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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 25 — Dec. 16, 2013
  • pp: 30196–30203
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Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum

Mohammad Mirhosseini, Omar S. Magaña-Loaiza, Changchen Chen, Brandon Rodenburg, Mehul Malik, and Robert W. Boyd  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 25, pp. 30196-30203 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.030196


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Abstract

We report a technique for encoding both amplitude and phase variations onto a laser beam using a single digital micro-mirror device (DMD). Using this technique, we generate Laguerre-Gaussian and vortex orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes, along with modes in a set that is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis. Additionally, we have demonstrated rapid switching among the generated modes at a speed of 4 kHz, which is much faster than the speed regularly achieved by phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs). The dynamic control of both phase and amplitude of a laser beam is an enabling technology for classical communication and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that employ spatial mode encoding.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

An OAM mode can be created by simply imposing an eiℓϕ phase structure onto a laser beam. This task can be achieved by using computer generated holograms [7

7. T. Ando, T. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, and N. Fukuchi, “Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 34, 34–36 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], q-plates [9

9. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or spiral phase plates [10

10. K. Sueda, G. Miyaji, N. Miyanaga, and M. Nakatsuka, “Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated with a multilevel spiral phase plate for high intensity laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 3548–3553 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Generation of secure quantum keys in a QKD system, however, requires two or more mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) [11

11. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. (Bangalore, 1984), pp. 175–179.

]. Construction of a MUB for the basis of OAM modes often requires both phase and amplitude modulation of a laser beam [12

12. E. Bolduc, N. Bent, E. Santamato, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Exact solution to simultaneous intensity and phase encryption with a single phase-only hologram,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3546–35490 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20, 24444–24449 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs) have been used previously for creating such modes [15

15. M. T. Gruneisen, W. A. Miller, R. C. Dymale, and A. M. Sweiti, “Holographic generation of complex fields with spatial light modulators: application to quantum key distribution,” Appl. Opt. 47, A32–A42 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the vast majority of commercially available SLMs are limited by a frame refresh-rate of about 60 Hz which considerably limits the speed of operation of any system based on this technology.

In this paper, we encode phase and amplitude information by modulating the position and the width of a binary amplitude grating, respectively. By realizing such holograms on a DMD, we have successfully created LG modes, OAM vortex modes, and angular (ANG) modes which form a MUB for the OAM basis. Furthermore, we have directly demonstrated active switching of the generated modes at a speed as high as 4 kHz.

2. Theory

To introduce our technique, we consider a one-dimensional binary amplitude grating. The transmission function for this grating can be written as
T(x)=m=rect[x(m+p)x0wx0],
(1)
where
rect(u)={1if|u|1/2,0else.
(2)
This function can be pictured as a pulse train with a period of x0. The parameters p and w are unitless quantities that set the position and the width of each pulse and are equal to constant values for a uniform grating. Here we show that it is possible to locally change the value of these parameters to achieve phase and amplitude modulation of the optical field.

The analysis above treats a one-dimensional case. We have generated a two-dimensional grating by thresholding a rapidly varying modulated carrier as
T(x,y)=1/2+1/2sgn(cos[2πx/x0+πp(x,y)]cos[πw(x,y)]).
(6)
Here, sgn(x, y) is the sign function. It is easy to check that in the limit where w(x, y) and p(x, y) are slowly varying, this formula reproduces the pulse train described above. We can find the corresponding w(x, y) and p(x, y) functions for a general complex scalar field 𝒜 (x, y)e(x,y) according to the relations
w(x,y)=1πarcsin[𝒜(x,y)],
(7)
p(x,y)=1πφ(x,y).
(8)
We have assumed that the field contains no singularity and thus its amplitude can be normalized to have a maximum of unity (Note that the factor π in the argument of arcsin is dropped since the maximum amplitude is normalized to unity).

We have designed two-dimensional binary amplitude holograms to generate Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. Figure 1 shows sample holograms designed for generation of vortex OAM and LG modes. It can be seen that in both cases, the holograms have the familiar forked structure. The gratings designed for vortex modes have a fairly uniform width across the aperture whereas for the case of LG modes the gratings gradually disappear where the amplitude gets negligibly small.

Fig. 1 Binary hologram for generating (a) = 2 vortex OAM mode, (b) = −5 vortex OAM mode, (c) LG22 and (d) LG21.

3. Experiment

A digital micro-mirror device (DMD) is an amplitude-only spatial light modulator [28

28. L. J. Hornbeck, “From cathode rays to digital micromirrors: a history of electronic projection display technology,” Tex. Instrum. Tech. J. 15, 7–46 (1998).

]. The device consists of a series of micro-mirrors that can be controlled in a binary fashion by setting the deflection angle of each individual mirror to either +12 or −12 degrees. This enables the on-demand realization of binary gratings that can be switched at very high speeds using an external digital signal [29

29. D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

].

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for a) measuring intensity profiles and phase interferograms. b) switching among three OAM modes and detecting them in real time.

We have created OAM modes and LG modes using the setup. Figure 3 shows the intensity pattern along with the interferogram for a few of these modes. The structure of the interferograms is in agreement with the helical phase pattern of OAM modes, with the number of azimuthal dark lines equating to the OAM quantum number in each case. The LG modes have the same azimuthal phase structure as the vortex modes. In addition, these modes contain p+ 1 rings in the radial direction where p is the radial quantum number [1

1. L. Allen, M. Beijersbergen, R. Spreeuw, and J. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The change of sign of the optical field between each two consecutive rings is an intrinsic property of the LG modes and it can be clearly noticed in the interferograms.

Fig. 3 Intensity and interferograms of three vortex modes (to the left) and LG modes (to the right). The interferograms demonstrate the phase structure of the beams and have been obtained by interfering the generated modes with a plane wave.

The examples above demonstrate the possibility of using binary holograms to coherently control both phase and amplitude of a beam. A low number of pixels per each period of the binary grating results in quantization errors in encoding phase and intensity. On the other hand, the total number of grating periods within the incident beam on the DMD sets an upper limit on the spatial bandwidth of the generated modes. Consequently, a large total number of micro-mirrors is preferable for generating high quality modes. This can be achieved by using newer generations of DMDs (for example TI DLP 9500) that are available with HD resolution (1920 × 1080, which equals the highest resolution available for phase-only SLMs).

Another set of modes that are needed for OAM-based quantum key distribution (QKD) is the set of angular (ANG) modes. These modes form a mutually unbiased basis (MUB) with respect to the OAM basis [14

14. M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Mathematically, these modes can be described as
θj,N(r,φ)=12N+1=LLu(r,φ)ei2πj/(2N+1).
(9)

Here, u (r, φ) represents each OAM mode (either LG or vortex) and N is the total number of them. The simultaneous use of both OAM and ANG modes is necessary for achieving security in an OAM-based QKD system [14

14. M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have generated ANG modes using our technique. The amplitude profile of a number of these modes is presented in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 Intensity patterns for ANG modes constructed from superposition of vortex OAM modes from the set ∈ [−2 : 2].

We have measured the efficiency of generating OAM modes to be about 1.5%. This number can be increased by optimizing the angle of incidence of the beam on the mirror array. However, the maximum theoretical efficiency of a binary amplitude grating is about 10% [30

30. Joseph W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2004).

]. This is much smaller than the mode generation efficiency of phase-only SLMs, which are typically above 50%, and can even reach values as high as 90%. Nonetheless, our main main motivation for using the presented technique is free-space QKD with faint laser pulses, which typically requires an average value of 0.1 photon per pulse in order to be secure against number splitting attacks [31

31. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Taking this requirement into account, the low efficiency of a DMD in the generation of spatial modes is not a limitation but may even be considered advantageous. Due to its wedge-like structure, the efficiency of generating a θj,N (r, φ) ANG mode is roughly equal to 12N+1 times the efficiency of generating an OAM mode. Within the experimental errors, we have verified this in property in our experiment.

Using a DMD for generating OAM modes gives us the ability to switch between different modes at very high speeds. This method involves a much smaller number of optical elements as compared to the conventional techniques where OAM modes are generated using a series of separated forked holograms and are multiplexed using beam splitters [2

2. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. As a direct test of the high-speed capability of our mode-generation system, we have implemented dynamic switching among vortex OAM modes with quantum number = 5, −5 and 0. The computer generated holograms for these modes were loaded onto the memory of the DMD and the switching was achieved by using a clock signal. We have used the mode sorter described in [32

32. M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to map the input modes to a series of separated spots. We then measured the intensity corresponding to each mode using a high bandwidth PIN detector at the positions corresponding to each mode. Figure 5 demonstrates the measured values. It can be seen that the OAM quantum number of the generated modes can be controlled at a speed of 4 kHz. This is a clear demonstration of the capability to rapidly switch among such modes. It should be noted that the speed reported above is a limitation imposed by the DMD we have used and it is not inherent to this technique. In fact, commercially available DMDs can achieve speeds as high as 32 kHz (TI DLP7000). Further, these devices are available for a fraction of the cost of a phase-only spatial light modulator.

Fig. 5 Detected power as function of time for three vortex OAM modes of = 5, = −5 and = 0. It is seen that the generated mode can be changed on a time-scale of 0.25 ms (measured at FWHM) corresponding to a switching rate of 4 kHz. The detecter power is divided to its maximum value in each case.

4. Conclusions

In this work, we have introduced a method for generation of an arbitrary complex scalar field using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD). We have used a single binary amplitude-only hologram to encode both amplitude and phase information onto a beam. With this technique, we have generated LG modes, OAM vortex modes, and angular (ANG) modes. The ANG basis is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis and is very important for OAM-based QKD systems. In addition, we have demonstrated the generation and active switching of OAM modes at a speed of 4 kHz by dynamically changing the hologram realized by the DMD. This technology has potential applications in classical communication systems and QKD systems that are based on OAM encoding.

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge valuable discussions with M. N. O’Sullivan, Z. Shi, E. Karimi, J. Vornehm, and D. Gauthier. This work was supported by the DARPA/DSO InPho program and the Canadian Excellence Research Chair (CERC) program and the European Commission through a Marie Curie fellowship. OSML also acknowledges support from the CONACyT.

References and links

1.

L. Allen, M. Beijersbergen, R. Spreeuw, and J. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, and D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE 7948, 79480L (2011).

4.

M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2781 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 127902 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, and N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A 35, 10065–10076 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Ando, T. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, and N. Fukuchi, “Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett. 34, 34–36 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

K. Sueda, G. Miyaji, N. Miyanaga, and M. Nakatsuka, “Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated with a multilevel spiral phase plate for high intensity laser pulses,” Opt. Express 12, 3548–3553 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. (Bangalore, 1984), pp. 175–179.

12.

E. Bolduc, N. Bent, E. Santamato, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Exact solution to simultaneous intensity and phase encryption with a single phase-only hologram,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3546–35490 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express 20, 24444–24449 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. T. Gruneisen, W. A. Miller, R. C. Dymale, and A. M. Sweiti, “Holographic generation of complex fields with spatial light modulators: application to quantum key distribution,” Appl. Opt. 47, A32–A42 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science 340, 844–847 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y.-P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc. 7, 1410–1425 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

Y.-X. Ren, M. Li, K. Huang, J.-G. Wu, H.-F. Gao, Z.-Q. Wang, and Y.-M. Li, “Experimental generation of Laguerre-Gaussian beam using digital micromirror device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1838 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “High-speed phase modulation using the RPC method with a digital micromirror-array device,” Opt. Express 14, 5588–5593 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

V. Lerner, D. Shwa, Y. Drori, and N. Katz, “Shaping Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes with binary gratings using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4826–4828 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. W. Cohn and M. Liang, “Pseudorandom phase-only encoding of real-time spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2488–2498 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, “Computer-generated binary holograms,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 160–168 (1969). [CrossRef]

23.

W. H. Lee, “High efficiency multiple beam gratings,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2152–2158 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

J. A. Davis, K. Olea Valadez, and D. M. Cottrell, “Encoding amplitude and phase information onto a binary phase-only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2003–2008 (2003). [CrossRef]

25.

J. P. Kirk and A. L. Jones, “Phase-only complex-valued spatial filter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1023–1028 (1971). [CrossRef]

26.

D. C. Chu and J. W. Goodman, “Spectrum shaping with parity sequences,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1716–1724 (1972). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, J. Campos, M. J. Yzuel, and I. Moreno, “Encoding amplitude information onto phase-only filters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5004–5013 (1999). [CrossRef]

28.

L. J. Hornbeck, “From cathode rays to digital micromirrors: a history of electronic projection display technology,” Tex. Instrum. Tech. J. 15, 7–46 (1998).

29.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, “Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications,” in Micromachining and Microfabrication, H. Urey, ed. (SPIE, 2003), pp. 14–25.

30.

Joseph W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts and Company, 2004).

31.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002). [CrossRef]

32.

M. P. J. Lavery, D. J. Robertson, G. C. G. Berkhout, G. D. Love, M. J. Padgett, and J. Courtial, “Refractive elements for the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon,” Opt. Express 20, 2110–2115 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators
(050.4865) Diffraction and gratings : Optical vortices
(270.5568) Quantum optics : Quantum cryptography

ToC Category:
Physical Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 12, 2013
Revised Manuscript: November 14, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: November 20, 2013
Published: December 2, 2013

Citation
Mohammad Mirhosseini, Omar S. Magaña-Loaiza, Changchen Chen, Brandon Rodenburg, Mehul Malik, and Robert W. Boyd, "Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum," Opt. Express 21, 30196-30203 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-25-30196


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References

  1. L. Allen, M. Beijersbergen, R. Spreeuw, and J. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45, 8185–8189 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics6, 488–496 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Boyd, A. K. Jha, M. Malik, C. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, and D. J. Gauthier, “Quantum key distribution in a high-dimensional state space: exploiting the transverse degree of freedom of the photon,” Proc. SPIE7948, 79480L (2011).
  4. M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, Z. Shi, and R. W. Boyd, “Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light,” Nat. Commun.4, 2781 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Cerf, M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, and N. Gisin, “Security of quantum key distribution using d-level systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 127902 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Bourennane, A. Karlsson, G. Bjork, N. Gisin, and N. J. Cerf, “Quantum key distribution using multilevel encoding: security analysis,” J. Phys. A35, 10065–10076 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ando, T. Ohtake, N. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, and N. Fukuchi, “Mode purities of Laguerre–Gaussian beams generated via complex-amplitude modulation using phase-only spatial light modulators,” Opt. Lett.34, 34–36 (2009). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, M. J. Padgett, M. Vasnetsov, V. Pas’ko, S. M. Barnett, and S. Franke-Arnold, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express12, 5448–5456 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion in inhomogeneous anisotropic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 163905 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Sueda, G. Miyaji, N. Miyanaga, and M. Nakatsuka, “Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated with a multilevel spiral phase plate for high intensity laser pulses,” Opt. Express12, 3548–3553 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. (Bangalore, 1984), pp. 175–179.
  12. E. Bolduc, N. Bent, E. Santamato, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Exact solution to simultaneous intensity and phase encryption with a single phase-only hologram,” Opt. Lett.38, 3546–35490 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. N. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, M. Malik, and R. W. Boyd, “Near-perfect sorting of orbital angular momentum and angular position states of light,” Opt. Express20, 24444–24449 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Malik, M. N. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express20, 13195–13200 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. T. Gruneisen, W. A. Miller, R. C. Dymale, and A. M. Sweiti, “Holographic generation of complex fields with spatial light modulators: application to quantum key distribution,” Appl. Opt.47, A32–A42 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Sun, M. P. Edgar, R. Bowman, L. E. Vittert, S. Welsh, A. Bowman, and M. J. Padgett, “3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors,” Science340, 844–847 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Zhu, O. Fajardo, J. Shum, Y.-P. Zhang Schärer, and R. W. Friedrich, “High-resolution optical control of spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns in zebrafish using a digital micromirror device,” Nat. Protoc.7, 1410–1425 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y.-X. Ren, M. Li, K. Huang, J.-G. Wu, H.-F. Gao, Z.-Q. Wang, and Y.-M. Li, “Experimental generation of Laguerre-Gaussian beam using digital micromirror device,” Appl. Opt.49, 1838 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, and J. Glückstad, “High-speed phase modulation using the RPC method with a digital micromirror-array device,” Opt. Express14, 5588–5593 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. Lerner, D. Shwa, Y. Drori, and N. Katz, “Shaping Laguerre–Gaussian laser modes with binary gratings using a digital micromirror device,” Opt. Lett.37, 4826–4828 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. W. Cohn and M. Liang, “Pseudorandom phase-only encoding of real-time spatial light modulators,” Appl. Opt.35, 2488–2498 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, “Computer-generated binary holograms,” IBM J. Res. Dev.13, 160–168 (1969). [CrossRef]
  23. W. H. Lee, “High efficiency multiple beam gratings,” Appl. Opt.18, 2152–2158 (1979). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. Davis, K. Olea Valadez, and D. M. Cottrell, “Encoding amplitude and phase information onto a binary phase-only spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt.43, 2003–2008 (2003). [CrossRef]
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