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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4167–4173
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Broadband downshifting luminescence in Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped garnet for efficient photovoltaic generation

Song Ye, Jiajia Zhou, Shiting Wang, Rongxuan Hu, Deping Wang, and Jianrong Qiu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4167-4173 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004167


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Abstract

The Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG crystals were synthesized by the solid state reaction method, in which the intense near-infrared emission around 1000 nm originated from Yb3+ 2F5/22F7/2 transition was obtained due to the efficient energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+. The stable and transient spectral measurements revealed that the phonon assistant energy transfer process is responsible for the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+ upon both the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels. Due to the effective absorption of Cr3+ in the visible region in YAG and the efficient energy transfer to Yb3+, this material can be developed as spectral convertors to improve silicon solar cell photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, the rare earth (RE) ions doped luminescent materials that can convert the near-UV and visible absorption into near-infrared emission around 1000 nm have attracted intensive interests due to their promising application as spectral convertors to improve the photovoltaic conversion of Si solar cells. Among these researches, the Yb3+ was selected as the luminescent center as the Yb3+: 2F5/22F7/2 transition gives off a desirable emission around 1000 nm, which is according to the maximum spectral response of the Si solar cells. Various trivalent RE ions, such as Pr3+, Ho3+, Er3+, Tb3+ and Tm3+, were firstly selected as the energy sensitizers for Yb3+ ions to realize the spectral conversion. However, only a small portion of the sunlight can be converted in these systems due to the nature of f-f transition [1

1. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near–infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaic,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(30), 1–5 (2009). [CrossRef]

7

7. D. Q. Chen, Y. L. Yu, Y. S. Wang, P. Huang, and F. Y. Wen, “Cooperative energy transfer up-conversion and quantum cutting down-conversion in Yb3+: TbF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6406–6410 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In order to take better use the incident sunlight, the RE ions with f-d transition, such as such as Ce3+, Eu2+ and Yb2+ [8

8. J. J. Zhou, Y. X. Zhuang, S. Ye, Y. Teng, G. Lin, B. Zhu, J. H. Xie, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband downconversion based infrared quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer from Eu2+ to Yb3+ in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141101 (2009). [CrossRef]

11

11. J. Ueda and S. Tanabe, “Visible to near infrared conversion in Ce3+-Yb3+ co-Doped YAG ceramic,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 043101 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the mental ions, such as Bi3+ [12

12. R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YnbO4:Bi3+, Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012). [CrossRef]

], the direct band gap semiconductor of ZnO [13

13. S. Ye, N. Jiang, J. J. Zhou, D. P. Wang, and J. R. Qiu, “Optical property and energy transfer in the ZnO-LiYbO2 hybrid phosphors under the indirect near-UV excitation,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(1), H11–H15 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. S. Ye, N. Jiang, F. He, X. F. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Teng, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense near-infrared emission from ZnO-LiYbO2 hybrid phosphors through efficient energy transfer from ZnO to Yb3+,” Opt. Express 18(2), 639–644 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and the host defects [15

15. S. Ye, B. Zhu, J. Luo, Y. Teng, J. X. Chen, G. Lakshminarayana, G. D. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Energy transfer between silicon-oxygen-related defects and Yb3+ in transparent glass ceramics containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181110 (2008). [CrossRef]

] were chosen as the energy donors for Yb3+ to realize the broadband spectral conversion. For practical application, the spectral convertors need to be effectively activated by natural sunlight and also should be stable enough to survive the outside atmosphere. In this case, the selection of proper energy absorbers with high pump efficiency and broadband absorption, and the choosing of environmental friendly hosts with excellent chemical, mechanical and thermal stabilities are of great importance.

The Cr3+ has broad absorption bands in the visible region due to the spin allowed 4A24T2 and 4A24T1 transitions, thus has been widely used as a luminescent sensitizer for RE ions, such as Nd3+ and Tm3+, to obtain high excitation efficiency. On the other side, the yttrium aluminum garnet Y3Al5O12 (YAG) is one of the most desirable hosts for RE ions as the trivalent RE ions can replace the yttrium without any charge compensation. One good example that combined the merits of Cr3+ broadband absorption and YAG excellent chemical and mechanical stability is the Nd/Cr: YAG laser. Due to the high efficient absorption of Cr3+ ions in the YAG host, this material has been suggested to be used in the solar-pumped lasers, in which the solar radiation was used as the pumping source [16

16. T. Saiki, K. Imasaki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Disk-type Nd/Cr: YAG ceramic lasers pumped by arc-metal-halide-lamp,” Opt. Commun. 268(1), 155–159 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

In our research, the YAG was chosen as the doping host for Cr3+ and Yb3+, in which the Cr3+ acts as the energy absorber to harvest the incident sunlight and meanwhile the energy sensitizer for Yb3+. By taking advantage of the spin allowed 4A24T2 and 4A24T1 absorption of Cr3+ and the efficient energy transfer to Yb3+, the broadband spectral conversion can be realized to benefit the enhancement of silicon solar photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

2. Experimental

The Cr3+ and Yb3+ codoped garnet of Y(3-x)Al1.995Al3O12: 0.005Cr3+, xYb3+ (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10, respectively) were prepared by using the solid state reaction method with 99.99% purity Y2O3, Al2O3, Cr2O3 and Yb2O3 as starting materials. 0.5wt% tetraethyl orthosilicate was used as flux for each sample to facilitate the reaction. The homogenously mixed raw materials were put into crucibles and sintered at 1600 °C for 5 hours. The obtained productions were smashed and grounded again and then sintered for another 5 hours at 1600 °C to obtain the single YAG phase. The X-ray diffraction profiles of the doped YAG were obtained on a Rigaku D/MAX-RA diffractometer with Cu Kα as an incident radiation. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, the photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the luminescence decay in both visible and infrared regions were recorded by using a FLS920 fluorescence spectrophotometer.

3. Results and discussion

YAG is a well-know host lattice for many RE ions with the general formula of A3B2C3O12, in which A is a dodecahedrally, B an octahedrally and C a tetrahedrally coordinated sit, respectively. Figure 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of the 0.5 mol% Cr3+-x mol% Yb3+ codoped YAG, x = 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 for (a)-(e), respectively. The left inset is the enlarged XRD patterns, and the right inset is the Yb3+ concentration dependent host lattice parameter.
shows the XRD patterns for the Cr3+ single-doped and various Cr3+ and Yb3+ codoped YAG, from which we can observe that all the diffraction peaks can be well indexed as the single YAG phase, however, with the increase of Yb3+ concentration, the diffraction peaks show a slight high angle shift, as shown in the left inset. The lattice constant of the cubic YAG was calculated according to the following equation:
a=λh2+k2+l2/2sinθ
(1)
in which λ is the wavelength of Cu Kα radiation, (h, k, l) is the Miller indices and θ is the angle of diffraction peak. As shown in the right inset, the lattice constant decreased with the increase of Yb3+ concentration, which indicates the incorporation of Yb3+ ions into YAG lattice. In the Cr3+and Yb3+ codoped YAG, the Cr3+ ions always exclusively substitute for Al3+ on the octahedral sites and Yb3+ ions replace Y3+ on the dodecahedral sites.

The up conversion luminescence in the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped systems at low temperatures was reported before, in which the cooperative sensitization mechanism was proposed to account for the sharp Cr3+: 2E→4A2 emission according to the transient measurement, e.g. two excited Yb3+ simultaneously transfer their excitation energy to one Cr3+ ion by putting it into the 2T2 excitated state, and then nonradiatively relaxed to the 2E energy level before return to the 4A2 ground state radiatively [17

17. S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Sharp 2E upconversion luminescence of Cr3+ in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125112 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Kramer, D. Ehrentraut, and H. U. Gudel, “Up-conversion excitation of sharp Cr3+ 2E emission in YGG and YAG godoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 337–341 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Here we observed the downshifting luminescence due to the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+ in the YAG host at room temperature. The PLE and PL spectra for the Cr3+ single-doped and Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG were measured to studied the luminescent properties. As shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 The PLE (a) and PL (b) spectra of Cr3+ in the 0.5 mol% Cr3+ single-doped YAG, and the PLE (c) and PL (d) spectra of Cr3+ and Yb3+ in the 0.5mol% Cr3+-2mol% Yb3+ codoped YAG. The dashed line in (b) is devolved from the measured PL spectra of Cr3+ under the excitations of 451 and 590 nm, respectively, which is due to the spin allowed 4T24A2 transition .
, the PLE spectra of Cr3+ composes of two broad bands centered around 451 and 590 nm, which correspond to the spin-allowed 4A24T1 and 4A24T2 transitions, respectively. The small pumps at 449 and 462 and 467 nm can be assigned to the Cr3+: 4A22T2 absorption in a slightly distorted octahedral site [19

19. K. Fujioka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, Y. Fujimoto, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Luminescence properties of highly Cr co-doped Nd:YAG powder produced by sol-gel method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 455–459 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 20

20. H. Szymczak, M. Wardzynska, and I. E. Mylnikova, “Optical spectrum of Cr3+ in the spinel LiGa5O8,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 8(22), 3937–3943 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. Under the excitation of 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels at 451 and 590 nm, the PL spectra of Cr3+ were recorder, as shown in Fig. 2(b), the sharp line emission at 688 nm assigned to Cr3+ 2E→4A2 transition, the vibrational sidebands at 676, 708 and 725 nm, and a broadband emission located around 705 nm due to the spin allowed 4T24A2 emission can be observed, in which the broadband emission was devolved from the measured PL spectra and presented as dashed lines in Fig. 2(b) for clear observance [21

21. L. M. Shao and X. P. Jing, “Energy transfer and luminescent properties of Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 131(6), 1216–1221 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 22

22. J. P. Hehir, M. O. Henry, J. P. Larkin, and G. F. Imbusch, “Nature of the luminescence from YAG:Cr3+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 7(12), 2241–2248 (1974). [CrossRef]

]. For the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG, the near-infrared emission originated from Yb3+: 2F5/22F7/2 transition can also be clearly observed under the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels, as shown in Fig. 2(d), which indicates the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+. In addition, the PL spectra of Yb3+ emission at 1032 nm is in good accordance with that of Cr3+ emission at 688 nm, as the charge transfer absorption of Yb3+ ions in YAG is in a shorter wavelength region around 210 nm [23

23. L. van Pieterson, M. Heeroma, E. de Heer, and A. Meijerink, “Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 91(3-4), 177–193 (2000). [CrossRef]

], this result also indicates the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+.

The schematic energy level diagram for Cr3+ on an octahedral site and Yb3+ on a dodecahedral site are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic energy level diagram that describes the absorption and energy transfer process.
. In YAG (Dq/B = 2.52) [24

24. D. L. Wood, J. Ferguson, K. Knox, and J. F. Dillon, “Crystal-field spectra of d3,7 ions. III. spectrum of Cr3+ in various octahedral crystal fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 39(4), 890–898 (1963). [CrossRef]

] the lowest excited state of Cr3+ is the 2E level, and in host with weak crystal field strength the 4T2 level is also populated at room temperature, so that the radiative decay occurs mainly via the sharp 2E→4A2 and the broad 4T24A2 transitions [25

25. M. N. Sanz-Ortiz, F. Rodriguez, I. Hernandez, R. Valiente, and S. Kuck, “Origin of the 2E←→4T2 Fano resonance in Cr3+-doped LiCaAlF6: Pressure-induced excited-state crossover,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045114 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. R. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Valiente, F. Rodríguez, and M. Bettinelli, “Temperature and pressure dependence of the optical properties of Cr3+-doped Gd3Ga5O12 nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 22(26), 265707 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It can be refer from Fig. 3 that the energy gap between Cr3+: 2E and Yb3+: 2F5/2 energy levels is about 3400 cm−1, as the maximum phonon energy in YAG is around 800 cm−1, the energy gap between Cr3+: 2E and Yb3+: 2F5/2 energy levels can be bridged by the emission of 4 or 5 phonons. Because the non-radiative relaxation between 4T2 and 2E energy levels is expected to be very rapid, a phonon assisted energy transfer from Cr3+: 2E energy level to Yb3+: 2F5/2 energy level is therefore reasonably responsible for the infrared emission under the excitation of Cr3+: 4T2 energy level. While on the excitation of Cr3+: 4T1 energy level, the cooperative down conversion process maybe another pathway for the energy transfer as the energy gap between Cr3+: 4A2 ground state to 4T1 excited state is around twice the energy gap between Yb3+: 2F7/2 ground state and 2F5/2 excitated state.

In order to investigate the mechanism that is responsible for the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+ on the excitation of Cr3+: 4T1 energy level, the luminescence decay of Yb3+ and Cr3+ were both recorded under the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels, respectively. From Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) shows Yb3+ luminescence rise and decay curves under the excitations of 451 and 590 nm, respectively, in the 0.5mol% Cr3+-5mol% Yb3+ codoped YAG. (b) and (c) are Cr3+ luminescence decay curves under the excitation of 451 and 590 nm, respectively.
we can clearly observe a rise component in Yb3+ luminescent decay curve under both excitations, which indicates the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+. The rise lifetimes of Yb3+ can be obtained by fitting the following double exponential function:
I=I0{exp(t/τ)decayexp(t/τrise)}
(2)
where I, I0, τdecay and τrise represent for the luminescence intensity at time t, the initial luminescence intensity, the decay and rise lifetimes, respectively. The rise lifetimes of Yb3+ are 0.23 and 0.22 ms under the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels, respectively. The very similar rise lifetimes indicates the same population speed of Yb3+: 2F5/2 excitated state under both excitations. Meanwhile, in the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG, the Cr3+ luminescence decays at 688 nm show the same speed under the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels, as shown in Fig. 4(b) and 4(c). These results indicate that the phonon assistant energy transfer is also responsible for the energy transfer from Cr3+: 4T1 energy level to Yb3+, e.g. when excited with 451 nm, the Cr3+ was put into the 4T1 excitated state and then fast relaxed to the 2E energy level before transfer energy to one Yb3+ ion, as indicated in Fig. 3. Or otherwise in the cooperative energy transfer case, the rise lifetime of Yb3+ should be smaller due to more efficient population process and the luminescent decay speed of Cr3+ should be faster due to more rapid energy transfer to Yb3+ upon the excitation of Cr3+: 4T1 energy level [14

14. S. Ye, N. Jiang, F. He, X. F. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Teng, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense near-infrared emission from ZnO-LiYbO2 hybrid phosphors through efficient energy transfer from ZnO to Yb3+,” Opt. Express 18(2), 639–644 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The energy transfer efficiency ηET is defined as the ratio of donors that are depopulated by energy transfer to the acceptors over the total number of donors being excited, which can be obtained by dividing the integrated intensity of the decay curves of the Cr3+-Yb3+codoped YAG to the Cr3+ single-doped YAG [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

].
ηET=1Ix%YbdtI0%Ybdt
(3)
where I denotes intensity and x% Yb stands for the Yb3+ concentration. Based on the recorded Cr3+ luminescence decay in Fig. 4(b) and 4(c) and Eq. (3), the Yb3+ concentration dependent energy transfer efficiency was calculated. As shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Yb3+ concentration dependent energy transfer efficiency.
, the energy transfer efficiency increases with the increase of Yb3+ content and reaches a max value of 60% and 58% under 451 and 590 nm excitations, respectively, with 10 mol%Yb3+ doping, indicating the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG is an efficient combination for downshifting luminescence to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. However, for application, the loss resulted from the reflection, the scattering, and the reabsorption of the spectral convectors should also be taken into consideration.

4. Conclusion

In summary, the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG was prepared in which the infrared emission associated with the Yb3+: 2F5/22F7/2 transition can be obtained under the excitations of Cr3+: 4T1 and 4T2 energy levels, which is due to the efficient energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+. The energy transfer mechanism was studied by using the transient spectral measurement, which shows the phonon assistant energy transfer process is responsible for the energy transfer from Cr3+ to Yb3+ under both excitations. As the Cr3+ has not only broadband absorption in the visible region but also high pump efficiency, the Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped YAG is expected to be developed as downshifting layer for silicon solar cells to enhance the photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 50802083), the Basic Research Project of Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (No. 12JC1408500), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2011KJ018), the Open Funds from the State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology) and the Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials (Tongji University), Ministry of Education. The financial support from Bayer-Tongji Eco-Construction and Materials Academy is also acknowledged.

References and links

1.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near–infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaic,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(30), 1–5 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Cooperative donwnconversion in GdAL3(BO3)3:RE3+, Yb3+ (RE=Pr, Tb, and Tm),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051903 1–3 (2007).

4.

W. J. Zhang, D. C. Yu, J. P. Zhang, Q. Qian, S. H. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Near-infrared quantum splitting in Ho3+: LaF3 nanocrystals embedded germinate glass ceramic,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(5), 636–643 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Ye, B. Zhu, J. X. Chen, J. Luo, and J. R. Qiu, “Infrared quantum cutting in Tb3+, Yb3+ codoped transparent glass ceramics containing CaF2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141112 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Ye, B. Zhu, J. Luo, J. X. Chen, G. Lakshminarayana, and J. R. Qiu, “Enhanced cooperative quantum cutting in Tm3+- Yb3+ codoped glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8989–8994 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. Q. Chen, Y. L. Yu, Y. S. Wang, P. Huang, and F. Y. Wen, “Cooperative energy transfer up-conversion and quantum cutting down-conversion in Yb3+: TbF3 nanocrystals embedded glass ceramics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6406–6410 (2009). [CrossRef]

8.

J. J. Zhou, Y. X. Zhuang, S. Ye, Y. Teng, G. Lin, B. Zhu, J. H. Xie, and J. R. Qiu, “Broadband downconversion based infrared quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer from Eu2+ to Yb3+ in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141101 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Teng, J. J. Zhou, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, and J. R. Qiu, “Efficient broadband near-infrared quantum cutting for solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9671–9676 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu. P. Huang, and F. Y. Wang, “Quantum cutting downconversion by cooperative energy transfer from Ce3+ toYb3+ in borate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 116105 1–3 (2008).

11.

J. Ueda and S. Tanabe, “Visible to near infrared conversion in Ce3+-Yb3+ co-Doped YAG ceramic,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(4), 043101 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YnbO4:Bi3+, Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Ye, N. Jiang, J. J. Zhou, D. P. Wang, and J. R. Qiu, “Optical property and energy transfer in the ZnO-LiYbO2 hybrid phosphors under the indirect near-UV excitation,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(1), H11–H15 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Ye, N. Jiang, F. He, X. F. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Teng, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense near-infrared emission from ZnO-LiYbO2 hybrid phosphors through efficient energy transfer from ZnO to Yb3+,” Opt. Express 18(2), 639–644 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Ye, B. Zhu, J. Luo, Y. Teng, J. X. Chen, G. Lakshminarayana, G. D. Qian, and J. R. Qiu, “Energy transfer between silicon-oxygen-related defects and Yb3+ in transparent glass ceramics containing Ba2TiSi2O8 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181110 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Saiki, K. Imasaki, S. Motokoshi, C. Yamanaka, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, and Y. Izawa, “Disk-type Nd/Cr: YAG ceramic lasers pumped by arc-metal-halide-lamp,” Opt. Commun. 268(1), 155–159 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Sharp 2E upconversion luminescence of Cr3+ in Y3Ga5O12 codoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125112 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Heer, M. Wermuth, K. Kramer, D. Ehrentraut, and H. U. Gudel, “Up-conversion excitation of sharp Cr3+ 2E emission in YGG and YAG godoped with Cr3+ and Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 94–95, 337–341 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

K. Fujioka, T. Saiki, S. Motokoshi, Y. Fujimoto, H. Fujita, and M. Nakatsuka, “Luminescence properties of highly Cr co-doped Nd:YAG powder produced by sol-gel method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 455–459 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Szymczak, M. Wardzynska, and I. E. Mylnikova, “Optical spectrum of Cr3+ in the spinel LiGa5O8,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 8(22), 3937–3943 (1975). [CrossRef]

21.

L. M. Shao and X. P. Jing, “Energy transfer and luminescent properties of Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al5O12,” J. Lumin. 131(6), 1216–1221 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

J. P. Hehir, M. O. Henry, J. P. Larkin, and G. F. Imbusch, “Nature of the luminescence from YAG:Cr3+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 7(12), 2241–2248 (1974). [CrossRef]

23.

L. van Pieterson, M. Heeroma, E. de Heer, and A. Meijerink, “Charge transfer luminescence of Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 91(3-4), 177–193 (2000). [CrossRef]

24.

D. L. Wood, J. Ferguson, K. Knox, and J. F. Dillon, “Crystal-field spectra of d3,7 ions. III. spectrum of Cr3+ in various octahedral crystal fields,” J. Chem. Phys. 39(4), 890–898 (1963). [CrossRef]

25.

M. N. Sanz-Ortiz, F. Rodriguez, I. Hernandez, R. Valiente, and S. Kuck, “Origin of the 2E←→4T2 Fano resonance in Cr3+-doped LiCaAlF6: Pressure-induced excited-state crossover,” Phys. Rev. B 81(4), 045114 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

R. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Valiente, F. Rodríguez, and M. Bettinelli, “Temperature and pressure dependence of the optical properties of Cr3+-doped Gd3Ga5O12 nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 22(26), 265707 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared

ToC Category:
Solar Energy

History
Original Manuscript: December 4, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 18, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 19, 2013
Published: February 11, 2013

Virtual Issues
European Conference on Optical Communication 2012 (2012) Optics Express

Citation
Song Ye, Jiajia Zhou, Shiting Wang, Rongxuan Hu, Deping Wang, and Jianrong Qiu, "Broadband downshifting luminescence in Cr3+-Yb3+ codoped garnet for efficient photovoltaic generation," Opt. Express 21, 4167-4173 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4167


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References

  1. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near–infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaic,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)21(30), 1–5 (2009). [CrossRef]
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