## Designing national IP/MPLS networks with flexgrid optical technology |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp. 3336-3341 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.003336

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### Abstract

We propose a two-step procedure to design flexgrid-based national networks. Locations are first partitioned into a set of metro areas interconnected through a flexgrid optical network. The problem is modeled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (ILP). Next, each network is designed separately. Optimal results show a future large (>200 nodes) flexgrid core network inter-connecting small (~10 nodes) metro regions.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. M. Ruiz, O. Pedrola, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, J. Fernández-Palacios, and G. Junyent, “Survivable IP/MPLS-over-WSON multilayer network optimization,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw. **3**(8), 629–640 (2011). [CrossRef]

2. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. **47**(11), 66–73 (2009). [CrossRef]

4. O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX Study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw. **4**(8), 639–650 (2012). [CrossRef]

## 2. Network design proposed procedure

- 1. The network is partitioned into metro areas, i.e. locations are grouped into a number of metro areas. Internal metro area traffic between locations in the same area and aggregated traffic between metro areas is computed. Aggregation traffic will be conveyed by the optical core network.
- 2. IP/MPLS metro and optical core networks are designed, taking as input each traffic matrix computed in 1) and a network topology. An adaptation of the integer linear programming model presented in [9] can be used for the design of the core network.
9. L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Springer Photonic Network Communications

**24**(3), 177–186 (2012). [CrossRef]

## 3. Metro Area Partitioning (MAP) problem

- • a set
*L*of locations, - • a subset
*M*⊆*L*of locations that can be selected as metro locations, - • the subset
*M*(*l*)⊆*M*of metro locations where each location*l*can belong, - • the location-to-location traffic matrix, and
- • the considered slot width (Δ
*f*) for the flexgrid-based core network.

*m*, the locations belonging to that area and its internal traffic. The set of aggregated traffic between metro areas (

*b*).

_{mm’}

_{m}_{∊}

*∑*

_{M}

_{m’}_{∊}

*) subject to ensuring a minimum spectral efficiency for the core network.*

_{M}b_{mm’}*B*represents the spectral efficiency of the chosen modulation format. Note that the ceiling operation computes the amount of slots to convey the requested data flow under the chosen slot width.

_{mod}## 4. BRKGA heuristic algorithm

10. J. Goncalves and M. Resende, “Biased random-key genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization,” J. Heuristics **17**(5), 487–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

1. M. Ruiz, O. Pedrola, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, J. Fernández-Palacios, and G. Junyent, “Survivable IP/MPLS-over-WSON multilayer network optimization,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw. **3**(8), 629–640 (2011). [CrossRef]

*m*genes where each gene takes a value in the real interval [0,1]. A deterministic algorithm, called

*decoder*, transforms any input chromosome into a feasible solution of the optimization problem and computes its fitness value. As stated in [10

10. J. Goncalves and M. Resende, “Biased random-key genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization,” J. Heuristics **17**(5), 487–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

*L*⊆

_{1}*L*be a subset with those locations which can belong to only one metro area and

*L*=

_{2}*L*\

*L*be the subset with the rest of locations. In our algorithm, one gene is used for each

_{1}*l*∊

*L*so to decide to which metro area location

_{2}*l*is parented and hence,

*m*= |

*L*| genes.

_{2}*L*are parented to its metro area (lines 1-2). Next, the rest of locations are sorted using its specific gene and parented to the best metro area as a function of the resulting outgoing traffic (lines 3-8). Finally, the total outgoing traffic is computed and returned (lines 9-13).

_{1}## 5. Illustrative numerical results

*M*|*(|

*M*|-1) unidirectional flows. Let us consider a threshold for spectral efficiency of 80% (horizontal red line in Fig. 3). Then, the largest number of metro areas is 116, 165, 216, or 295 when the 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 GHz slot width, respectively, is selected. Obviously, the coarser the grid granularity chosen for the optical network, the larger the metro areas have to be for the spectral efficiency threshold selected and thus the lower the number of metro areas opened.

## 6. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | M. Ruiz, O. Pedrola, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, J. Fernández-Palacios, and G. Junyent, “Survivable IP/MPLS-over-WSON multilayer network optimization,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw. |

2. | M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. |

3. | M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag. |

4. | O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX Study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw. |

5. | O. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic Grooming,” Proc. Photonics in Switching (2010). |

6. | M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” Proc. ECOC (2011). |

7. | H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” Proc. ECOC (2011). |

8. | G. Wellbrock, “The convergence of L1/2/3 functionality in next generation network elements: a carrier’s perspective,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011). |

9. | L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Springer Photonic Network Communications |

10. | J. Goncalves and M. Resende, “Biased random-key genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization,” J. Heuristics |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks

(060.4254) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, combinatorial network design

**ToC Category:**

Backbone and Core Networks

**History**

Original Manuscript: August 16, 2012

Revised Manuscript: November 28, 2012

Manuscript Accepted: November 29, 2012

Published: February 4, 2013

**Virtual Issues**

European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) *Optics Express*

**Citation**

Luis Velasco, Paul Wright, Andrew Lord, and Gabriel Junyent, "Designing national IP/MPLS networks with flexgrid optical technology," Opt. Express **21**, 3336-3341 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-3-3336

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### References

- M. Ruiz, O. Pedrola, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, J. Fernández-Palacios, and G. Junyent, “Survivable IP/MPLS-over-WSON multilayer network optimization,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw.3(8), 629–640 (2011). [CrossRef]
- M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(11), 66–73 (2009). [CrossRef]
- M. Jinno, B. Kozicki, H. Takara, A. Watanabe, Y. Sone, T. Tanaka, and A. Hirano, “Distance-adaptive spectrum resource allocation in spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(8), 138–145 (2010). [CrossRef]
- O. Pedrola, A. Castro, L. Velasco, M. Ruiz, J. P. Fernández-Palacios, and D. Careglio, “CAPEX Study for a multilayer IP/MPLS-over-flexgrid optical network,” J. Opt. Comm. Netw.4(8), 639–650 (2012). [CrossRef]
- O. Gerstel, “Flexible use of spectrum and photonic Grooming,” Proc. Photonics in Switching (2010).
- M. Jinno, Y. Sone, H. Takara, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, and S. Kawai, “IP traffic offloading to elastic optical layer using multi-flow optical transponder,” Proc. ECOC (2011).
- H. Takara, T. Goh, K. Shibahara, K. Yonenaga, S. Kawai, and M. Jinno, “Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s multi-flow, multirate, multi-reach optical transmitter for efficient elastic spectral routing,” Proc. ECOC (2011).
- G. Wellbrock, “The convergence of L1/2/3 functionality in next generation network elements: a carrier’s perspective,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2011).
- L. Velasco, M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, and J. Comellas, “Modeling the routing and spectrum allocation problem for flexgrid optical networks,” Springer Photonic Network Communications24(3), 177–186 (2012). [CrossRef]
- J. Goncalves and M. Resende, “Biased random-key genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization,” J. Heuristics17(5), 487–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

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