2|με|ω2/c2. This allows an asymptotically identical κr in both medium 1 and medium 2,
κr2kz2.
(8)
In this scenario, the system is non-retarded in the -plane and the boundary connection is greatly simplified. The terms explicitly carrying ω/ckz in Eqs. (3) and (4) can be dropped, leading to the decoupled electrostatic modes with vanishing magnetic fields, and magnetostatic modes with vanishing electric fields,
[r2+1r2ϕ2kz2]ΦE0,EΦE,H0,
(9)
[r2+1r2ϕ2kz2]ΦH0,HΦH,E0.
(10)
The basic solutions of ΦE and ΦH in a specific sector are unchanged from Eqs. (5) and (6), except the asymptotic relation Eq. (8) replacing Eq. (1).

3. Spectral analysis

As shown in Fig. 1, our structure is periodic in the ϕ-direction. The transfer matrix traversing one angular unit can be derived as
T=(eςγ1[cosh(ςγ2)ε12+ε222ε1ε2sinh(ςγ2)]ε12ε222ε1ε2sinh(ςγ2)ε22ε122ε1ε2sinh(ςγ2)e+ςγ1[cosh(ςγ2)+ε12+ε222ε1ε2sinh(ςγ2)]).
(11)
The eigen-spectrum can be solved in view of the Bloch theorem [15

15. A. Ferrando, “Discrete-symmetry vortices as angular Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036612 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 30

30. N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 1976).

],
det|TeilzγI|=0,(lz=0,±1,±2,,±N2).
(12)
Recall γ = 2π/N, where γ = γ1 +γ2 is the angular periodicity, and N is the total number of units. The azimuthal wavenumber lz denotes the conserved structure-modulated angular momentum about the z-axis. Its upper limit is at the boundary of the first angular Brillouin zone ±N/2 determined by material design. In the continuous limit N → ∞, γ → 0, lz approaches the z-component of the original angular momentum of plasmon polaritons, and can take however large values in this structure. The conserved angular momentum flows along the z-axis through the system.

We can obtain an elegant “band” equation akin to that of the Kronig-Penney model in solid state physics [30

30. N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 1976).

] (but winded into a 2π circle here),
cos(lzγ)=cosh(ςγ1)cosh(ςγ2)+12(ε1ε2+ε2ε1)sinh(ςγ1)sinh(ςγ2).
(13)
If we perform a series expansion to lzγ, ςγ1 and ςγ2 in Eq. (13) under the continuous limit, we can find a quite appealing result,
ς2ε˜ϕ+lz2ε˜r=0.
(14)
The effective permittivities from the effective medium theory automatically show up [2

2. I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067402 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

],
ε˜r=ε1η1+ε2η2,ε˜ϕ=ε1ε2ε1η2+ε2η1,
(15)
in which η1γ1/γ and η2γ2/γ are the filling ratios. Clearly, if ε̃r and ε̃ϕ are of opposite signs, then Eq. (14) exhibits the indefinite signature of this metamaterial, which possesses singular density of states on iso-frequency surfaces [2

2. I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067402 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science 336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The right-hand side of Eq. (14) does not have a usual term like ω2/c2 because of the non-retarded regime (equivalently the c → ∞ limit) that we have chosen; however, the nontrivial frequency dependence is still implicitly enclosed in ε̃r and ε̃ϕ.

Hereafter, we study the experimentally accessible metal-dielectric construction. We choose silver (Ag) as medium 1 and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as medium 2. Their permeabilities μ1 and μ2 are set to be 1. In the 200 – 2000 nm wavelength range, the SiO2 permittivity is nearly a frequency-independent constant ε2 ≈ 2.13, while the Ag permittivity can be well fitted by a frequency-dependent modified Drude model [31

31. P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 045418 (2004). [CrossRef]

],
ε1(ω)εh(εsεh)ωp2ω2iωΓ.
(16)
Here εh = 5.45, εs = 6.18, ωp = 17.2 × 1015 s−1, and Γ = 8.35 × 1013 s−1. For the proof-of-concept analysis here, we neglect the dissipation rate Γ of silver. As we know, for example, silver nanowires in SiO2 have a propagation length of at least several microns, even if the wire radius may be smaller than 50 nm and the operating wavelength may be shorter than 500 nm [23

23. Q. Li and M. Qiu, “Plasmonic wave propagation in silver nanowires: guiding modes or not?” Opt. Express 21, 8587–8595 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 32

32. Y. Ma, X. Li, H. Yu, L. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1160–1162 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although our sectorial structure is different from the circular wires, fundamentally they share a similar dissipation length scale. Let us now take a look at the behavior of effective permittivities ε̃r and ε̃ϕ for some given metal and dielectric filling ratios. We use η1=13 and η2=23 as an example throughout this paper. Figure 3 shows the change of ε̃r and ε̃ϕ versus frequency. There exist several characteristic frequencies: ωro = 4.72 × 1015 s−1 is the frequency as ε̃r(ω) = 0; ωϕo = 6.29 × 1015 s−1 is the frequency as ε̃ϕ (ω) = 0; ωϕ = 5.76×1015 s−1 is the frequency as ε̃ϕ(ω) = ∞. Accordingly, ε̃r and ε̃ϕ change signs in the different frequency ranges divided by these characteristic frequencies. There is another characteristic frequency, i.e., the metal-dielectric surface plasma frequency, ωsp=ωp(εsεh)/(εh+ε2)=5.34×1015s1, between ωro and ωϕ. These frequencies will be frequently referred below.

Fig. 3 Effective permittivities ε̃r and ε̃ϕ versus frequency ω for the metal and dielectric filling ratios η1=13 and η2=23.

In Fig. 4, we plot the eigen-spectrum ω(ς, lz) versus lz for several fixed values of ς based on the actual medium theory, Eq. (13), and the effective medium theory, Eq. (14), respectively. ς resembles a band index in the band theory of electrons in solids. For the actual spectrum shown in Fig. 4(a), we choose N = 24, γ = π/12, as an example. The structure-modulated angular momentum lz is limited within the 1st Brillouin zone |lz| < π/γ = N/2 = 12. For the effective spectrum shown in Fig. 4(b), these restrictions are irrelevant (or strictly speaking, N = ∞, γ = 0); but for the sake of comparison, we only draw |lz| < π/γ = 12 in the same angular momentum range. One should keep in mind that lz can only take discrete integers according to Eq. (12). Thus the continuous curves in the graphs just serve as visual guides for the grey dots. For every given ς, there are always a lower-energy ω(ς, lz) curve and a higher-energy ω(ς, lz) curve in the two regions ω < ωsp and ωsp < ω < ωϕo respectively. The main qualitative difference between Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) is that (b) shows an energy gap in the frequency range ωro < ω < ωϕ for however large ς, whereas (a) permits the large-ς curves to penetrate into the gap region and approach the ω = ωsp line from two sides. The reason for the existence of an energy gap in the effective medium theory can be intuitively grasped from Fig. 3, in which the frequency range ωro < ω < ωϕ (and also ω > ωϕo) embodies both positive ε̃r and positive ε̃ϕ. This enforces ς to be imaginary-valued (refer to Eq. (14)), therefore eliminates the plasmonic edge modes in our structure. However, the actual medium theory from Eq. (13) implies that this picture is only approximately correct. If the band index ς that controls the azimuthal confinement and the radial oscillation (for a given κr) is extraordinarily large, the effective medium theory naturally breaks down. The surface plasmons on different wedge interfaces fully decouple from each other and converge independently towards the same extreme short-wavelength limit ω = ωsp. Furthermore, even for the small-ς curves, Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) still show prominent frequency difference when lz approaches the Brillouin zone boundary. Only in the region where both ς and lz are small, the two formalisms agree well with each other. All the curves in this region pass through either the (lz = 0, ω = ωro) point or the (lz = 0, ω = ωϕ) point, and are very insensitive to the value of ς. This property can be deduced from Eq. (14) supposing either ε̃r ≃ 0 or ε̃ϕ ≃ ∞, which is an index-near-zero (INZ) or an index-near-infinity (INI) behavior.

Fig. 4 Calculated eigen-spectrum ω(ς, lz) versus lz for several fixed values of ς. (a) From the actual medium theory with N = 24, γ = π/12, and lz cutoff at the 1st Brillouin zone boundary ±π/γ = ±12. (b) From the effective medium theory with lz manually cutoff at ±12 for the sake of comparison. Note that a physical lz can only take discrete integers denoted by grey dots according to Eq. (12).

The aforementioned eigen-spectrum ω(ς, lz) is independent of the axial wavenumber kz, which seems unusual from the perspective of waveguide theory. This is a result of both the deep-subwavelength limit and the perfect wedge tips that we have assumed at r = 0. As demonstrated below, once we introduce rounded wedges, even if we still keep the deep-subwavelength limit, ω(ς, lz) will become kz-dependent.

4. Rounded wedges

The electrostatic potential of the calculated modes above oscillates indefinitely at r = 0. This can be inferred from the asymptotic behavior of Kiς (κrr) at small argument (see Fig. 2) [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

,33

33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

],
Kiς(κrr)~πςsinhςsin[ςln(12κrr)argΓ(1+iς)],(κrr0),
(17)
where argΓ is the complex phase angle of gamma function. In addition, the radial and azimuthal components of the field diverge like 1/κrr as r → 0 (refer to Eq. (9)). These singular behaviors are due to the infinite charge accumulation at the infinitely sharp tips. While the strong field enhancement at the structural center is physical and is favorable for nanophotonics, the mathematical artifacts must be removed from the theory. Practically, the wedges are always rounded and can never seamlessly touch each other under fabrication. To make our theoretical study match better with the reality, we adopt a conformal coordinate mapping to conveniently achieve the rounded and gapped configurations. The divergence and indefinite oscillations can then be automatically removed. More subtle physics around the wedge tips can be revealed [12

12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

, 33

33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

].

Let us momentarily write our electrostatic scalar potential in the (x, y)-coordinates, and again omit the phase factor eikzze−iωt,
[x2+y2kz2]ΦE(x,y)=0.
(18)
First, we define two sets of (dimensionless) complex coordinates w = (x+iy)/a and s = u+iv, where a is for now a characteristic length parameter that cancels the dimension of x and y. Next, we connect the two coordinate systems by a conformal mapping w = Λ(s), where Λ is an analytical function. Thus the Helmholtz equation in the (u, v)-coordinates reads
[u2+v2|dwds|(u,v)2kz2a2]ΦE(u,v)=0.
(19)
We introduce the following conformal mapping for any desired number of units N = 1, 2, 3,...,
wN=[coshs]2,i.e.,x+iy=a[cosh(u+iv)]2Nei2πNn,(u[0,+),v[π2,+π2],n=0,1,2,,N1).
(20)
The new (u, v)-coordinate system constitutes a generalized elliptic cylinder coordinate system, with N sectors partitioned by N −1 branch cuts. The index n denotes which sector a (x, y)-point maps in. The length parameter a is the semi-focal length measured in the old (x, y)-coordinate system. Far from the coordinate center (u ≫ 1), we have
x+iy=reiϕa4Ne2Nuei(2Nv+2πNn),i.e.,ra4Ne2Nu,ϕ2Nv+2πNn.
(21)
u resembles the logarithm of the radial coordinate r, while v (together with n) resembles the azimuthal coordinate ϕ, in spite of some differences in the proportionality constants. Figure 5 shows the new (u, v)-coordinate lines for N = 1 to 6. As can be seen, the conformal coordinate mapping automatically preserves the orthogonality. The shaded areas in Fig. 5 are to be filled with metal at the same filling ratio η1=13 as in the preceding part, corresponding to the regions with 0u<+,π2η1<v<+π2η1, n = 0, 1, 2,..., N − 1. All the metal wedges near the center are naturally rounded following the coordinate lines of u. The unshaded areas in Fig. 5 are to be filled with dielectric. These configurations nicely imitate the actual structures produced through nanofabrication, and are much more realistic than the one illustrated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 5 Conformal mapping from the (x, y)-coordinates to the (u, v)-coordinates with different total number of units N = 1 to 6. The red lines show the branch cuts and the semi-focal length. The green areas are the intended areas for metal filling at the ratio η1=13.

The transformation function appearing in Eq. (19) is
|dwds|2=|2N[coshs]2N1sinhs|2=4N2[sinh2u+cos2v]2N1[sinh2u+sin2v].
(22)
Therefore, the new Helmholtz equation looks like a Schrödinger equation in a strange potential,
[u2+v2]ΦE+4N2kz2a2[sinh2u+cos2v]2N1[sinh2u+sin2v]ΦE=0.
(23)
For N = 1 and N = 2, the partial differential equation is separable, which has solutions in the form of Mathieu functions [34

34. N. W. McLachlan, Theory and Application of Mathieu Functions (Oxford University, 1951).

]. But for N ≥ 3, the equation is only approximately separable. For instance, in the region near the wedge tips u ≃ 0, v ≃ 0 [33

33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

], the major behaviors can be described by a quadratic expansion to the sinh, sin and cos functions,
[u2+v2]ΦE+(2Nkza)2(u2+v2)ΦE=0.
(24)
This leads to the separable eigen-equations for ΦE(u, v) ≡ U(u)V(v) with an eigenvalue (2Nς)2,
[d2du2+(2Nkza)2u2]U(u)=+(2Nς)2U(u),
(25)
[d2dv2+(2Nkza)2v2]V(v)=(2Nς)2V(v).
(26)
Referring to Eq. (21), we shall see that as u ≫ 1 the index ς introduced in this way is identical to the ς that we used earlier.

The radial part of the problem around the wedge tips coincides with the quantum harmonic oscillator problem. The eigen-solutions are bounded in u ∈ [0, +∞) with the discrete eigenvalues denoted by an integer m [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

, 33

33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

],
Um(u)=12mm!(2kzaNπ)14exp[12(2Nkza)u2]m[(2Nkza)12u],
(27)
ςm=Nkza2(2m+1),(m=0,1,2,3,).
(28)
Here m is the mth-order Hermite polynomial. For clarity, in Fig. 6 we plot the normalized Hermite function (taking 2kza/N = 1 in Eq. (27)) for a few integer values of m. Apparently, the lower the order m is, the more trapped the plasmonic edge modes lie around the metal wedge tips u ≃ 0. Interestingly, Figs. 6 and 2(b) look quite alike each other, if we note the relation u ∼ ln(r/a) from Eq. (21). Indeed, ςm (or simply m) controls the (finite) number of radial oscillation and the bounding radius around the structural center, just as what ς does in the far region. They asymptotically merge with each other.

Fig. 6 Plots of the normalized Hermite function with m = 0, 1, 4, 15, 40.

The azimuthal part of the solution takes linear combinations of the parabolic cylinder functions [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

, 33

33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

],
Vm(v)=Am𝒟m1[+(4Nkza)12v]+Bm𝒟m1[(4Nkza)12v].
(29)
The first term and second term look somewhat like e2Nςv and e+2Nςv respectively, when v is small. Applying the continuity conditions of V(v) and ε∂vV (v) across the metal-dielectric interfaces at v=π2η1 and +π2η1, and utilizing again the Bloch theorem, a “band” equation conceptually equivalent to (but algebraically more complex than) Eq. (13) can be derived. For concision, we do not write it down here. The main conclusion is that the new eigen-spectrum ω(kza, m, lz) after considering the rounded wedges is discretized by m and dependent on kza through Eq. (28). lz is still the structure-modulated angular momentum.

In Fig. 7, we plot ω(kza, m, lz) as a function of kza for several given values of m and lz. The material model used for ε1 of silver and ε2 of silicon dioxide is the same as before. In the non-retarded regime, the light speed c does not enter our theory and so the semi-focal length a becomes the only length parameter of the system. At this stage, we choose a = 10 nm in accordance with the typical linewidth of today’s nano-lithography. The dispersion curves from our calculation intersect the light line, but in reality they may bend more quickly to zero before touching the light line [12

12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]

]. Even though our non-retarded approximation cannot reproduce such a feature, the right portion of the curves outside the light cone is reliable [12

12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

]. At a given kza and lz, the larger the m is, the more radial oscillations there are, and the higher the needed frequency ω is. In general, larger-m curves appear flatter, meaning a less sensitive kza-dependence. This is qualitatively consistent with the vanishing kz-dependence in the ω(ς, lz) curves that we have obtained earlier without considering the tip effect. In the extreme case m → ∞ here (by analogy with the ς → ∞ case in Fig. 4), all the dispersion curves are pushed towards the line of surface plasma frequency ωsp. To be cautious, we should remember that the quadratic expansion adopted in Eq. (24) is quantitatively correct only at a relatively small m and in the near-tip regions u ≃ 0. For a large m and u ≫ 1 far regions, the more accurate description is the continuous ς description that we have elaborated in the prior section; the small rounded wedges tips should not induce a sizable impact there.

Fig. 7 Calculated eigen-spectrum ω(kza, m, lz) versus kza in the case of N = 4. (a) lz = 1, m = 0, 1, 2, 100. (b) lz = 2, m = 0, 1, 2, 100. The dot-dashed lines are the light line of the dielectric taking kza as the abscissa when a = 10 nm. As a result of the non-retarded approximation, only the right portion of the calculated dispersion curves outside the light cone is physical. The dotted lines are the limiting dispersion curves as m → ∞, converging to the surface plasma frequency ωsp.

Comparing between Figs. 7(a) and 7(b), we shall notice that, for a fixed number of units N, a higher angular momentum lz tends to drag all the curves downwards and so permits lower-frequency excitation of these modes. Likewise, we have also found that, for a fixed lz, a larger N drags all the curves downwards and so permits lower-frequency excitation too. However, the high-lz and large-N modes in our structure fall in the category of “dark” modes according to literature [35

35. H. Benisty, “Dark modes, slow modes, and coupling in multimode systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 718–724 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. These modes cannot be excited directly from free-space photons owing to a large mismatch of momentum and angular momentum. For these modes, our non-retarded calculation is almost an exact calculation. To excite these modes optically, one has to adopt some near-field approaches, such as prism coupling or point-source emission. Alternatively, a direct method is to use electron beams in a cathodoluminescence (CL) setup or an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) setup [36

36. F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Excitation efficiency may vary a lot with specific experimental setups. We will leave the detailed calculations on this aspect in our future works.

5. Field profiles

After finding the eigen-solutions of the structure for any unit number N and angular momentum lz, we can obtain the coefficients Aς and Bς in Eq. (5) or Am and Bm in Eq. (29) in all sectors. We are then able to plot the field profiles, say, on the z = 0 plane, for any wanted eigenmodes, without resorting to the effective medium theory and numerical simulation. These approaches can be invalid or inaccurate for structures with a small number of sectors and sharp wedge tips.

The finite semi-focal length a in our conformal mapping physically designates a finite gap size and tip radius of the rounded wedges, hence settles a cutoff length in our problem. For whatever specified ω and kza, the field strength cannot oscillate at an arbitrarily small spacing and must remain finite everywhere. As we have proved, the profiles of potential field ΦE can be approximated by the mth order Hermite polynomials close to the wedge tips; on the other hand, they asymptotically approach the iς th imaginary-order modified Bessel functions away from the tips. Let us first look at the profiles around the tips for some low-m modes. If we choose N = 4, a = 10 nm, and ω = 3.54 × 1015 s−1 (532 nm free-space wavelength), then according to Fig. 7 we realize that only the m = 0 curves have an intersection point with ω = 3.54 × 1015 s−1 at deep subwavelength, where kza = 0.47 for lz = 1, and kza = 0.77 for lz = 2. Figure 8 displays the corresponding potential field profiles. The lz = 1 angular-momentum mode is of the cylindrical dipolar type with one sign change in the 2π azimuthal circle, and the lz = 2 angular-momentum mode is of the cylindrical quadrupolar type with two sign changes. The electric field E = −∇ΦE as the derivative field of ΦE gains an enormous strength within the nanoscale tip regions.

Fig. 8 Profiles of the electrostatic potential close to the wedge tips at a representative frequency ω = 3.54×1015 s−1 (532 nm free-space wavelength) for the unit number N = 4, the structure-modulated angular momentum lz = 1 and 2, and the radial oscillation order m = 0. The semi-focal length a = 10 nm. The black curves indicate the wedge shapes. The white lines indicate the branch cuts from the conformal mapping.

Fig. 9 Profiles of the electrostatic potential away from the wedge tips at a representative frequency ω = 3.54 × 1015 s−1 (532 nm free-space wavelength) for the number of units N = 6 and 24, and several structure-modulated angular momentum lz chosen between 1 and N/2. The coordinates are measured in kzx and kzy in view of the non-retarded assumption κrrkzr. The white lines indicate the wedge interfaces. The blank central areas are where the severe oscillations and field intensity occur.

In comparison, conventional dielectric waveguides, metallic nanowires, or metal-dielectric multilayer cavities cannot give rise to such a feature [21

21. C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

23

23. Q. Li and M. Qiu, “Plasmonic wave propagation in silver nanowires: guiding modes or not?” Opt. Express 21, 8587–8595 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One may recall that the angular momentum modes in ordinary structures are described by the Bessel and Neumann functions (or the Hankel functions of the first and second kinds) with real-valued angular momentum index ν [28

28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

]. These functions either strongly converge to zero inside a diffraction-limited core, or have to be supported by a line source at r = 0, which does not represent the intrinsic modes of the systems [7

7. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Experimentally, it is nontrivial to construct our proposed system. The perhaps most up-to-date fabrication techniques are electron beam lithography and focused ion-beam milling. Although the wedge tip radius probably cannot yet controllably reach below 10 nm, and the thickness may not reach beyond 100 nm (due to the general difficulty of making a high aspect ratio), it should already be possible to verify our theory in the deep subwavelength regime, which is the main focus of this paper. On the other hand, we want to mention that there are also many other powerful fabrication techniques today, using for example, thermal effects, surface chemistry, self-assembly, etc., to obtain nanometric or even molecular level patterning. So we believe that chances are widely open.

6. Conclusion

We have performed a systematic study to the structure-modulated plasmonic angular momentum trapped at the center of a sectorial indefinite metamaterial. We have shown that the electric fields associated with these angular momentum states are extremely intense in the central region. They undergo severe oscillations radially, and decay to zero beyond a hundred-nanometer characteristic radius. These behaviors are distinctively different from the usual photonic angular momentum states in dielectric or metallic materials that are subject to various diffraction limits. We envision that the extraordinary plasmonic angular momentum states existing in such a minute nanoscale may have broad applications in photonic manipulation [5

5. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science 336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 24

24. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013812 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. We will conduct more thorough studies to this system in future.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the financial support by NSF (ECCS Award No. 1028568) and AFOSR MURI (Award No. FA9550-12-1-0488).

References and links

1.

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 067402 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108, 11327–11331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics 6, 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science 336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308, 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science 315, 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

J. Li, L. Fok, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of an acoustic magnifying hyperlens,” Nat. Mater. 11, 931–934 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Li, L. Thylen, A. Bratkovsky, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical magnetic plasma in artificial flowers,” Opt. Express 17, 10800–10805 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, “Electrostatic edge modes in a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 3810–3815 (1972). [CrossRef]

12.

A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]

13.

R. Garcia-Molina, A. Gras-Marti, and R. H. Ritchie, “Excitation of edge modes in the interaction of electron beams with dielectric wedges,” Phys. Rev. B 31, 121–126 (1985). [CrossRef]

14.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 023901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. Ferrando, “Discrete-symmetry vortices as angular Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. E 72, 036612 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science 292, 912–914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett. 10, 529–536 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Z. Shen, Z. J. Hu, G. H. Yuan, C. J. Min, H. Fang, and X.-C. Yuan, “Visualizing orbital angular momentum of plasmonic vortices,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4627–4629 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

22.

Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, R.-W. Peng, Y. Zhou, Q.-L. Yang, and M. Wang, “Tune the “rainbow” trapped in a multilayered waveguide,” Europhys. Lett. 99, 57007 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

Q. Li and M. Qiu, “Plasmonic wave propagation in silver nanowires: guiding modes or not?” Opt. Express 21, 8587–8595 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 053002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 013812 (2004). [CrossRef]

26.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]

27.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley, 1998).

28.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).

29.

A. D. Rawlins, “Diffraction by, or diffusion into, a penetrable wedge,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 455, 2655–2686 (1999). [CrossRef]

30.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 1976).

31.

P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 045418 (2004). [CrossRef]

32.

Y. Ma, X. Li, H. Yu, L. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1160–1162 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B 14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]

34.

N. W. McLachlan, Theory and Application of Mathieu Functions (Oxford University, 1951).

35.

H. Benisty, “Dark modes, slow modes, and coupling in multimode systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 718–724 (2009). [CrossRef]

36.

F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical excitations in electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 209–275 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: September 9, 2013
Revised Manuscript: October 28, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: October 28, 2013
Published: November 11, 2013

Citation
Dafei Jin and Nicholas X. Fang, "Plasmonic angular momentum on metal-dielectric nano-wedges in a sectorial indefinite metamaterial," Opt. Express 21, 28344-28358 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-23-28344


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References

  1. D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 077405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Yao, X. Yang, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional nanometer-scale optical cavities of indefinite medium,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.108, 11327–11331 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nat. Photonics6, 450–454 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336, 205–209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308, 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14, 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Li, L. Fok, X. Yin, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Experimental demonstration of an acoustic magnifying hyperlens,” Nat. Mater.11, 931–934 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Li, L. Thylen, A. Bratkovsky, S.-Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Optical magnetic plasma in artificial flowers,” Opt. Express17, 10800–10805 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Dobrzynski and A. A. Maradudin, “Electrostatic edge modes in a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B6, 3810–3815 (1972). [CrossRef]
  12. A. D. Boardman, G. C. Aers, and R. Teshima, “Retarded edge modes of a parabolic wedge,” Phys. Rev. B24, 5703–5712 (1981). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Garcia-Molina, A. Gras-Marti, and R. H. Ritchie, “Excitation of edge modes in the interaction of electron beams with dielectric wedges,” Phys. Rev. B31, 121–126 (1985). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 023901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Ferrando, “Discrete-symmetry vortices as angular Bloch modes,” Phys. Rev. E72, 036612 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, and K. Dholakia, “Controlled rotation of optically trapped microscopic particles,” Science292, 912–914 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Kim, J. Park, S.-W. Cho, S.-Y. Lee, M. Kang, and B. Lee, “Synthesis and dynamic switching of surface plasmon vortices with plasmonic vortex lens,” Nano Lett.10, 529–536 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Shen, Z. J. Hu, G. H. Yuan, C. J. Min, H. Fang, and X.-C. Yuan, “Visualizing orbital angular momentum of plasmonic vortices,” Opt. Lett.37, 4627–4629 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Yeh and F. Shimabukuro, The Essence of Dielectric Waveguides (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]
  22. Q. Hu, D.-H. Xu, R.-W. Peng, Y. Zhou, Q.-L. Yang, and M. Wang, “Tune the “rainbow” trapped in a multilayered waveguide,” Europhys. Lett.99, 57007 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. Q. Li and M. Qiu, “Plasmonic wave propagation in silver nanowires: guiding modes or not?” Opt. Express21, 8587–8595 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum optics with surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 053002 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. V. Klimov and M. Ducloy, “Spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom placed near a nanofiber,” Phys. Rev. A69, 013812 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev.182, 539–554 (1969). [CrossRef]
  27. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (John Wiley, 1998).
  28. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions With Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, 1965).
  29. A. D. Rawlins, “Diffraction by, or diffusion into, a penetrable wedge,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A455, 2655–2686 (1999). [CrossRef]
  30. N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Thomson Brooks/Cole, 1976).
  31. P. G. Kik, S. A. Maier, and H. A. Atwater, “Image resolution of surface-plasmon-mediated near-field focusing with planar metal films in three dimensions using finite-linewidth dipole sources,” Phys. Rev. B69, 045418 (2004). [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Ma, X. Li, H. Yu, L. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35, 1160–1162 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. L. C. Davis, “Electrostatic edge modes of a dielectric wedge,” Phys. Rev. B14, 5523–5525 (1976). [CrossRef]
  34. N. W. McLachlan, Theory and Application of Mathieu Functions (Oxford University, 1951).
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