OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 23 — Nov. 18, 2013
  • pp: 28751–28757
« Show journal navigation

Integrated hollow-core fibers for nonlinear optofluidic applications

Limin Xiao, Natalie V. Wheeler, Noel Healy, and Anna C. Peacock  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 23, pp. 28751-28757 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.028751


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1871 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A method to fabricate all-in-fiber liquid microcells has been demonstrated which allows for the incorporation of complex hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs). The approach is based on a mechanical splicing method in which the hollow-core fibers are pigtailed with telecoms fibers to yield devices that have low insertion losses, are highly compact, and do not suffer from evaporation of the core material. To isolate the PCF cores for the infiltration of low index liquids, a pulsed CO2 laser cleaving technique has been developed which seals only the very ends of the cladding holes, thus minimizing degradation of the guiding properties at the coupling region. The efficiency of this integration method has been verified via strong cascaded Raman scattering in both toluene (high index) core capillaries and ethanol (low index) core HCPCFs, for power thresholds up to six orders of magnitude lower than previous results. We anticipate that this stable, robust all-fiber integration approach will open up new possibilities for the exploration of optofluidic interactions.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

All-in-fiber microcells provide a useful platform from which to investigate the interaction between light and fluidic media [1

1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2814–2821 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Compared to the traditional bulk gas cells and liquid cuvettes, fibers with hollow micro-scale cores can provide high intensities over much longer interaction lengths. As such, they can facilitate strong light-fluid interactions that are highly desirable for the development of efficient laser devices [1

1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. C. P. Yu and J. H. Liou, “Selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for optical devices,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8729–8734 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optofluidic sensors [7

7. Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater. 22(24), 2647–2651 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1952–1954 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nonlinear optical applications [9

9. S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4786–4791 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 942–944 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Furthermore, by integrating the microcells with telecoms fibers there is potential to exploit material properties that are unique to fluids in a compact and stable geometry for application in wide ranging areas. For example, gas fiber microcells made from hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) have found use in compact gas lasers, laser frequency locking, and high-harmonic generation [1

1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P St J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11–A26 (2011). [CrossRef]

], while liquid fiber microcells have been demonstrated for wavelength conversion and high-speed optical switching [2

2. M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25232–25240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 942–944 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, although it is relatively straightforward to splice the gas cells directly to telecoms fibers, even for highly flammable gases [1

1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in general integrated liquid cells are much more complicated to fabricate as any air bubbles inside the liquid or at the joint interfaces will cause significant propagation losses [14

14. J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008). [CrossRef]

16

16. J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

]. As a result, integrated liquid cells have to date been restricted to the use of simple capillary fibers (CFs) so that the fluid index must be higher than that of silica in order for the core to guide via total internal reflection (TIR). The ability to integrate HCPCFs into a liquid microcell would thus be highly advantageous in terms of extending the range of accessible liquids [17

17. S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1588–1611 (2012). [CrossRef]

], though would also allow for extensive tailoring of the dispersion and nonlinear properties through design of the microstructured cladding. This latter point is of significant interest for investigating both the temporal and spatial dynamics of nonlinear phenomena such as solitons in microfluidic waveguides [2

2. M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25232–25240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here we propose a new approach to fabricating all-in-fiber liquid microcells (AFLMs) that is compatible with a wide range of CFs and PCF platforms, and provide the first demonstration of an integrated HCPCF device. The method is based on mechanically splicing the microcells to telecoms fibers using large diameter tapered capillaries as sleeves, which also act as containers for the liquid. The compact devices are completely sealed so that they are stable, robust, and flexible to handle. To allow for selective filling into the cores of HCPCFs, we have also developed a simple and effective method to seal the cladding holes using a pulsed CO2 laser, which minimizes any disruption to the guiding properties at the coupling region. The suitability of this integration approach for wide ranging materials investigations is demonstrated through efficient cascaded Raman scattering both in high index (toluene) core CFs and low index (ethanol) core HCPCFs.

2. Principle and experiments

Complete integration of liquid microcells is important not only to improve the handleability of devices, but also to avoid liquid evaporation for stable operation. The basic idea of our mechanical splicing method is illustrated in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of AFLM fabrication. (a) A CF/HCPCF is inserted into tapered capillary sleeves. (b) Liquid is pumped into the fiber core, with the ends immersed in excess volume to avoid evaporation. (c) SMFs are carefully inserted into the sleeves and mechanically spliced to the liquid-core fiber.
. The process starts with each end of the fiber microcell being inserted into a wide diameter (~150 µm internal diameter) capillary sleeve. To aid with the alignment, the sleeves are tapered to have a waist with an inner diameter equal to the outer diameter of standard fibers (~125 µm). The choice of taper waist also ensures that the sleeved fibers are held tightly so that they are less susceptible to misalignment when moved. The liquid is then infiltrated into the microcell either via capillary action or through pumping with a syringe until it is completely filled. The tapered sleeve can also be used to hold extra liquid, so that if any evaporation does occur the core remains fully filled and the coupling facets are not compromised. Finally, two single mode fibers (SMFs) are inserted into the open ends of the sleeves to form the seamless joints. Care should be taken during the insertion so that any trapped air at the endface of the SMF can leak out through the liquid filled gap between the SMF and sleeve. The ends of the sleeves are then sealed using a suitable adhesive to improve the device stability.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photo of the filling process. (b) The CF is inserted in a tapered capillary. (c) Liquid flows through the CF until complete filling so that the endface is immersed in liquid. (d) The SMF on the left-hand side is seamlessly aligned to the toluene core CF. Photographs of (e) an integrated device using the gap-splicing method used in [12] and (f) our mechanically spliced AFLM. The inset in (e) shows light coupled through the gap-splicing joint.
shows the experimental setup to make a AFLM using a standard CF. The sleeved CF and syringe needle were pushed through a polymer septum of a cap into a vial filled with toluene, see Fig. 2(a), which has an index of n~1.50 at 532 nm (>nsilica~1.46). The syringe was connected to a controllable pressure cylinder to force the liquid through the CF, with a typical applied pressure of ~1-2 bar. Figure 2(b) shows the other end of the CF inserted inside the tapered sleeve, which has an outer diameter of ~335 µm (tapered down from 400 µm). The complete filling of the CF is confirmed in Fig. 2(c) where the toluene can be seen to flow into the tapered sleeve, a process that was typically completed within minutes for a few tens of centimeters, and in less than half an hour for several meters. The final stage in Fig. 2(d) shows the inserted Corning SMF-28 fiber aligned to the liquid-core CF, from which it can be seen that there is no trapped air at the interface joint. To illustrate some of the advantages of this method, Figs. 2(e) and 2(f) show a comparison between an AFLM device and that of the gap-splicing approach [12

12. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8148–8154 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is clear that the AFLM in Fig. 2(f) is not only more compact, but is also easier to handle and can be moved around without any additional stabilization (such as the microscope slide in Fig. 2(e)). Furthermore, the robustness of the AFLM could be improved, for example, by inserting into a steel tube protector.

Finally, Fig. 5(c) shows the SRS spectrum obtained for the ethanol HCPCF-AFLM. In this experiment a longer 2.5 m device was used to extend the interaction length owing to the use of the large core HCPCF (~23 μm), which was similar to the 2.8 m length used by Yiou et al. in [9

9. S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4786–4791 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for an 11 µm core device . However, despite the larger core, we have still observed two cascaded stokes lines due to the CH stretch 2928 cm−1 (630 nm and 772 nm) for a coupled average power of only 54 µW (270 W peak power), i.e., a threshold three times lower than previously reported [9

9. S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4786–4791 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is worth noting that the low power of the second stokes, and hence the suppression of any higher order lines, is due to the increased losses of ethanol at the longer wavelengths. Nevertheless, we anticipate that with an appropriately designed smaller core HCPCF, and a wide transparency core material, our results could be improved significantly for the observation of rich nonlinear phenomena in HCPCF-AFLMs.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel approach to fabricating AFLMs which is compatible with wide ranging capillary fibers and PCFs. This integration method has the benefits of ultrahigh compactness, SMF pigtailing, and high efficiency. By combining this with a new CO2 laser cleaving technique to selectively fill the core of a HCPCF, we can extend the liquids that can be investigated in AFLMs to cover the full complement of material indices. By exploiting the two dimension design space of the PCF cross-sections, we anticipate that our new approach will expand the exploration space of optofluidic interactions in all-in-fiber based devices.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank S. Mailis, J. Daniel, J. Hayes, J. Nilsson, N. Vukovic, P. Sazio, N. Baddela, M. Petrovich and P. Lagoudakis for equipment support. This work is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/J004863/1).

References and links

1.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25232–25240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2946–2948 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2814–2821 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. P. Yu and J. H. Liou, “Selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for optical devices,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8729–8734 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater. 22(24), 2647–2651 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1952–1954 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4786–4791 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Bethge, A. Husakou, F. Mitschke, F. Noack, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and J. Herrmann, “Two-octave supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6230–6240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P St J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, A11–A26 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics,” Opt. Express 20(7), 8148–8154 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(5), 942–944 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 191–193 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

17.

S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1588–1611 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(26), 263902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

D. Lopez-Cortes, O. Tarasenko, and W. Margulis, “All-fiber Kerr cell,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3288–3290 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express 13(22), 9014–9022 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(8), L13–L20 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

F. F. Dai, Y. H. Xu, and X. F. Chen, “Enhanced and broadened SRS spectra of toluene mixed with chloroform in liquid-core fiber,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19882–19886 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2340) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics components
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 26, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 8, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 11, 2013
Published: November 14, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 9, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Limin Xiao, Natalie V. Wheeler, Noel Healy, and Anna C. Peacock, "Integrated hollow-core fibers for nonlinear optofluidic applications," Opt. Express 21, 28751-28757 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-23-28751


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express18(24), 25232–25240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2946–2948 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(3), 2814–2821 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. P. Yu and J. H. Liou, “Selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for optical devices,” Opt. Express17(11), 8729–8734 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1952–1954 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express13(12), 4786–4791 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Bethge, A. Husakou, F. Mitschke, F. Noack, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and J. Herrmann, “Two-octave supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(6), 6230–6240 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P St J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28, A11–A26 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics,” Opt. Express20(7), 8148–8154 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 942–944 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.
  17. S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express2(11), 1588–1611 (2012). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Lopez-Cortes, O. Tarasenko, and W. Margulis, “All-fiber Kerr cell,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3288–3290 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express13(22), 9014–9022 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. F. F. Dai, Y. H. Xu, and X. F. Chen, “Enhanced and broadened SRS spectra of toluene mixed with chloroform in liquid-core fiber,” Opt. Express17(22), 19882–19886 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited