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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 26 — Dec. 30, 2013
  • pp: 32690–32698
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Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators controlled by static electric field

Rafael E. P. de Oliveira and Christiano J. S. de Matos  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 26, pp. 32690-32698 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.032690


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Abstract

Actively-controlled second harmonic generation in a silicon nitride ring resonator is proposed and simulated. The ring was designed to resonate at both pump and second harmonic wavelengths and quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion is induced by a periodic static electric field generated by voltage applied to electrodes arranged along the ring. Nonlinear propagation simulations were undertaken and an efficiency of −21.67 dB was calculated for 60 mW of pump power at 1550 nm and for a 30V applied voltage, which compares favorably with demonstrated all-optical second harmonic generation in integrated microresonators. Transient effects were also evaluated. The proposed design can be exploited for the construction of electro-optical devices based on nonlinear effects in CMOS compatible circuits.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The recent advances in integrated photonics [1

1. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005). [CrossRef]

] have enabled the development of compact devices, such as modulators [2

2. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], amplifiers [3

3. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 216–225 (2010). [CrossRef]

,4

4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and wavelength converters [5

5. S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 293–296 (2007). [CrossRef]

], in monolithic chips [6

6. D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Taking advantage of well-established CMOS fabrication techniques, optical waveguides can be created in substrates such as silicon and silicon nitride [7

7. D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013). [CrossRef]

], leading to the full integration of electronic and optical components in single electro-optical microchips [8

8. M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1520–1526 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

The generation of light in silicon-based photonics is challenging [1

1. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and wavelength conversion has been investigated and demonstrated as an alternative to generate new wavelengths [9

9. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

13

13. C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It can also be exploited to create non-classical light such as entangled states [14

14. J. L. O’Brien, “Exploiting entanglement,” Science 330(6004), 588–589 (2010). [CrossRef]

,15

15. N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 63601 (2006).

] and squeezed light [16

16. J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussensveig, and M. Lipson, “Observation of on-chip optical squeezing,” in The Rochester Conferences on Coherence and Quantum Optics and the Quantum Information and Measurement meeting, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper M6.67.

]. Based upon nonlinear effects such as second harmonic generation (SHG) and four-wave mixing (FWM), wavelength conversion is highly benefited by the light field enhancement achieved in high-Q ring resonators [21

21. D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators. The Compendium (Springer, 2007).

].

All-optical wavelength conversion in ring resonators has been demonstrated exploiting both silicon and silicon nitride rings. However, as both these materials have centrosymmetric structures and, therefore, second order nonlinear effects are nonexistent, frequency conversion can only be achieved through third order effects, such as degenerated FWM. Using a silicon ring resonator, a conversion efficiency of −20 dB around 1.55 µm was achieved for the first FWM product (3.2 nm away from the pump) [9

9. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The phase matching condition required to overcome dispersive effects and to efficiently transfer energy to new wavelengths [22

22. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003), Chap. 2.

] was achieved through careful ring design, which placed the zero dispersion point close to the pump wavelength. Taking into account self- and cross-phase modulation, parametric gain occurred over ~300 nm, and a frequency comb emerged from a single pump through modulational instability. Parametric conversion from a pump and a signal to a single idler wave was also demonstrated in a silicon ring [10

10. A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], using a 5-mW pump power at 1.550 µm and a 100-µW signal power at 1.544 µm. −35 dB conversion efficiency to the idler relative to the signal was achieved, and it was shown that optimal conversion occurred when all wavelengths were resonating.

2. Ring resonator design

The designed ring resonator is composed of silicon nitride over silica with a silica top cladding and includes a single bus waveguide to insert the pump and extract the second harmonic signal [21

21. D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators. The Compendium (Springer, 2007).

], as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ring resonator scheme. Light launched into the bus waveguide couples to the ring where resonating wavelengths experience an intensity build up.
.

The region where the ring is closest to the straight, bus waveguide is known as the coupling region. In it, a fraction of the incident light couples, through the evanescent field, from the bus waveguide to the ring resonator, and vice versa, with a coupling coefficient κ. The remaining light fraction is transmitted with a coefficient t such that κ2 + t2 = 1. The light coupling is described by
(Et1Et2)=(tjκjκt)(Ei1Ei2),
(1)
where j is the square root of −1, Ei1 and Ei2 are the light electric fields in the bus waveguide and inside the ring, respectively, that are incident in the coupling region, and Et1 and Et2 refer to the respective electric fields that are transmitted through this region, as shown in Fig. 1.

Resonance occurs when the phase, θ, accumulated by light after one ring round trip, is a multiple of 2π,
θ=neff4π2λR=2πm,
(2)
where neff is the guided mode effective refractive index, λ is the light vacuum wavelength, R is the ring radius and m is a natural number. When light at a given wavelength is resonant, its intensity inside the ring builds up and, at the steady state, is increased relative to the launched intensity. This enhancement can be calculated via the build-up factor, B, for a lossless ring through [21

21. D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators. The Compendium (Springer, 2007).

]

B=|Ei2Ei1|2=(κ)21+(t)22tcos(θ).
(3)

The ring proposed here was designed to resonate at a pump wavelength of 1550 nm and at a second harmonic wavelength of 775 nm. Due to group velocity dispersion, neff in Eq. (2) is not a constant and, therefore, these wavelengths do not necessarily match ring resonances simultaneously, requiring the adjustment of the waveguide cross section (which tunes waveguide dispersion) and of the ring dimensions. The pump and second harmonic neff were numerically obtained using the software COMSOL Multiphysics, in which quasi-TE propagation modes inside the ring were calculated in a 2D axisymmetric model. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Intensity distribution in the ring waveguide cross section of the transverse component of the optical electric field for the quasi-TE mode. The red arrows indicate the optical electric field direction.
shows the transverse electric field intensity distribution inside the ring waveguide cross section for the fundamental mode at 1550 nm. Arrows indicate the optical electric field direction. Quasi-TE optical modes are chosen because their electric field is collinear with the static electric field, improving the nonlinearities and simplifying the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor; the dispersion curve was calculated by sweeping the wavelength and taking into account both silicon nitride [25

25. H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120(2), 295–300 (1973). [CrossRef]

] and silica [26

26. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics Volume II, Measurements and Properties (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 3.

] material dispersion. The waveguide is single mode at 1550 nm and the second harmonic is designed to resonate at the fundamental mode, for maximum overlapping with the pump.

Quasi-phase-matched SHG is obtained via a static electric field distribution that is generated by voltage applied on electrodes placed along the ring inner edge, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Ring resonator design with inner electrodes subjected to ground (GND) and V voltage. Inset: Radial static electric field along the ring resonator for V = 10V.
. The electric field in the radial direction along the ring propagation length was numerically evaluated and is shown in the inset of Fig. 4 for an applied voltage of 10V. The electric field can be approximated as a cosine function with a k0 wavenumber. To achieve quasi phase matching, this wavenumber must satisfy the momentum conservation equation k0 = 2k1-k2, where k1 and k2 are the pump and second harmonic wavenumbers, respectively.

Device fabrication can be accomplished with standard CMOS fabrication techniques. The square electrodes have 750-nm length side, which can be attained through photolithography. The main challenge lies in making the voltage pad connections due to the electrode positions inside the ring and to the spatially alternating voltage requirement. One possibility is to make an additional layer extending the positive electrodes to a positive pad in the upper layer while the ground electrodes can be extended towards the grounded silicon wafer. All applied fields remained below the reported electric field breakdown of silica and silicon nitride.

3. Optical nonlinearity model, simulations and results

|F|2=|A|2Ψ2drdz.
(7)

The resonance drift drastically reduces the second harmonic generation efficiency and must be compensated for by pre-adjusting the ring initial resonances toward shorter wavelengths, so that nonlinearity tunes the ring to the right operation point as the cavity power increases. In order to calculate the resonance drifts, first the ring with both pump and second harmonic in resonance is simulated only with the second harmonic generation terms, to evaluate the maximum achievable conversion efficiency without resonance detuning; in this case, the resonator was optimized for 60 mW of input pump power and an applied voltage of 10V, giving a conversion efficiency of −28.8 dB. Once the powers in the resonator reach the steady state, it is possible to calculate the maximum nonlinearity-induced phase shift per round trip, ϕNL, wherewith the resonance drift, Δλ, can be calculated by

Δλ=λϕNL2πm+ϕNL.
(11)

Knowing the maximum drift the waveguide cross-section is slightly changed, so that the resonances are initially shifted towards shorter wavelengths by the calculated amounts. Figure 3 shows the resonance shifts for a ring resonator, which amount 9.19 pm for the pump and 7.87 pm for the second harmonic. Simulation is then undertaken taking into account all the terms in Eqs. (8) and (9). As expected, as the pump power builds up in the cavity, the nonlinearity induced shift tunes the pump and second harmonic into resonance and the optimum conversion efficiency of −28.8 dB is again achieved.

It is noted that both the cavity Q at 1550 nm and the 60mW input pump power were optimized so that the pre-detuned pump resonance is still within the resonance linewidth, as can be seen in Fig. 3. In this case, the initial resonance detuning does not prevent the power build up and the ring self-adjusts to resonance. In principle, some lack of precision in fabrication can also be compensated for just through input power control. Further resonance adjustments can be made with more sophisticated techniques, such as temperature control [28

28. K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express 20(27), 27999–28008 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the use of tunable pump sources which would allow higher intra-cavity powers and higher Q factors, thus improving the second harmonic generation efficiency.

Considering the resonance self-adjusted case, second harmonic generation as function of the number of round trips and as a function of time for several applied voltages is shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) SHG power evolution for different applied voltages. (b) Output power and conversion efficiency as an applied voltage function.
. Zero time corresponds to the moment in which the pump power is launched into the bus waveguide. The left axis corresponds to the intracavity second harmonic power and the right axis is the output power calculated considering the coupling coefficient to the bus waveguide. Despite being designed to work at 10V, conversion is also achieved for other voltages. For 25V and 30V an SHG overshoot is noticed due to resonance detuning caused by the increase in the second harmonic power that accumulates in the ring. Even then, the steady state output power linearly increases with voltage for bias voltages in the 10V to 30V range, as shown in Fig. 5(b). The figure also shows the conversion efficiency defined by the ratio between the second harmonic output power and the input pump power. A conversion efficiency of up to −21.67 dB for an applied voltage of 30V is predicted, corresponding to over 400 μW of converted power at the output. This efficiency compares favorably with other reported on chip frequency converters based on second harmonic generation [12

12. J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11415–11421 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with the additional advantage of being obtained in an actively controlled device.

Besides second harmonic generation, degenerated parametric down-conversion can be also envisaged in the same ring resonator. Knowing the second harmonic conversion efficiency, it is possible to calculate the rate of detected down-converted photon pairs W in the parametric down-conversion process through the relation proposed by Mitchell [29

29. M. W. Mitchell, “Parametric down-conversion from a wave-equation approach: Geometry and absolute brightness,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043835 (2009). [CrossRef]

]:
W=ΓeffP775QSHG,
(12)
where Гeff is the effective angular frequency linewidth of the 1550 nm filter, or in this case the ring resonance linewidth, P775 is the pump power at 775nm and QSHG is the second harmonic generation efficiency defined as QSHG = P775/(P1550)2. Based on the ring resonance linewidth and the intracavity powers with 30V applied voltage to calculate QSHG, an output down-converted rate of W = 5.3x106 photon pairs per second per input pump power is expected. This process can generate both squeezed and entangled states, which can be used in quantum based integrated devices where the flux of photon pairs is controlled by the applied voltage.

4. Conclusions

Parametric down conversion can also be achieved in the same device for generation of entangled photon pairs with electrical control of the photon pair flux. Electrical control over the frequency conversion process engenders an extra degree of freedom allowing for active control and switching, which can be explored in future integrated electro-optical CMOS compatible devices for both classical and non-classical light generation. The concept may be extended for silicon-based waveguides, in which case operation should be shifted towards longer wavelengths to avoid free carrier absorption.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge Prof. Michal Lipson for fruitful and helpful discussion. This work is partially supported by INCT Fotonicom, Mackpesquisa, CAPES, CNPq, and FAPESP.

References and links

1.

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 216–225 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 293–296 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1520–1526 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11415–11421 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. L. O’Brien, “Exploiting entanglement,” Science 330(6004), 588–589 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 63601 (2006).

16.

J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(15), 153901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72(24), 3807–3810 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A 38(9), 4931–4934 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, “Quantum information with continuous variables,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 513–577 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussensveig, and M. Lipson, “Observation of on-chip optical squeezing,” in The Rochester Conferences on Coherence and Quantum Optics and the Quantum Information and Measurement meeting, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper M6.67.

21.

D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators. The Compendium (Springer, 2007).

22.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003), Chap. 2.

23.

R. Kashyap, “Phase-matched periodic electric-field-second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(3), 313–328 (1989). [CrossRef]

24.

R. E. P. de Oliveira, M. Lipson, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Electrically controlled silicon nitride ring resonator for quasi-phase matched second-harmonic generation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CF3M.5. [CrossRef]

25.

H. R. Philipp, “Optical properties of silicon nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 120(2), 295–300 (1973). [CrossRef]

26.

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics Volume II, Measurements and Properties (McGraw-Hill, 1995), Chap. 3.

27.

R. H. Stolen and J. E. Bjorkholm, “Parametric amplification and frequency conversion in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(7), 1062–1072 (1982). [CrossRef]

28.

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express 20(27), 27999–28008 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

M. W. Mitchell, “Parametric down-conversion from a wave-equation approach: Geometry and absolute brightness,” Phys. Rev. A 79(4), 043835 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(250.4390) Optoelectronics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 19, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 19, 2013
Published: December 24, 2013

Citation
Rafael E. P. de Oliveira and Christiano J. S. de Matos, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators controlled by static electric field," Opt. Express 21, 32690-32698 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-26-32690


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References

  1. M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(12), 4222–4238 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Krause, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Silicon Raman amplifiers with ring-resonator-enhanced pump power,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 216–225 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “Changing the colour of light in a silicon resonator,” Nat. Photonics1(5), 293–296 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics7(8), 597–607 (2013). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lipson, “Compact electro-optic modulators on a silicon chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1520–1526 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics4(1), 37–40 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express16(17), 12987–12994 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. S. Levy, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators,” Opt. Express19(12), 11415–11421 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express19(11), 10462–10470 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. O’Brien, “Exploiting entanglement,” Science330(6004), 588–589 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. N. B. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, K. McKenzie, and P. K. Lam, “Harmonic entanglement with second-order nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 63601 (2006).
  16. J. U. Fürst, D. V. Strekalov, D. Elser, M. Lassen, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Naturally phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(15), 153901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Paschotta, M. Collett, P. Kürz, K. Fiedler, H. A. Bachor, and J. Mlynek, “Bright squeezed light from a singly resonant frequency doubler,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(24), 3807–3810 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. F. Pereira, M. Xiao, H. J. Kimble, and J. L. Hall, “Generation of squeezed light by intracavity frequency doubling,” Phys. Rev. A38(9), 4931–4934 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. L. Braunstein and P. van Loock, “Quantum information with continuous variables,” Rev. Mod. Phys.77(2), 513–577 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussensveig, and M. Lipson, “Observation of on-chip optical squeezing,” in The Rochester Conferences on Coherence and Quantum Optics and the Quantum Information and Measurement meeting, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper M6.67.
  21. D. G. Rabus, Integrated Ring Resonators. The Compendium (Springer, 2007).
  22. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2003), Chap. 2.
  23. R. Kashyap, “Phase-matched periodic electric-field-second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B6(3), 313–328 (1989). [CrossRef]
  24. R. E. P. de Oliveira, M. Lipson, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Electrically controlled silicon nitride ring resonator for quasi-phase matched second-harmonic generation,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2012, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CF3M.5. [CrossRef]
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