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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 3 — Feb. 11, 2013
  • pp: 3114–3124
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Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure

Leimeng Zhuang, Willem Beeker, Arne Leinse, René Heideman, Paulus van Dijk, and Chris Roeloffzen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp. 3114-3124 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.003114


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Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Alongside the photonic integration, the implementation of desired RF functionalities is equally important for the potential booming of integrated MWP. In the last decade, various RF functionalities have been demonstrated using MWP chips, where several salient works include spectral filters [6

6. J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3(9), (2012).

8

8. N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, J. B. Luff, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24648–24653 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], arbitrary waveform generator [9

9. M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

], beamforming network [10

10. A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, D. A. I. Leimeng Zhuang, M. J. Marpaung, M. Bentum, J. Burla, P. Verpoorte, A. Jorna, Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 3–18 (2010). [CrossRef]

], [11

11. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. C. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part II: experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 19–31 (2010).

], integrator [12

12. M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun . 1(29) (2010).

], differentiator [13

13. F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Compact optical temporal differentiator based on silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15880–15886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], frequency discriminator [14

14. D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], UWB pulse shaper [15

15. D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24838–24848 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and etc. To continue this progressing pace, recently a waveguide-based optical interleaver was designed and fabricated. The fabricated optical interleaver uses two-ring resonator (RR)-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structure and features full reconfigurability. It is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients. This RF functionality is achieved using the Hilbert transformer (HT) functionality of the RRs [16

16. L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26499–26510 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and amplitude tapering capability of the optical couplers. Such RF couplers can be used in a wide range of applications [17

17. J. F. White, High Frequency Techniques: An Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2004).

]. Among them, one interesting practice is a polarization network for wideband dual linear-polarized (DLP) antennas [18

18. R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

]. The proposed device can equip the DLP antennas with not only polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization (LP) signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations (CPs), namely between left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization (DP) signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations.

In this paper, we propose and demonstrate the RF coupler functionality implemented using the optical interleaver. In Section 2, the device principle is explained, followed by a discussion on its application as a polarization network for DLP antennas. Section 3 describes the waveguide technology and mask design of a fabricated device. Section 4 presents the device characterizations, where the measurements on design accuracy and the full reconfigurability of the optical interleaver are exhibited, followed by the demonstrations of complex coefficients for the RF coupler functionality. The conclusions of this paper are formulated in Section 5.

2. Device principle

2.1 Device structure and transfer functions

A schematic of an optical interleaver with a two-ring resonator (RR)-assisted asymmetric MZI structure is depicted in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) schematic of a waveguide-based 2 × 2 interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric MZI structure; (b) equivalent circuit when the RR in the lower arm is decoupled; (c) equivalent circuit when the RR in the upper arm is full-coupled.
, where κn’s and ϕn’s express the optical power coupling coefficients and additional optical phase shifts, respectively. This structure consists of a 2 × 2 asymmetric MZI with both arms coupled to a RR. The RRs have the same roundtrip length, LR, which is twice the length difference between the two arms of the MZI, ΔL.

According to the signal processing principles of coherent optical filters such as MZIs and RRs [19

19. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

], the transfer functions of such a structure can be derived from the z-transform expressions of its three sections shown in Fig. 1(a), which is given by
H=η[1κ4ejϕ4jκ4ejϕ4jκ41κ4][AU(z)00AL(z)][1κ3jκ3jκ31κ3]=[H11H12H21H22]
(1)
withAU(z)=1κ1r2z2ejϕ111κ1r2z2ejϕ1
(2)
andAL(z)=1κ2r2z2ejϕ211κ2r2z2ejϕ2rz1ejϕ3
(3)
where z = exp(-jν) with ν = [-π, π] representing the normalized angular frequency with respect to the free spectral range (FSR) of the device (ΔfFSR = 1/ΔT = c0/(ΔL·ng) with ΔT the delay time for an optical path of ΔL, c0 the speed of light in vacuum and ng group index of the waveguide [19

19. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

]), r is the amplitude transmission coefficient for an optical path of ΔL, and η is a complex coefficient which accounts for the general loss and phase shift introduced by the waveguides. Using Eqs. (1)-(3), one can derive the frequency responses between different inputs and outputs. It can be understood that the four transfer functions in Eq. (1) represent two pairs of 5th-order complementary spectral filters, which have five roots in their nominators and four in their denominators, namely five zeros and four poles in terms of digital signal processing concepts [19

19. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

]. With properly chosen coefficients [20

20. C. J. Kaalund and G. Peng, “Pole-zero diagram approach to the design of ring resonator-based filters for photonic applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(6), 1548–1559 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett. 19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

], IIR Chebyshev type II filters with good interleaver performance can be implemented, which feature flat passbands, equal-ripple stopbands, and steep transitions simultaneously. To give an idea of the interleaver performance, the power transmission, phase and group delay responses of the filters for a typical setting of coefficients are depicted in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Frequency responses of the interleaver for a typical setting of coefficients: (a) power transmission and phase responses of H12, (b) zero-pole diagram and the complementary nature of the two outputs, (c) corresponding group delay responses.
.

2.2 Implementation of 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients

2.3 Polarization network schemes for single-polarization signals

2.4 Polarization network schemes for dual-polarization signals

To deal with two polarizations simultaneously, two polarization network schemes based on full coherent optical processing are proposed, which are depicted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 System schemes for receive DLP antennas with CP signal radiations.
and Fig. 7
Fig. 7 System schemes for receive DLP antennas with LP signal radiations.
. Here, the receive antennas are first considered. In these schemes, a single optical carrier is split into both arms of the polarization network. To maintain a stable manipulation of the optical phases, it is preferred that all the optical components including the optoelectronics are realized in waveguides and are integrated together either monolithically or by means of hybrid integration. This way, the system is free of optical fibers where optical phase stability is difficult to maintain due to its susceptibility to ambient disturbances. To explain the principles of this polarization network, illustrations of the optical signal processing in phase domain are presented in the insets of Fig. 6 and Fig. 7. In these schemes, a particular modulation scheme is used for the systems, where double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation is applied to one arm and double sideband-full carrier (DSB-FC) modulation to the other. The optical coupler and phase shifter before and after the MZMs guarantee that the optical carriers of the two arms are of 90°-optical phase difference and the ratio of the signal amplitudes between the two arms are correctly adjusted according to the signal polarizations.

In case of CP signals, the LHCP (green) signals result in −90°-RF phase difference between the X and Y antenna component and simultaneously RHCP (red) signals 90°-RF phase difference. The depicts at (i) in Fig. 6 describes the signal phase relation between the two arms after modulation. Then, after experiencing the −90°-RF phase shift of the RR, the RHCP and LHCP signal of the upper arm are turned to be in phase and 180°-out of phase with the suppressed optical carrier, respectively, as depicted at (ii) in Fig. 6. Next, the optical coupler κ3 splits the unsuppressed optical carrier in the lower arm into the two outputs of the polarization network and simultaneously guarantees that the two arms have equal RF amplitude contributions at the outputs. Consequently, the signal status as depicted at (iii) in Fig. 6 is obtained, where the constructive and destructive interference between the equal-amplitude RF contributions of the two arms result in the clear separation of the RHCP and LHCP signal at the two outputs. Moreover, the proposed modulation scheme prevents the undesired destructive interference of the optical carrier at the outputs, and simultaneously guarantees that after splitting at coupler κ3, both outputs have their optical carriers in phase with the RF signals, resulting in optimal RF detection. Furthermore, it is straightforward to deduce that when this RF phase shift functionality is used in combination with unequal amplitude tapering between the two antenna components, the proposed polarization network will also be able to operates with signals with elliptic polarizations.

Similarly, this coherent optical processing principles can also be applied to DP signals with two orthogonal LPs. Figure 7 illustrates the processing steps. In this case, the polarization network only need to provide amplitude tapering functionality using coupler κ4. Unlike the scheme for SP signals, this scheme allows arbitrary polarization rotation angle to be achieved optically. As illustrated in Fig. 7, one can change the sign of one output to its opposite by means of swapping the modulation formats between the two arms.

Moreover, for the transmission of DP signals, the inversed processing as for the receptions is required, where the MZMs and PDs should be swapped, and DSB-SC and DSB-FC modulation should be used for the two input RF signals separately. Then, it is straightforward to deduce that after the inversed processing as illustrated in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, simultaneous DP transmissions will be achieved.

3. Device realization

The optical waveguide used for the fabrication of the integrated interleaver is TriPleX waveguide, a proprietary waveguide technology of LioniX B.V [22

22. R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 1583–1596 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The waveguide is constructed with two strips of 170 nm-thick Si3N4 stacked on top of each other and separated physically by a 500 nm-thick SiO2 intermediate layer, forming a “=”-shaped cross-section. The cladding material surrounding the waveguide is also SiO2, featuring a high-index-contrast characteristic. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 Waveguide structure and mask layout deign of the interleaver: (a) scanning electron microscopy photo of waveguide cross-section, and (b) mask layout of the interleaver with waveguides in red, heaters in black, and leads in yellow.
exhibits a photo of the waveguide cross-section. This double-strip waveguide geometry features a more fiber-resembling mode profile as well as an increased effective index of the optical mode in contrast to a conventional single-strip geometry. As a consequence, this improved mode profile compatibility and the increased mode confinement of the waveguide reduces the fiber-coupling loss and waveguide bend loss, respectively. The width of the Si3N4 strips is optimized to result in a single (TE-polarized) mode for C-band wavelengths (around 1550 nm). Moreover, the waveguide fabrication is compatible with standard equipment for CMOS process and uses low pressure chemical vapor depositions, which allows for low-cost and high-efficient productions, especially for high-volume scenarios. Worth to mention, this waveguide geometry has been characterized with a very low propagation loss of 0.1 dB/cm and simultaneously a small bend radius of 70 μm [23

23. L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23162–23170 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides, simulations have shown that by using a proper design of waveguide tapers at the chip facets, a fiber-chip coupling loss of 0.5 dB/facet is achievable. Therefore, TriPleX waveguide technology is considered to be an enabling photonic integrated circuit (PIC) platform for the realization of low-loss, on-chip complex MWP signal processors. For the interleaver chip of this paper, the taper design did not fully match the fibers pigtailed to the chip, and therefore a slightly larger insertion loss of 6 dB has been measured.

The interleaver was designed with a FSR of 20 GHz. Based on this and the group index of the waveguide (ng = 1.72), the corresponding length difference between the two arms, ΔL = 8783 μm, and the roundtrip length of the RRs, LR = 2ΔL = 17566 μm, were calculated and applied in the mask design of the interleaver. The optical couplers in the interleaver were implemented using MZI couplers, where the coupling coefficients can be varied by introducing an additional optical phase shift to one of the MZI arms. The reconfigurability of the interleaver was realized thermo-optically by means of resistor-based heaters on top of the waveguides. In this design, a total of 8 heaters are used to implement all the tuning elements as shown in Fig. 1(a). Figure 8(b) depicts the mask layout of the interleaver which has been fabricated. As it appears, the footprint of this mask is slightly smaller than 1 × 1 cm. However, further footprint reduction is still possible, seeing the available spaces between the waveguides. This design was originally used as part of a complex optical beamformer chip [23

23. L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23162–23170 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For the sake of clarity, Fig. 8(b) excluded the structures of other functionalities, with the input and output waveguides of the interleaver extended and labeled for a good visibility.

4. Experimental verification of device functionalities

To verify the full reconfigurability and the MWP polarization network functionality of the fabricated interleaver, the experimental setup depicted in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measurement setup for device characterizations.
was used for device characterizations. In this setup, an optical carrier was generated using a CW laser (EM4-253-80-057) driven by a low-noise current controller (ILX Lightwave LDX-3620); the modulating RF signal was generated by a vector network analyzer (Agilent NA5230A PNA-L); the modulation and detection were performed using a Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator (Avanex PowerLog FA-20) and a RF photodetector (Discovery semiconductor DSC30S), respectively; and the interleaver chip was controlled using a dedicated 12-bit heater controller.

For the measurement of the 5th-order filter responses of the interleaver, a current ramp is applied to the laser to perform a frequency sweep of the optical carrier over an FSR of the interleaver, and a RF signal with a frequency of 50 MHz was applied to the modulator, so that the filter responses can be measured using the network analyzer. To verify the design accuracy and full reconfigurability of the interleaver, multiple measurements were performed for different settings of the optical coefficients (κn’s and ϕn’s). Figure 10
Fig. 10 Measured and simulated filter responses of the interleaver: (a) power transmission and phase response of H21, (b) complementary nature of the two outputs of the interleaver, and (c) the corresponding group delay responses.
demonstrates the measured optical power transmission, phase and group delay responses of the interleaver in comparison with the simulations. As it appears, the measured responses are in good agreement with the simulations. A small imbalance of the sidelobes is noticeable in Fig. 10(b) when the bar and cross port have symmetrical filter shape. This indicates that the fabricated device has a small deviation from the desired path length relation, LR = 2ΔL, and consequently there is a limitation on the number of available channels for interleaver applicationss because the filter shape will become distorted as the frequency deviation increases. However, as demonstrated in Fig. 10, the fabricated device exhibits very good performance within a full FSR of 20 GHz. Furthermore, the measurement results in Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Verification of full reconfigurability of the fabricated interleaver: (a) demonstration of changes in stopband suppression by varying κ’s; and (b) demonstration of shifts of filter shape over one FSR.
verifies the full reconfigurability of the device, where changes in stopband suppression and shifts of the filter shape over one FSR are demonstrated by properly tuning the optical coefficients.

5. Conclusions

In this paper, a novel on-chip wideband MWP 2 × 2 RF coupler is proposed and demonstrated, in association with discussions on its application possibilities as a RF polarization network for wideband DLP antennas. This 2 × 2 RF coupler is implemented using a waveguide-based optical interleaver which consists of a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric MZI structure. This structure features simplicity and compactness. The full reconfigurability of the device enables the achievement of the desired complex coefficients for various polarization network operations. The proposed device can equip the DLP antennas with not only polarization rotation capability for linear polarization LP scenarios but also the capability to operate with and switch between two opposite CPs, namely between LHCP and RHCP. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of DP signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and trackings. An example of such an interleaver was fabricated in TriPleX waveguide technology, with a FSR of 20 GHz. The fabricated device exhibited a very good interleaver performance, and demonstrated a continuous RF bandwidth from 2 GHz to 8 GHz, with an in-band phase ripple smaller than 5 degree. However, this bandwidth is scalable with different FSR designs, and the frequency periodicity of the device allows this bandwidth to be available in multiple equally-spaced frequency bands, 10 GHz in this example. The waveguide-based structure allows the device to be integrated with other functional building blocks on a PIC to create various on-chip complex MWP signal processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for DLP antennas.

Acknowledgment

The research described in this paper is carried out within the Dutch Point One R&D Innovation Project: Broadband Satellite Communication Services on High-Speed Vehicles, with project number PNE101008. The authors are thankful to Agentschap NL for financing the project.

References and links

1.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 314–335 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 311–315 (2011).

4.

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 731–733 (2011). [CrossRef]

5.

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev., DOI:10.1002/Ipor.201200032 (2013). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun. 3(9), (2012).

7.

M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21475–21484 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, J. B. Luff, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24648–24653 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 117–122 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, D. A. I. Leimeng Zhuang, M. J. Marpaung, M. Bentum, J. Burla, P. Verpoorte, A. Jorna, Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 3–18 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. C. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part II: experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 19–31 (2010).

12.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun . 1(29) (2010).

13.

F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Compact optical temporal differentiator based on silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15880–15886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27359–27370 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24838–24848 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26499–26510 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. F. White, High Frequency Techniques: An Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2004).

18.

R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

19.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

20.

C. J. Kaalund and G. Peng, “Pole-zero diagram approach to the design of ring resonator-based filters for photonic applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(6), 1548–1559 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett. 19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

22.

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 1583–1596 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23162–23170 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 23, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2013
Published: February 1, 2013

Citation
Leimeng Zhuang, Willem Beeker, Arne Leinse, René Heideman, Paulus van Dijk, and Chris Roeloffzen, "Novel wideband microwave polarization network using a fully-reconfigurable photonic waveguide interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure," Opt. Express 21, 3114-3124 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-3-3114


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References

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
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