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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 3959–3968
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Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass

Mindaugas Gecevičius, Martynas Beresna, Jingyu Zhang, Weijia Yang, Hiromichi Takebe, and Peter G. Kazansky  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 3959-3968 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.003959


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Abstract

The unusual dependence of femtosecond laser writing on the light polarization and direction of raster scanning is demonstrated in silica and chalcogenide glasses. Two different mechanisms contributing to the observed anisotropy are identified: the chevron-shaped stress induced by the sample movement and the pulse front tilt of ultrashort light pulse. Control of anisotropies associated with the spatio-temporal asymmetry of an ultrashort pulse beam and scanning geometry is crucial in the ultrafast laser machining of transparent materials.

© 2013 OSA

The ability to directly process the material with a submicron resolution turns femtosecond laser direct writing into an attractive technique for numerous applications including laser surgery [1

1. R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(10), 1836–1844 (1987). [CrossRef]

], three-dimensional nanostructuring [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and optical data storage [3

3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Depending on the experimental parameters (repetition rate, writing speed, numerical aperture, pulse energy and duration) different types of structural changes can be induced. In particular, three distinctive types of silica glass modifications have been observed with the increase of irradiation fluence: isotropic refractive index increase [4

4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], self-assembled nanostructures [2

2. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and microvoids [5

5. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Recently birefringent optical elements, in particular polarization diffraction gratings and radial polarization beam converters, have been produced by self-assembled nanostructuring [6

6. M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The nanostructures are responsible for the form birefringence [8

8. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and behave like a negative uniaxial crystal. Two parameters of the birefringent modification, retardance and the azimuth of the slow axis [7

7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011). [CrossRef]

], can be independently controlled during the writing process as the slow axis is defined by the polarization and the retardance as a function of the laser fluence. Retardance depends also on the laser wavelength, the pulse duration and the number of pulses transmitted through the modified region [8

8. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, it is affected by the orientation of the polarization plane with respect to the writing direction. As the direction of the slow axis is varied during the writing process, the angle between the laser polarization and the writing direction is changing accordingly, which couples the induced retardance with the polarization direction. The difference in modification for 0° and 90° angles of polarization with respect to the writing direction is known for metals [11

11. K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1604–1607 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, a similar effect was reported for laser processing of dielectrics [12

12. C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

]. However, it is important to keep the retardance value independent on the light polarization for the fabrication of variant polarization optical elements, including beam converters and 5D optical memory [13

13. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053120 (2012). [CrossRef]

,14

14. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such polarization dependence is explained by the boundary conditions. The absorption is stronger for light polarized perpendicular to the interface, as described by the Fresnel coefficients. Thus the polarization parallel to the writing direction, which is absorbed more efficiently at the front kerf, is commonly used in metal cutting. For the perpendicular polarization, the light is absorbed more efficiently at the sidewalls. As an alternative, circularly or radially polarized light is used, which is equally absorbed at the front and sidewalls of the kerf [15

15. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The polarization dependence also arises due to the spatio-temporal properties of the ultrashort pulse laser beam quantified by the pulse front tilt (PFT) [16

16. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007). [CrossRef]

,17

17. D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24673–24678 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The PFT produced by temporal and spatial chirps in femtosecond laser pulses [18

18. S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4399–4410 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] can lead to the quill writing [14

14. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the anisotropic photosensitivity phenomena [19

19. A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 789–798 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. When the laser pulse approaches the focal point, the beam diameter is shrinking and the pulse front tilt is proportionally increasing. Thus even negligible pulse front tilt is strongly enhanced in the vicinity of the focus.

The experiments were performed with two different laser systems. The first was PHAROS Yb:KGW (Yb-doped potassium gadolinium tungstate) laser system (Light Conversion Ltd.) operating at 1030 nm with the pulse duration stretched from 300 fs to 800 fs using an internal pulse stretcher-compressor. The laser repetition rate was set to 200 kHz. The linearly polarized laser beam was focused with an aspheric lens (NA = 0.16) 300 μm below the surface of a fused silica sample. The polarization of the laser beam was controlled with the zero order half-wave plate placed just before the focusing optics. Writing speed was in the range from 0.2 to 5 mm/s or effectively 160-4000 pulses per dot.

The separate tracks were imprinted in Ge25S75 glass with the second laser system, regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser delivering 150 fs light pulses at 800 nm wavelength and operating at 250 kHz repetition rate. The tracks were inscribed with 0.55 NA objective 200 μm below the surface at the scan speed of 200 μm/s. After the irradiation, the samples were inspected with a quantitative birefringence measurement system Abrio (CRi Inc.).

First, a set of structures was written in silica glass with four different polarization orientations with respect to the scanning direction (perpendicular, parallel and ± 45°). The tracks, comprising of 1 × 1 mm squares, were imprinted by translating the sample in the direction perpendicular to the laser light propagation. The tracks separated by 1 μm were partially overlapping (the estimated spot size was about 4 μm). The pulse energy was increased in steps from 0.8 to 1.5 μJ. All samples after irradiation exhibited strong birefringence produced by self-assembled nanostructures in the range of retardance values 50-250 nm. The retardance revealed strong polarization dependence for all pulse energies (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The dependence of retardance on pulse energy for four different polarizations of laser. Strongest difference is between 45° and −45° polarization. Writing speed of structures was 200 μm/s.
). The difference in modifications written with 0° (parallel) and 90° (perpendicular) polarization plane angles, with respect to the writing direction, could be explained by the effect of the polarization dependent Fresnel reflection at the boundaries of an induced structure [15

15. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The difference was also observed between + 45° and −45°, which is unexpected and counterintuitive from the point of anisotropic laser light interaction at the boundary. Moreover, the difference for + 45° and −45° (more than 20% of the retardance value) was stronger than for 0° and 90° (less than 10% difference at its peak). In contrast to the metal cutting, where the light polarized parallel to the writing direction is the most efficient, in our experiments we observed that the light polarized at + 45° with the writing direction produced the highest retardance.

In order to understand the influence of the + 45° polarization on the strength of the induced retardance, several squares were written with various combinations of the polarization orientation, track writing and raster scanning directions (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Microscopic retardance images of the structures written with various combinations of the polarization plane direction (blue), track writing direction (black) and raster scanning direction (dashed blue).
). One can clearly see that all three parameters affected the induced structures. Throughout this paper, only the strength of retardance is compared, as this parameter can be easily measured. However, the difference in obtained structures could be also observed under an optical microscope as the areas with the stronger birefringence exhibited slightly stronger scattering. Recently, Raman spectroscopy revealed higher density of 3-tetrahedra rings for the longitudinal polarization compared to the transversal polarization [16

16. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Very interesting case is illustrated by the structure number 8 (Fig. 2) where two parts were written with the same angle between the light polarization and the writing direction but with the different raster scanning direction. As a result, raster scanning in one direction, from the bottom to the top, resulted in higher retardance than for scanning from the top to the bottom.

The laser induced stress was investigated as possible reason for this phenomenon. To evaluate the effect of laser induced stress, we investigated several glasses where nanogratings are not produced and thus only stress birefringence is observed. For the stress birefringence, the relation between the retardance (R) and stress (σ) is defined as:
R=Cpeσd,
where Cpe is the photoelastic coefficient, d is the thickness of the birefringent region. The larger photoelastic coefficient is, the stronger retardance is induced by stress. For the experiments, we selected glasses with different photoelastic coefficients: chalcogenide glass (germanium sulphide), borate glass and phosphate glass (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microscope images of the femtosecond laser written tracks in chalcogenide, borate and phosphate glasses respectively. On the left images are taken without polarizers and the right with crossed polarizers. The highest birefringence is induced in glass with the highest photoelastic coefficient.
). The chalcogenide glass (germanium sulphide (Ge25S75)) has a photoelastic coefficient 50 times higher (22⋅10−12 Pa−1) than fused silica (0.4⋅10−12 Pa−1 [20

20. W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959). [CrossRef]

]).

The measured value of retardance in the chalcogenide glass was 200 nm for 0.6 μJ pulse energy. This is very close to the typical retardance values of form birefringence observed in fused silica. The subsequent thermal annealing at 310°C (glass transition temperature is 305°C) completely removed this birefringence confirming that it is induced solely by stress. Compared to chalcogenide glass, the laser exposed regions showed a much weaker birefringence in borate glass, with the Cpe reduced to the value of 4.35⋅10−12 Pa−1 (Fig. 3). In phosphate glass, with a Cpe value of 0.42⋅10−12 Pa−1, which is about 50 times smaller than in chalcogenide glass, no birefringence was detected. We also tried measuring the stress induced birefringence in silica glass. However, the direct measurement was not possible due to strong form birefringence in this glass. Recently the stress induced by ultrashort light pulses was characterized by an indirect measurement method, where the stress has been measured via deflection of glass machined cantilevers [19

19. A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 789–798 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The maximum induced stress was about 300 MPa, thus using a photoelastic coefficient for fused silica we estimate the stress-induced retardance of about 35 nm.

This assumption was confirmed by images taken during the writing procedure, which reveal the influence of the induced stress on the interaction of laser irradiation with the material (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The influence of stress on the front of the laser modification. The modification front is perpendicular to the writing direction when distance between tracks is higher (a). When tracks are close to each other the modification front is tilted (b). Images were taken during laser modification.
). When the distance between laser written tracks is sufficiently large, they can be treated as being separate (Fig. 6(a)). As a result, the front of the track is perpendicular to the writing direction. In this case, the light polarized at 0° to the writing direction (perpendicular to the front) would produce stronger modification than the light polarized at 90° [12

12. C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

]. While the light polarized at 45° should have identical conditions as the light polarized at −45° and thus produce identical modification. If the distance between tracks is small and the track written by the laser overlaps with a region under strain, the situation is completely different. The front of the written track becomes tilted (Fig. 6(b)). As a result, the strongest modification is induced by polarization, which is at 45° to the writing direction and perpendicular to the front of the modification. The strength of the modification depends on the mutual angle between the polarization and the front of the modification. This observation clearly explains the observed retardance dependence on polarization (Fig. 1).

The importance of the observed unusual polarization dependence can be clearly seen in the writing of the polarization converter (Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fabrication of the polarization converter (Media 1).
(Media 1)) [7

7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. In this experiment, the laser beam is drawing spiral trajectories with polarization azimuth rotating in a certain manner. As the polarization plane orientation was changing with respect to the writing direction, the white light emission intensity was oscillating with the maximum (corresponding to + 45°) 5 times larger than minimum. Surprisingly, despite the relatively small retardance value difference (less than 10%), the strong corresponding variation in white light emission was observed.

Another type of anisotropy was observed in the structures, which did not exhibit the dependence of retardance on polarization at a small track separation (the third in Fig. 2). Unexpectedly, at a larger track separation, the structures displayed the polarization dependence (Fig. 8, right). This indicates that the polarization-stress interaction is not the only mechanism responsible for the retardance dependence on the polarization. Indeed, the strength of modification can also depend on the angle between the pulse front tilt (PFT) and polarization [22

22. P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pulse front tilt can be introduced either by the angular dispersion or by the combination of spatial and temporal chirps [18

18. S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4399–4410 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
p=pad+psc+τc=k0β+φ(2)ν,
where k0 is a wavenumber, β – the angular dispersion, φ(2) is the group-delay dispersion and is the spatial frequency gradient.

The pulse front tilt can be characterized by the shift of the delay axis of the FROG trace measured with a GRENOUILLE. The PFT was measured for our laser system in the horizontal (parallel to the writing direction) and vertical (perpendicular) directions for several pulse durations. At the shortest pulse duration of 250 fs, the PFT was 0.59 fs/mm and 0.18 fs/mm for horizontal and vertical axes respectively. At 800 fs, corresponding values were 0.67 fs/mm and 0.5 fs/mm. The PFT introduced by the angular dispersion does not depend on the temporal chirp. This behavior was observed for the horizontal axis, where a spatial frequency gradient was reduced by a precise pulse compressor alignment. The PFT strongly depended on the temporal chirp indicating the presence of spatial chirp for the vertical axis. The azimuth of the PFT was controlled by adding the temporal chirp and was estimated at an angle of 37° to the writing direction for the pulse duration of 800 fs.

Stress induced retardance as high as 200 nm was observed in germanium sulphide glass because of a large photoelastic coefficient. The strength of the stress induced birefringence is very close to the values produced by self-assembled nanogratings in silica glass. The ability to control stress-induced birefringence in glasses with high photoelastic coefficients can be explored for the fabrication of birefringent optical elements such as polarization converters.

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the project FEMTOPRINT, financed by the European Commission Factories of the Future program (FP7/ NMP/Project No 260103),http://www.femtoprint.eu/.

References and links

1.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(10), 1836–1844 (1987). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(1), 1–6 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1604–1607 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

13.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 053120 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151120 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24673–24678 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4399–4410 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 789–798 (2012). [CrossRef]

20.

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(5), 779–788 (1959). [CrossRef]

21.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20657–20664 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10117–10124 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(260.1440) Physical optics : Birefringence
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Laser Micromachining

History
Original Manuscript: September 7, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: November 4, 2012
Published: February 11, 2013

Citation
Mindaugas Gecevičius, Martynas Beresna, Jingyu Zhang, Weijia Yang, Hiromichi Takebe, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Extraordinary anisotropy of ultrafast laser writing in glass," Opt. Express 21, 3959-3968 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-3959


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References

  1. R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.21(24), 2023–2025 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997). [CrossRef]
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  7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011). [CrossRef]
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