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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 3 — Feb. 11, 2013
  • pp: 3516–3522
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Dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched solid-state laser with multi-layered graphene as saturable absorber

Yongguang Zhao, Xianlei Li, Miaomiao Xu, Haohai Yu, Yongzhong Wu, Zhengping Wang, Xiaopeng Hao, and Xinguang Xu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 3, pp. 3516-3522 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.003516


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Abstract

Using multilayered graphene as the saturable absorber (SA), Nd:LYSO crystal as the laser material, we demonstrated a laser-diode (LD) pumped, dual-wavelength passively Q-switched solid-state laser. The maximum average output power is 1.8 W, the largest pulse energy and highest peak power is 11.3 μJ, 118 W, respectively. As we have known, they are the best results for passively Q-switched operation of graphene. The pulse laser is strong enough to realize extra-cavity frequency conversions. With a KTP crystal as the sum-frequency generator, the dual wavelengths are proved to be well time overlapped, which manifests the synchronous modulation to the dual-wavelength with multi-layered graphene.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Pulsed multiple wavelengths are in the spotlight of scientific interest due to a vast amount of applications in the realms of Terahertz (THz) wave generation, medical instrumentation, precision spectral analysis and optical clock synchronization. THz waves have found new applications in the field of materials science [1

1. P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, “Free-electron lasers. Status and applications,” Science 292(5523), 1853–1858 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and dynamic fields of physics research, including the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics [2

2. H. J. Joyce, J. Wong-Leung, C. K. Yong, C. J. Docherty, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Ultralow surface recombination velocity in InP nanowires probed by Terahertz spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5325–5330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], off-resonant four wave-mixing (FWM) response [3

3. F. Junginger, B. Mayer, C. Schmidt, O. Schubert, S. Mährlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and A. Pashkin, “Nonperturbative interband response of a bulk InSb semiconductor driven off resonantly by Terahertz electromagnetic few-cycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147403 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and dynamic interactions between fundamental and second-harmonic modes [4

4. T. Saito, Y. Tatematsu, Y. Yamaguchi, S. Ikeuchi, S. Ogasawara, N. Yamada, R. Ikeda, I. Ogawa, and T. Idehara, “Observation of dynamic interactions between fundamental and second-Harmonic modes in a high-power sub-terahertz gyrotron operating in regimes of soft and hard self-Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(15), 155001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Difference frequency generation (DFG) of two Q-switched near-IR laser pulses is one practical technique to generate higher peak power THz radiation [5

5. K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141119 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, P. G. Schunemann, T. Southward, J. J. Komiak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact, high average power, fiber-pumped terahertz source for active real-time imaging of concealed objects,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6478–6483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Though power scalability and frequency agility of THz source was realized in an acoustic-optic Q-switch laser [7

7. P. Zhao, S. Ragam, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “Power scalability and frequency agility of compact terahertz source based on frequency mixing from solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131106 (2011). [CrossRef]

], it requires a complex active modulator and thus limited its application. For the compact passively Q-switched laser, 1052 and 1064 nm dual-wavelength laser has been demonstrated with Cr4+:YAG as a frequency selector and saturable absorber (SA) [8

8. H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, R. J. Lan, and M. H. Jiang, “Dual-wavelength neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with chromium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet as frequency selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041126 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Unfortunately, the energy-level structure for certain wavelength absorption of the traditional saturable absorption materials makes them effective only in a narrow range of wavelength. Only 0.9-1.2 μm light can be modulated with Cr4+:YAG SA [9

9. K. Spariosu, W. Chen, R. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and A. V. Shestakov, “Dual Q switching and laser action at 1.06 and 1.44 microm in a Nd3+:YAG-Cr4+:YAG oscillator at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 814–816 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The similar situation also happened in V3+:YAG [10

10. K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, and V. A. Sandulenko, “Ultrafast dynamics of excited-state absorption in V3+:YAG crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4782–4784 (1996). [CrossRef]

] and Co2+:LaMgAl11O9 [11

11. P. Li, Y. Li, Y. Sun, X. Hou, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Passively Q-switched 1.34 μm Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7730–7736 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, different absorption coefficient and initial transmission for the different wavelength often cause discrepant modulated loss and lead to time delay between two pulses [12

12. F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. F. Roux, A. Kevorkian, J. L. Coutaz, and G. Vitrant, “Simultaneous passively Q-switched dual-wavelength solid-state laser working at 1065 and 1066 nm,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2817–2819 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. H. P. H. Cheng, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, and C. Pedersen, “All passive synchronized Q-switching of a quasi-three-level and a four-level Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23987–23993 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Though it can be solved by external optical triggering of the saturable absorber using a Nd:YAG laser [12

12. F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. F. Roux, A. Kevorkian, J. L. Coutaz, and G. Vitrant, “Simultaneous passively Q-switched dual-wavelength solid-state laser working at 1065 and 1066 nm,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2817–2819 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a complex cavity setup is needed.

As a novel nonlinear saturable absorption material, graphene has been successfully used in Q-switching [14

14. H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and ultra-fast laser [15

15. Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161112 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. As discussed by Paul A [17

17. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination Dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and Jahan M [18

18. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008). [CrossRef]

], when the intensity of the excitation light is very high, the concentration of the photogenerated carrier would be much larger than the densities of the intrinsic electron and hole carrier. Therefore, the band near the Dirac point will be fulfilled by the newly generated carriers. According to the Pauli blocking principle, the same state cannot be filled by two electrons. Thus, further absorption of graphene is blocked and bleaching occurs. Due to the zero band gap structure, graphene can be used as a wavelength insensitive SA, which means that the modulated wavelength is in a large range (0.3-2.8 μm [19

19. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]

]). Moreover, the nearly equal absorption coefficient around 0.5-2.4 μm [15

15. Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the same nonlinear saturable absorption character [20

20. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

] make graphene has the uniform modulated loss at different wavelength in a broad spectrum range. Recently, dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched pulse with graphene as SA has been demonstrated in fiber laser [21

21. Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 869–876 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In this letter, we report for the first time, the synchronously Q-switched dual-wavelength solid-state pulse laser working at 1076 and 1079.7 nm with multi-layered graphene as SA. The maximum average output power is 1.8 W and the largest pule energy is 11.3 μJ, which make it has a potential application to generate 0.96 THz wave.

The laser material we employed is a relatively new, Nd doped LuYSiO5 (Nd:LYSO) crystal. Its laser output was first reported in 2010 [23

23. D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, D. H. Zhou, S. D. Zhuang, Z. P. Wang, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(11), 798–804 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and passively Q-switched performance were demonstrated by S. D. Zhuang et. al. in 2011 [24

24. S. D. Zhuang, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, L. Guo, L. J. Chen, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Contunuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LYSO laser,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 684–689 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. With an 811 nm laser diode as the pump source, its absorption peak was aimed accurately and the optical conversion efficiency, slope efficiency of continuous-wave (cw) output reached 27.7%, 37.0%, respectively [25

25. L. J. Chen, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, S. D. Zhuang, L. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Efficient dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LYSO laser by diode pumping aimed toward the absorption peak,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(7), 071403–071405 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The passively mode locking of Nd:LYSO crystal was realized with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and 8.9 ps pulse width was achieved [26

26. Z. H. Cong, D. Y. Tang, W. De Tan, J. Zhang, C. W. Xu, D. Luo, X. D. Xu, D. Z. Li, J. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, and Q. P. Wang, “Dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Nd:LuYSiO5 laser with SESAM,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3984–3989 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recently, we have used this material to the direct generation of optical vortex pulses [27

27. Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. J. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. X. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031113 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Just like the Lu3+ locations in Lu2SiO5 (LSO) crystal [28

28. G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2010). [CrossRef]

], two types of Lu3+/Y3+ locations with different symmetries exist in LYSO crystal, which can form different optical centers when they are substituted by rare earth ions, so dual wavelength operation is liable to be obtained in Nd:LYSO crystal.

2. Characterization of multi-layered graphene and laser experiment

The multi-layer graphene sheets were prepared by the method which was reported before [29

29. X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9950–9955 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This method enables us to obtain multi-layer graphene sheets with large size typically about 20 microns in one dimension (Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) TEM image of a large multi-layer graphene sheets; (b) Transmissivity spectra of the K9 glass substrate and graphene SA.
). The transmission spectra of K9 glass substrate and two representative positions of the graphene sheet are shown in Fig. 1(b). Referencing the transmittance expression T = T0⋅(1-α1)n, where T0 (90%), n, and α1 (2.3%) are the transmittance of the substrate, the number of the coated graphene layers, and the absorption of monolayer graphene, respectively [15

15. Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we can conclude that they are 5~7 layers graphene and 12-14 layers graphene. On the ϕ = 20 mm substrate area, the transmittance of most positions are close T1, i.e. 78%, so 5~7 layers graphene is dominant for our graphene sheet which is prepared on the K9 glass substrate. In this condition, the initial transmittance of the graphene, (1-α1)n, is about 87%, corresponding a linear loss of 13% or so. Considering the 35% modulation depth of 5~7 layers graphene [20

20. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the saturable absorption of the graphene sheet is estimated to be 8.5%.

The experimental setup of the graphene-based dual-wavelength Q-switching laser is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the compact graphene based dual-wavelength Q-switching laser.
. The pump source employed in our experiment is a commercial fiber-coupled laser-diode (LD) with a central wavelength around 808 nm. The core size of the fiber is 200 μm in diameter with a numerical aperture of 0.22. A Nd:LYSO crystal cut along its c axis is used as a laser gain medium. The dimensions of the crystal are 3 mm × 3 mm × 10 mm. Its end faces are polished but uncoated. The pump light is focused into the crystal by an imaging unit with a beam compression ratio of 1:1. The resonant cavity comprises two flat mirrors: the input mirror and the output mirror. The input mirror (M1) is high-transmission (HT) coated at the pump wavelength and high reflective (HR) at 1050-1100 nm. The output coupler (M2) has a transmission of 10% at 1050-1100 nm. M3 is a beam splitter mirrors.

3. Results and discussion

Without the graphene SA, the laser operated in cw regime. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Output power versus the absorbed pump power for CW and Q-switching laser operation; (b) Pulse width and repetition rate versus the absorbed pump power for Q-switching laser operation; (c) Pulse energy and peak power versus the absorbed pump power for Q-switching laser operation; (d) Pulse profile at a width of 96 ns under the absorbed pump power of 9.1 W (inset: corresponding pulse train of 159 kHz).
shows the output power and fitting line as a function of the absorbed pump power. The maximum output power was 2.7 W, the results proved that the gain of Nd:LYSO was sufficient for the dual-wavelength and Q-switching operation. As recorded by an optical spectrum analyzer (HR 4000CG-UV-NIR, Ocean Optics Inc.) in the experiments, only the wavelength at 1076nm was found nearby the laser threshold. When the absorbed pump power increased to 2.1 W, the mode of 1079.7 nm began to oscillate. Further increasing the pump power, we observed that the 1079.7 nm component increased. However, the ratio of the intensity at 1079.7 nm was always smaller than that at 1076 nm as the absorbed pump power ranges from 2.1 to 9.1 W. In order to regulate the gain competition between the two wavelengths and obtain balanced dual-wavelength emission, M2 was adjusted to a tilt angle of α1 [30

30. F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. Zhou, J. F. Roux, and G. Vitrant, “Stable dual-wavelength micro laser controlled by the output mirror tilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241113 (2011). [CrossRef]

], where α1 = 1-3 mrad at different absorbed pump power. Using a Glan-Taylor prism as the polarizer, the dual wavelengths were found to be orthogonal-polarization, vertically polarization for the 1076 nm and horizontally polarized for the 1079.7 nm. This shows that a simple polarizer allow to produce an individual wavelength at 1076 or 1079.7 nm.

By tuning the cavity to 2.3 cm and inserting the graphene SA, the passively dual-wavelength Q-switched laser was realized. When the number of graphene layers on the SA was 12-14, the laser threshold was very high and the output laser was weak. On the contrary, when the 5-7 layers graphene SA was used, the laser performance was improved greatly. The average output power versus the absorbed pump power is also shown in Fig. 3(a). We observed that the threshold was 1.5 W, which can be attributed to the small initial transmission of the graphene SA (T0 = 78%). As discussed in the cw operation, in order to balance the gain of the two oscillation modes, we adjusted the M2 to a tilt angle of α22 = 0.8-2.5 mrad in the Q-switching laser operation). Even the adverse effect of the tilt of M2 and the high insertion loss caused by the uncoated K9 glass substrate, the maximum output power of 1.8 W can still be obtained, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 20%. This reveals the excellent optical quality and small intrinsic loss of the graphene layers in the Q-switching operation.

In order to confirm the synchronizing pulses at the two wavelengths, a KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal cut along the type ІІ phase-matching direction was used to generate the sum frequency. The spectrum of the sum frequency generation (SFG) and second-harmonic generated (SHG) of the dual-wavelength is shown in Fig. 4(b). The SHG of 1076 and 1079.7 nm is 538 and 539.8 nm, respectively, and the SFG of the two wavelengths is 538.9 nm. Due to the low resolution (~0.75 nm) of the spectrometer, the three lines are partially overlapped, but the peak positions are clear. The SFG proves the well time-overlapping of the two wavelengths. In addition, the polarization of the dual-wavelength in Q-switched operation was also investigated using a Glan-Taylor prism, the dual wavelengths were found to be orthogonal-polarization, as in the case of the cw operation.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated the synchronously Q-switched dual-wavelength solid-state pulse laser working at 1076 and 1079.7 nm with graphene as SA for the first time. When the graphene SA layers are 12-14, the laser threshold is high and the average output power is low. As the graphene SA layers decreases to five to seven, the laser performance is improved greatly: the 1.8 W average output power, 11.3 μJ pulse energy and 118 W peak power. The pulse energy and peak power are two and four orders of magnitude larger than those obtained in fiber lasers. They are also the best results in LD-pumped, graphene Q-switched solid-state lasers. The SFG of 538.9 nm is observed with a KTP crystal, which certified that the dual wavelengths are well time overlapped. Moreover, the realization of the extra-cavity nonlinear frequency conversion, where large pulse energy and high peak power are needed, indicating that the present multi-layered graphene SA modulated dual-wavelength Q-switched laser is hopeful to obtain practical applications.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (60978027, 61178060), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-10-0552), Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province (2012JQ18), and Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University (2012TS215), the Fund for the Natural Science of Shandong Province (ZR2010EM049), IIFSDU (2012JC007).

References and links

1.

P. G. O’Shea and H. P. Freund, “Free-electron lasers. Status and applications,” Science 292(5523), 1853–1858 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. J. Joyce, J. Wong-Leung, C. K. Yong, C. J. Docherty, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Ultralow surface recombination velocity in InP nanowires probed by Terahertz spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5325–5330 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Junginger, B. Mayer, C. Schmidt, O. Schubert, S. Mährlein, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Huber, and A. Pashkin, “Nonperturbative interband response of a bulk InSb semiconductor driven off resonantly by Terahertz electromagnetic few-cycle pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147403 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

T. Saito, Y. Tatematsu, Y. Yamaguchi, S. Ikeuchi, S. Ogasawara, N. Yamada, R. Ikeda, I. Ogawa, and T. Idehara, “Observation of dynamic interactions between fundamental and second-Harmonic modes in a high-power sub-terahertz gyrotron operating in regimes of soft and hard self-Excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(15), 155001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, Y. S. Lee, W. C. Hurlbut, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz-wave generation in quasi-phase-matched GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141119 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, P. G. Schunemann, T. Southward, J. J. Komiak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Compact, high average power, fiber-pumped terahertz source for active real-time imaging of concealed objects,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6478–6483 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

P. Zhao, S. Ragam, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “Power scalability and frequency agility of compact terahertz source based on frequency mixing from solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131106 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, X. Y. Zhang, R. J. Lan, and M. H. Jiang, “Dual-wavelength neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser with chromium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet as frequency selector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041126 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Spariosu, W. Chen, R. Stultz, M. Birnbaum, and A. V. Shestakov, “Dual Q switching and laser action at 1.06 and 1.44 microm in a Nd3+:YAG-Cr4+:YAG oscillator at 300 K,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 814–816 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. N. Posnov, V. P. Mikhailov, and V. A. Sandulenko, “Ultrafast dynamics of excited-state absorption in V3+:YAG crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(8), 4782–4784 (1996). [CrossRef]

11.

P. Li, Y. Li, Y. Sun, X. Hou, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Passively Q-switched 1.34 μm Nd:YxGd1-xVO4 laser with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7730–7736 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. F. Roux, A. Kevorkian, J. L. Coutaz, and G. Vitrant, “Simultaneous passively Q-switched dual-wavelength solid-state laser working at 1065 and 1066 nm,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2817–2819 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. P. H. Cheng, P. Tidemand-Lichtenberg, O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, P. M. Petersen, and C. Pedersen, “All passive synchronized Q-switching of a quasi-three-level and a four-level Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23987–23993 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, H. J. Zhang, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, S. D. Zhuang, and M. H. Jiang, “Large energy pulse generation modulated by graphene epitaxially grown on silicon carbide,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7582–7586 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Z. P. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Q. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

E. Ugolotti, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, J. Kim, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, A. Agnesi, C. Fiebig, G. Erbert, X. Mateos, M. Aguilo, F. Diaz, and U. Griebner, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Yb:KLuW laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(16), 161112 (2012). [CrossRef]

17.

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination Dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 869–876 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, D. H. Zhou, S. D. Zhuang, Z. P. Wang, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(11), 798–804 (2010). [CrossRef]

24.

S. D. Zhuang, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, L. Guo, L. J. Chen, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Contunuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LYSO laser,” Laser Phys. 21(4), 684–689 (2011). [CrossRef]

25.

L. J. Chen, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, S. D. Zhuang, L. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Efficient dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LYSO laser by diode pumping aimed toward the absorption peak,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(7), 071403–071405 (2011). [CrossRef]

26.

Z. H. Cong, D. Y. Tang, W. De Tan, J. Zhang, C. W. Xu, D. Luo, X. D. Xu, D. Z. Li, J. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, and Q. P. Wang, “Dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Nd:LuYSiO5 laser with SESAM,” Opt. Express 19(5), 3984–3989 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. J. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. X. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031113 (2012). [CrossRef]

28.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 285–297 (2010). [CrossRef]

29.

X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9950–9955 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. Zhou, J. F. Roux, and G. Vitrant, “Stable dual-wavelength micro laser controlled by the output mirror tilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241113 (2011). [CrossRef]

31.

H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, X. B. Hu, S. D. Zhuang, Z. P. Wang, X. G. Xu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Graphene as a Q-switcher for neodymium-doped lutetium vanadate Laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022704 (2011). [CrossRef]

32.

J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q- switching and mode locking of 1.34 μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2652–2654 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 11, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2013
Published: February 4, 2013

Citation
Yongguang Zhao, Xianlei Li, Miaomiao Xu, Haohai Yu, Yongzhong Wu, Zhengping Wang, Xiaopeng Hao, and Xinguang Xu, "Dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched solid-state laser with multi-layered graphene as saturable absorber," Opt. Express 21, 3516-3522 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-3-3516


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  18. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 042116 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051122 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.35(21), 3709–3711 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. T. Wang, Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. J.4(3), 869–876 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. D. Z. Li, X. D. Xu, D. H. Zhou, S. D. Zhuang, Z. P. Wang, C. T. Xia, F. Wu, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, spectral properties, and laser demonstration of laser crystal Nd:LYSO,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(11), 798–804 (2010). [CrossRef]
  24. S. D. Zhuang, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, L. Guo, L. J. Chen, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Contunuous-wave and passively Q-switched Nd:LYSO laser,” Laser Phys.21(4), 684–689 (2011). [CrossRef]
  25. L. J. Chen, X. D. Xu, Z. P. Wang, D. Z. Li, H. H. Yu, J. Xu, S. D. Zhuang, L. Guo, Y. G. Zhao, and X. G. Xu, “Efficient dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LYSO laser by diode pumping aimed toward the absorption peak,” Chin. Opt. Lett.9(7), 071403–071405 (2011). [CrossRef]
  26. Z. H. Cong, D. Y. Tang, W. De Tan, J. Zhang, C. W. Xu, D. Luo, X. D. Xu, D. Z. Li, J. Xu, X. Y. Zhang, and Q. P. Wang, “Dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Nd:LuYSiO5 laser with SESAM,” Opt. Express19(5), 3984–3989 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. G. Zhao, Z. P. Wang, H. H. Yu, S. D. Zhuang, H. J. Zhang, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, X. X. Xu, and J. Y. Wang, “Direct generation of optical vortex pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(3), 031113 (2012). [CrossRef]
  28. G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, P. Solarz, and M. Berkowski, “Dy-doped Lu2SiO5 single crystal: spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics,” Appl. Phys. B99(1–2), 285–297 (2010). [CrossRef]
  29. X. L. Li, J. L. Xu, Y. Z. Wu, J. L. He, and X. P. Hao, “Large energy laser pulses with high repetition rate by graphene Q-switched solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(10), 9950–9955 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Pallas, E. Herault, J. Zhou, J. F. Roux, and G. Vitrant, “Stable dual-wavelength micro laser controlled by the output mirror tilt angle,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 241113 (2011). [CrossRef]
  31. H. H. Yu, X. F. Chen, X. B. Hu, S. D. Zhuang, Z. P. Wang, X. G. Xu, J. Y. Wang, H. J. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Graphene as a Q-switcher for neodymium-doped lutetium vanadate Laser,” Appl. Phys. Express4(2), 022704 (2011). [CrossRef]
  32. J. L. Xu, X. L. Li, J. L. He, X. P. Hao, Y. Yang, Y. Z. Wu, S. D. Liu, and B. T. Zhang, “Efficient graphene Q- switching and mode locking of 1.34 μm neodymium lasers,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2652–2654 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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