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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4328–4347
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Schottky-contact plasmonic dipole rectenna concept for biosensing

Mohammad Alavirad, Saba Siadat Mousavi, Langis Roy, and Pierre Berini  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4328-4347 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004328


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Abstract

Nanoantennas are key optical components for several applications including photodetection and biosensing. Here we present an array of metal nano-dipoles supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) integrated into a silicon-based Schottky-contact photodetector. Incident photons coupled to the array excite SPPs on the Au nanowires of the antennas which decay by creating ”hot” carriers in the metal. The hot carriers may then be injected over the potential barrier at the Au-Si interface resulting in a photocurrent. High responsivities of 100 mA/W and practical minimum detectable powers of −12 dBm should be achievable in the infra-red (1310 nm). The device was then investigated for use as a biosensor by computing its bulk and surface sensitivities. Sensitivities of ∼ 250 nm/RIU (bulk) and ∼ 8 nm/nm (surface) in water are predicted. We identify the mode propagating and resonating along the nanowires of the antennas, we apply a transmission line model to describe the performance of the antennas, and we extract two useful formulas to predict their bulk and surface sensitivities. We prove that the sensitivities of dipoles are much greater than those of similar monopoles and we show that this difference comes from the gap in dipole antennas where electric fields are strongly enhanced.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are of great interest in a wide range of fields from physics, chemistry, materials processing, to biology. SPPs are electromagnetic surface waves coupled to free electron oscillations propagating along a metal-dielectric interface at optical wavelengths [1

1. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007), 1st ed.

]. SPPs have many interesting properties such as highly-enhanced fields [2

2. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], strong confinement (to sub-wavelength scale) [3

3. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and high bulk and surface sensitivities [5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

7

7. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These characteristics are of interest to several applications such as waveguides [5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 8

8. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat Photon 1, 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

], sensors [10

10. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Kll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of nir localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Letters 7, 1256–1263 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nonlinear optics [11

11. G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, and D. G. Hall, “Nonlinear optics of long range surface plasmons,” Applied Physics Letters 41, 906–908 (1982). [CrossRef]

].

Advances in nanofabrication have made periodic metallic nanostructures and nanoantennas attractive for practical uses [2

2. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat Photon 1, 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Letters 6, 683–688 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. SPP biosensors have become key tools for the investigation of biomolecular interactions and for detection applications. Piliarik emphet al. measured the localized surface plasmon resonance shift of an arrays of chains of metallic nanorods in response to bulk refractive index changes as 140 nm/RIU [13

13. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19, 9213–9220 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Knight et al. reported an active optical monopole array which can be considered as a highly compact, wavelength-specific, and polarization-specific light detector appropriate for the sensing applications [14

14. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Rodriguez et al. reported a chemosensor fabricated from gold nano-crosses exhibiting a strongly localized SPP in the infrared and obtained a high bulk sensitivity of 740 nm/RIU [6

6. F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, M. Martinez-Marco, B. Tomas-Navarro, R. Ortuno, J. Marti, A. Martinez, and P. J. Rodriguez-Canto, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Tsai emphet al. described an optical sensor consisting of square-lattice slab-like gold nano-rings, reporting a bulk sensitivity of 691 nm/RIU [7

7. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Star-shaped nanoparticles suitable for microscopic imaging exhibited a wavelength peak shift of 665 nm/RIU [12

12. C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Letters 6, 683–688 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Rice-shaped nanoparticles are reported to have even larger sensitivity but with a broader spectral response [15

15. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Letters 6, 827–832 (2006). PMID: [PubMed] . [CrossRef]

]. The bulk sensitivity of a rod-like metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance is reported in [16

16. M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 109, 21556–21565 (2005). [CrossRef]

]; the natural resonance frequency of this structure strongly depends on its aspect ratio and thickness: narrow rods with a high aspect ratio have lower resonant frequencies. Bulk sensitivities reported for cylindrical rods of aspect ratio ranging from 0.5 to 3 are from 150 to 450 nm/RIU. Mazzotta et al. measured photocurrent ratio sensitivity of a nanoplasmonic biosensor chip with integrated electrical detection (an array of gold nanodisks) using hole-mask colloidal lithography and they achieved a value around 133 nm/RIU as of it biosensing property [17

17. F. Mazzotta, G. Wang, C. Hgglund, F. Hk, and M. P. Jonsson, “Nanoplasmonic biosensing with on-chip electrical detection,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1131 – 1136 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Guyot et al. developed miniaturized silicon based nanoplasmonic biosensing platform as a symmetric nanohole array structure and got the sensitivity of 4×10−5 RIU which is greatly improved and promising for the application in portable nanoplasmonic multisensing and imaging [18

18. L. Guyot, A.-P. Blanchard-Dionne, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Integrated silicon-based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 9962–9967 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The bulk sensitivity was also calculated by a quasistatic theory which serves as an upper bound to sensitivities of nanoparticles on dielectric substrates such as those associated with biomolecule sensing. Achieving a sharp resonant peak (which is easier to track) is a difficult challenge with most plasmonic nanos-tructures. A multipixel array of Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterial is presented in [19

19. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat Mater 11, 69–75 (2012). [CrossRef]

], which is capable of confining light to nanoscale regions with a very sharp resonant peak. The narrower linewidth of this structure can also increase the electric field enhancement in regions of the metamaterial, which improves the sensitivity.

First the rectenna geometry and the methods applied in its analysis are discussed. Secondly, a particular geometry is considered and computed results are presented. Thirdly, we discuss the operation of the rectenna as a Schottky contact detector and we estimate its responsivity and detection limit. Finally, we assess the potential of the structure for bulk and surface (bio)chemical sensing.

2. Geometry

Figure 1(a) shows our rectenna concept, consisting of an array of Au nano-dipole antennas on Si, electrically interconnected via Au lines running perpendicularly to the dipole axes through the middle of each arm to a common circular contact pad; as the array is illuminated via x-polarized light, such interconnects do not affect the optical behavior of the array. The array is symmetric about the x and y axes. It is illuminated by a Gaussian beam focused onto the array through the substrate near λ0 = 1310 nm (Si is transparent at this wavelength) and its response monitored via the photocurrent generated by (IPE) using the Au contact pad (on top) and the Al Ohmic contacts (below). In a biosensing application, this arrangement is advantageous as it simplifies interrogation, because only the photocurrent need be monitored, and it separates the optics (bottom) from the micro-fluidics (top). A single dipole is depicted in Fig. 1(b) showing our definition of its dimensions and the coordinate system used for the analysis; a = 0 throughout except for the surface sensitivity computations.

Fig. 1 (a) Array of Au dipoles on p-Si on p+-Si covered by H2O. Al Ohmic contacts are located at the bottom of the structure and an Au circular contact pad is connected to all dipole arms via optically non-invasive perpendicular Au interconnects. A plane wave source illuminates the array in the +z-direction from below. (b) Geometry of a unit cell of the array under study (interconnects are shown as well); the dipole is assumed covered by an adlayer of thickness a when the surface sensitivities are computed.

The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method [28

28. FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Solutions Inc.).

] with a 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 nm3 discreti-sation in the region around the antenna was used for the modeling along with Paliks material data [29

29. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

] for Au and Si, and Segelsteins data [30

30. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master’s thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, USA (1981).

] for H2O which takes the water absorption into consideration. Transmittance and reflectance monitors were placed 2.5μm above and below the Si/H2O interface, respectively, parallel to the xy plane. We consider the case of an array that is small compared to the waist of the Gaussian beam, so the beam can be considered as a plane wave in the simulations. Thus, an x-polarised plane wave source located 2.8μm below the interface illuminates the array along the +z direction. We assumed doping levels for p+-Si and p-Si of 10+18 cm−3 and 10+15 cm−3; the attenuation of a plane wave at λ0 = 1310 nm propagating through a 500μm thick p+-Si substrate of this doping level, calculated using the Drude model [31

31. R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 23, 123 – 129 (1987). [CrossRef]

], is 0.2037 dB, which is negligible in this work.

3. Optical response

From Fig. 1(b), we define the nanoantenna length (l), width (w), thickness (t), and the gap length (g), as well as the vertical and horizontal distance (p, q) between any two adjacent nanoantennas. Also the interconnect width is labeled as w′. Good dipole (infinitely periodic, ”good dipole” means a dipole that resonates near a desired wavelength and that performs well in terms of enhancement and absorptance) dimensions were determined via modeling to be: w = 30nm, t = 30nm, l = 210nm, g = 20nm and p = q = 300nm. Interconnect dimensions were taken as w′ = 20nm and t = 30nm. All dimensions except for g remain constant throughout the paper. Figure 2(a)–2(c) show the electric field distribution of the dipole array at resonance over xy cross-sections slightly inside the Au close to the Si/Au interface, through the middle of the Au dipoles, and slightly above the Au surface in H2O. As noted, the field intensity is very high in the dipoles near the Au/Si interface (Fig. 2(a)) and in the gap (Fig. 2(b)), compared to along the dipole arms and the ends. Localized fields in the gap make small-gap antennas highly sensitive to changes in this region (as discussed below), and strong fields in the Au near the Au/Si interface are desirable to enhance IPE; both attributes are useful for the envisaged biosensors. It is evident that the Au interconnects have a negligible influence on the field distribution, and that the periodicity is large enough for coupling between two neighboring dipoles to be negligible. Given the uniform illumination and their length, the dipoles resonate in their lowest order bonding mode [32

32. P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Letters 4, 899–903 (2004). [CrossRef]

], in the sab0 mode propagating along the nanowire waveguides forming the dipole arms [4

4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Fig. 2 Distribution of |E|=|Ex|2+|Ey|2+|Ez|2 on xy cross-sectional planes for an Au dipole of dimensions w = 30 nm, t = 30 nm, l = 210 nm, g = 20 nm and p = q = 300 nm (a) 3 nm above the Au/Si interface, (b) 15 nm above the Au/Si interface, and (c) 3 nm above the Au surface in H2O. Computations performed at λ0 = 1353 nm (resonance wavelength).

The transmittance T is calculated as a function of frequency (f) or wavelength via:
T(f)=SRe(Pm).dsSRe(Ps).ds
(1)
where Pm and Ps are Poynting vectors at the location of the monitor where T is calculated and at the location of the source, respectively. S is the surface of the reference plane where the transmittance is calculated [28

28. FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Solutions Inc.).

]. Eq. (1) can also be used to compute the reflectance R of the system by replacing S with the appropriate reference plane.

Figure 3 plots the calculated transmittance (T), reflectance (R), absorptance (A), and the electric field enhancement Een of the array over wavelength, where A is given by:
A=1TR
(2)
and the electric field enhancement Een is calculated at the center of the gap, 15 nm above the Si/H2O interface, relative to the electric field at the same location in the absence of the antenna. From Fig.3 it is noted that Een peaks near resonance to a value of about 25. (Throughout this paper the resonant wavelength of the antennas (λ0r) refers to the free-space wavelength at which the absorptance curve reaches its maximum value.) The misalignment of extrema in the T, R, and A responses is due to absorption in Au. The absorptance of the system is due almost entirely to absorption in Au (losses are negligible in Si and H2O by comparison) [4

4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Fig. 3 Calculated transmittance (T), reflectance (R), absorptance (A) and electric field enhancement (Een) vs. free space wavelength (λ0).

One can relate the optical performance and response of the dipoles to their geometry via the full parametric study reported in [4

4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Decreasing the gap size changes the transmittance and reflectance as the proportion of Au covering the surface changes. Also, decreasing the gap size increases the capacitance causing a red-shift in the resonance of the system. Finally, decreasing the gap size increases the electric field therein, which as we show below, increases the bulk and surface sensitivities of the dipoles.

4. Quantum efficiency and responsivity

The Au dipoles are assumed to form a Schottky contact to Si thereby creating an infrared pho-todetector operating on the basis of IPE (Fig. 1(a)). Hot (energetic) conduction carriers are created in the Au dipoles by absorption of SPPs resonating on the antennas. If the photon energy is greater than the Schottky barrier energy, then hot carriers may be emitted over the barrier and collected in the Si as photocurrent. The internal quantum efficiency ηit is the number of hot carriers that contribute to the photocurrent per absorbed photon per second. We assumed p-Si because Schottky barriers are lower thereon than on n-Si, leading to increased quantum effi-ciency and detection at longer wavelengths. Also the effective Richardson coefficient for holes is lower than that for electrons which helps manage the dark current. We have used the thin-film model described in [33

33. C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 46, 633 –643 (2010). [CrossRef]

] to estimate the internal quantum efficiency, taking the attenuation length of hot holes in Au as 55 nm [34

34. R. N. Stuart, F. Wooten, and W. E. Spicer, “Mean free path of hot electrons and holes in metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 119–119 (1963). [CrossRef]

] and the Schottky barrier height as ϕB = 0.34 eV for Au on p-Si [35

35. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2006), 3rd ed. [CrossRef]

]. Figure 4(a) shows ηit computed over the wavelengths of interest.

Fig. 4 (a) Internal quantum efficiency ( ηit) vs. λ0. (b) Responsivity (Resp) and minimum detectable power (Smin) vs. λ0.

The responsivity Resp is defined as the ratio of the photocurrent to the incident optical power and can be expressed in terms of ηit as [36

36. A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, “Sub-bandgap asymmetric surface plasmon waveguide schottky detectors on silicon,” Accepted for publication in Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2013).

]:
Resp=κAηitqhν
(3)
where A is the absorptance, taken as that of the dipole array (Eq. (2)), and κ is the fraction of the absorptance that contributes to the photocurrent [36

36. A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, “Sub-bandgap asymmetric surface plasmon waveguide schottky detectors on silicon,” Accepted for publication in Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2013).

] (taken as κ = 1 herein). The minimum detectable power is given as the ratio of the dark current to the responsivity Smin = Id/Resp.

The detection performance of the rectenna was assessed over a range of wavelengths and is plotted in Fig. 4(b). Compared to other SPP Schottky detectors, the responsivity and minimum detectable power of this detector are quite reasonable, even with a large contact pad [23

23. A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18, 8505–8514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Locally oxidized silicon surface-plasmon schot-tky detector for telecom regime,” Nano Letters 11, 2219–2224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This performance level is suitable for low-cost silicon based detection and for the intended biosensing, optical monitoring and interconnect applications. The wavelength response follows closely that of the absorptance of the dipole array (Fig. 4(b)), except that the former drops more rapidly at longer wavelengths due to the decrease in internal quantum efficiency ( ηit) as shown in Fig. 4(a).

5. Bulk sensitivity

Monitoring changes in a surface plasmon resonance is a widely used interrogation approach for measuring changes in the refractive index of bulk solutions and changes in the thickness or composition of thin bio(chemical) adlayers on the biosensor surface.

For bulk sensing, the index of the cover material nc was changed from the nominal one (H2O) over a large range, and absorptance spectra were computed using the FDTD method and the same mesh size as in the first section of this paper (0.5×0.5×0.5 nm3). Figure 5(a) shows A for all test cases considered. Increasing nc decreases A and increases the electric field enhancement (not shown). The bulk sensitivity ∂λ0r/∂nc of the rectenna and the peak responsivity (Resp,r) are plotted in Fig 5(b). The bulk sensitivity was computed by interpolating the spectral shifts using a cubic spline, then computing the derivative of the spline.

Fig. 5 (a) Absorptance (A) vs. λ0 for several cover refractive indices nc ranging from 1 to 2.75). (b) Bulk sensitivity (∂λ0r/∂nc - blue) and peak responsivity (Resp,r - red) of the rectenna as a function of nc.

The rectenna has a bulk sensitivity comparable to what is reported in [6

6. F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, M. Martinez-Marco, B. Tomas-Navarro, R. Ortuno, J. Marti, A. Martinez, and P. J. Rodriguez-Canto, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 7

7. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 13

13. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19, 9213–9220 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Recent analytical studies show that the bulk sensitivity increases with the surface plasmon resonance wavelength and the upper limit of this sensitivity is totally independent of nanostructure shape [37

37. S. J. Zalyubovskiy, M. Bogdanova, A. Deinega, Y. Lozovik, A. D. Pris, K. H. An, W. P. Hall, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Theoretical limit of localized surface plasmon resonance sensitivity to local refractive index change and its comparison to conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 994–1002 (2012). [CrossRef]

]; the results of Fig. 5 are consistent with this trend. The peak responsivity drops linearly with nc following the peak absorptance, with the largest peak responsivity occurring for nc = 1. The drop in responsivity would translate to a commensurate drop in the monitored photocurrent as the bulk index changes. An incident optical power of 1 mW would yield a change in photocurrent of ∼ 40μA over the full index range, which is easily measureable.

5.1. Waveguide modal analysis

Fig. 6 Real part of Ez of the sab0 mode plotted over the cross-section of a nanowire waveguide (λ0 = 1353 nm) computed using a mode solver. (a) nc = 1 (air) and (b) nc = 2.75.

We compute the effective refractive index (neff) and the mode power attenuation (α) of the sab0 mode as a function of nc and plot the results in Fig. 7. Increasing nc increases the effective refractive index which causes, in part, the red shift observed in the absorptance curves of Fig. 5(a) (λ0rnc); the red shift is also due to changes in the gap capacitance Cg as nc changes. The mode power attenuation is also observed to increase with increasing nc explaining in part the broadening of the responses of Fig. 5(a) as nc increases.

Fig. 7 Effective refractive index (neff blue) and mode power attenuation (α - red) of the sab0 mode resonating along the dipoles as a function of nc.

5.2. Analytical expression for the bulk sensitivity of dipoles

An equivalent circuit was proposed in [4

4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to relate the resonant wavelength of dipole antennas to the effective index (neff) of the sab0 mode propagating along the nanowires forming the dipole, and to the characteristics of the dipole gap. We briefly summarize this circuit as it will be required in what follows. The circuit consists of two open-circuited transmission lines, one for each arm of the dipole, connected by a capacitor modeling the effects of the gap. The resonant frequencies of dipole antennas ω0r satisfy the following transcendental equation derived for the circuit:
tan(neffω0rε0μ0(d+δm))=2ω0rCgZ0
(4)
where
ω0r=2πc0λ0r
(5)

Figure 8 plots the gap capacitance as a function of the bulk index. The red-shift in the absorptance curves are caused in part by the increase in Cg which is noted to increase from 0.4 to 3 aF. Figure 8 also plots Z0 as a function of nc, showing a non-negligible variation (compared to the surface sensing case as discussed below).

Fig. 8 Gap capacitance Cg (blue) and characteristic impedance Z0 of the sab0 mode (red) as a function of nc.

We use now the equivalent circuit model to gain insight on the bulk sensing performance of the dipoles. Taking the derivative of both sides of Eq. (4) with respect to nc yields:
[(d+δm)ε0μ0ω0rneffnc+(d+δm)ε0μ0neffω0rnc]×[1+tan2(neffω0rε0μ0(d+δm)]=2ω0rCgZ0nc2ω0rZ0Cgnc2CgZ0ω0rnc
(10)
where we note that neff = neff (nc), ω0r = ω0r(nc), δm = δm(nc), Cg = Cg(nc) and Z0 = Z0(nc). In writing Eq. (10) we have supposed that ∂δm/∂nc ≈ 0, which is justified based on verifications carried out at our extreme values for nc. After some manipulations, the following equation for the bulk sensitivity is obtained from the above:
ζωω0rnc=ζnneffnc+ζCCgnc+ζZZ0nc
(11)
where
ζω=(d+δmc0)neff(1+4ω0r2Cg2Z02)+2CgZ0
(12)
ζn=(d+δmc0)neff(1+4ω0r2Cg2Z02)
(13)
ζC=2ω0rZ0
(14)
ζZ=2ω0rCg
(15)
and c0 is the speed of light in vacuum. The term ∂Cg/∂nc in Eq. (11) can be expressed in terms of dipole dimensions and gap material properties. Ignoring the imaginary part of the bulk material permittivity ( εr,cnc2) this term can be simplified to:
Cgnc=(wtg)εcnc=2ε0(wtg)nc
(16)
Substituting Eqs. (12) to (16) into Eq. (11), the expression for the bulk sensitivity becomes:
ω0rnc=ζω1[4(wtg)ω0rZ0]nc+ζω1(ζnneffnc+ζZZ0nc)
(17)

The bulk sensitivity can be written in terms of the resonant wavelength using:
λ0rnc=(2πc0ω0r2)ω0rnc
(19)
which yields
λ0rnc[2wtc0λ0rg(d+δm)neff]2Z0nc+Z0ncnc21+(4πwtg1c0λ0rZ0)2nc2+λ0rneffneffnc
(20)

Fig. 9 (a) Resonant wavelengths computed using the transmission line model and the FDTD method as a function of bulk index nc. (b) Bulk sensitivity computed using the FDTD method (dashed blue), the transmission line model (Eq. (4) - red), and the analytical solution (Eq. (20) - black).

6. Surface sensitivity

The surface sensitivity can be defined in a number of ways [5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 38

38. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chemical Reviews 108, 462–493 (2008). PMID: [PubMed] . [CrossRef]

, 39

39. V. Brioude and O. Parriaux, “Normalised analysis for the design of evanescent-wave sensors and its use for tolerance evaluation,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 32, 899–908 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The definition adopted here is ∂λ0r/∂a where a is the thickness of the adlayer of refractive index na (Fig. 1(b)). The ad-layer is modeled as uniform dielectric layer with its thickness and index (a, na) being effective parameters [5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The adlayer index is taken as na = 1.45, which is representative of biochemical material [5

5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and it is assumed to grow on all Au/H2O interfaces.

Fig. 10 (a) Absorptance A vs. λ0 for several adlayer thicknesses (a = 0 to 5 nm); the curves are offset vertically by −0.05 for clarity. (b) Surface sensitivity (∂λ0r/∂a - blue) and peak responsivity (Resp,r - red) as a function of a.

Fig. 10(b) gives ∂λ0r/∂a computed by interpolating the spectral shifts of Fig. 10(a) using a cubic spline, then computing the derivative of the spline. The largest surface sensitivity observed is ∂λ0r/∂a ∼ 8 nm/nm, occurring in the early stages of adlayer growth, and then dropping off significantly as the adlayer fills the gap region. The sensitivity is due mainly to the enhanced electric field in the gap and near the ends of each dipole where the enhanced fields overlap much more with the adlayer. Peak responsivity (Resp,r) values are also plotted in Fig. 10(b); an incident optical power of 1 mW would yield a change in photocurrent of ∼ 1μA over the full adlayer range, which should be readily measureable.

6.1. Waveguide modal analysis

Figure 11(a) and (b) show the real part of the main transverse electric field (Ez) of the mode, plotted over the yz cross-section of one of the dipole arms for the extreme cases of surface adlayer thickness used in the sensitivity study, i.e., a = 0 (no adlayer) and a = 5 nm. The distribution of Ez identifies the mode propagating along the nanowires as the sab0 mode [9

9. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 30

30. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master’s thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, USA (1981).

], which is excited on the dipoles given the polarization, orientation and uniformity of the source field (x-polarised plane wave). The field distribution is slightly perturbed by changes in the adlayer thickness (Fig. 11).

Fig. 11 Real part of Ez of the sab0 mode plotted over the cross-section of a nanowire waveguide (λ0 = 1353 nm) computed using a mode solver. (a) a = 0 (no adlyaer) and (b) a = 5 nm.

We have therefore computed the parameters of this mode (neff and α) as a function of a and we plot the results in Fig. 12. Increasing a decreases slightly neff and α of the mode.

Fig. 12 Effective refractive index (neff blue) and mode power attenuation (α - red) of the sab0 mode resonating along the dipoles as a function of a.

6.2. Analytical expression for the surface sensitivity of dipoles

Fig. 13 Schematic of a dipole gap showing three plate capacitances in series.

From circuit theory, the total gap capacitance is calculated as:
Cg=(2C11+C21)1
(21)
where C1 and C2 are:
C1=εa(wta)
(22)
and
C2=εc(wtg2a)
(23)

In the above, εc = ε0εr,c and εa = ε0εr,a are the absolute permittivities of the bulk solution (H2O) and the adlayer, respectively. We ignore the imaginary parts of the permittivities and take εr,cnc21.3221.74 and εr,ana21.4522.11. After some manipulations, we write Cg as:
Cg=εaεcwt2(εaεc)a+εag
(24)

Figure 14 plots Cg (Eq. (24) and Z0 of the sab0 mode (Eqs. (7) to (9) as a function of the adlayer thickness a, showing that Cg increases and Z0 decreases slightly with a.

Fig. 14 Gap capacitance Cg (blue) and characteristic impedance Z0 of the sab0 mode (red) as a function of a.

Taking the derivative of Eq. (4) with respect to a yields:
ζωω0ra=ζnneffa+ζCCga+ζZZ0a
(25)
where ζω, ζn, ζC and ζZ are defined in Eqs. (12) to (15). The term ∂Cg/∂a in Eq. (25) can be evaluated using Eq. (24) and expressed in terms of dipole dimensions and the properties of the materials filling the gap (emphi.e., the adlayer and H2O) as:
Cga=2ε0εr,cεr,a(εr,aεr,c)wt[2(εr,aεr,c)a+εr,ag]2
(26)

The above reveals that ∂Cg/∂a is a saturating nonlinear function of the adlayer thickness a. Substituting Eq. (26) into Eq. (25), we obtain the following expression for the surface sensitivity as a function of a:
ω0ra=2ε0εr,cεr,a(εr,aεr,c)wt[2(εr,cεr,a)a+εr,ag]2ζω1ζCω0rZ0+ζω1(ζnneffa+ζZZ0a)
(27)

The surface sensitivity can be written in terms of the resonant wavelength using:
λ0ra=(2πc0ω0r2)ω0ra
(28)
which yields:
λ0ra=4ε0εr,cεr,a(εr,cεr,a)wt[2(εr,cεr,a)a+εr,ag]2ζω1ζCλ0rZ0ζω1λ0r22πc0(ζnneffa+ζZZ0a)
(29)

From Fig. 12, it is clear that ∂neff/∂a and ∂Z0/∂a are approximately constant (∼ −0.0014 nm−1 and 1Ω/nm) over the range of a considered. Thus from Eq. (29) we find that ∂λ0r/∂a is also a saturating nonlinear function of a (which follows from Eq. (24)).

Fig. 15 (a) Resonant wavelengths computed using the transmission line model and the FDTD method as a function of adlayer thickness a. (b) Surface sensitivity computed using the FDTD method (dashed blue), the transmission line model (Eq.(4) - red), and the analytical solution (Eq.(29) - black).

7. Comparison of dipole and monopole sensitivities

Using the transmission line model we derive the bulk and surface sensitivities of monopole antennas and compare them to those of dipole antennas. Replacing all dipoles with monopoles of comparable length (d = 2l and g = 0), we find the following equation for the resonant wavelengths of the equivalent transmission line circuit:
cot(neffω0rε0μ0(d+δm))=0
(30)
where the symbols retain the same meaning as in Eq. (11). We note, of course, that there is no lumped capacitance in this model because there is no gap. By taking the derivative of the above with respect to nc and a we find the following expressions for the bulk and surface sensitivities:
λ0rnc=λ0rneffneffnc
(31)
λ0ra=λ0rneffneffa
(32)

We note that a monopole corresponds to a dipole in the limit of g → 0, which leads to an infinite gap capacitance, i.e. Cg → ∞. In this limit, ζω, ζn and ζZ become very large (Eqs. (13), (14) and (15)) and Eqs. (20) and (29) simplify to Eqs. (31) and (32).

Comparing Eqs. (31) and (32) with the corresponding ones for dipoles (Eqs. (20) and (29)), we observe that the sensitivities of monopole antennas are smaller than those of dipole antennas. This is due to the absence of the gap in the former; thus, monopole resonances are altered only by changes in the properties of the sab0 mode resonating on the antenna, whereas in dipoles, changes in the cap capacitance lead to a larger shift in resonance. Also, the electric field is strongly enhanced in the gap of dipoles compared to other locations on the antenna. The bulk sensitivity of dipoles is at least 1.65× greater than that of comparable monopoles. Similarly the surface sensitivity of dipoles is at least 1.5× greater than that of monopoles. In both cases, the importance of the gap is manifest.

8. Conclusion

Arrays of Au nano-dipole antennas forming a Schottky contact to Si were proposed and investigated theoretically for use as a wavelength-selective sub-bandgap rectenna and biosensor. Photodetection occurs via the internal photoelectric effect for photon energies above the Schot-tky barrier height but below the bandgap of Si. Excitation by a normally-incident plane wave polarized along the length of the dipoles was considered. Under this excitation, non-invasive electrical contacts to each dipole arm can be introduced, facilitating collection of the photocur-rent. The plane-wave source excites a specific strongly-confined SPP mode ( sab0[9

9. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

]) propagating along the arms of the dipole antennas, forming a bonding resonance as the main resonance of operation of the antennas. Utilizing a Schottky detector structure simplifies interrogation in that the transmittance or reflectance need not be measured; rather only the photocurrent collected at the contacts needs to be monitored. Illuminating the antennas through the substrate leaves the top side of the device available for integrating microfluidics.

As a rectenna, high responsivities (100 mA/W) and practical minimum detectable powers (−12 dBm) are predicted at wavelengths near 1310 nm. As a biosensor, the rectenna structure offers significant advantages as it simplifies the interrogation set-up: only the photocurrent generated by the device need be monitored, and the excitation optics (bottom) are physically separated from the micro-fluidics (top) by the device. Compelling sensitivities are predicted for the dipoles: 250 nm/RIU in bulk sensitivity and 8 nm/nm in surface sensitivity (biochemical adlayer in H2O). In terms of changes in photocurrent, an incident optical power of 1 mW would yield a change of ∼ 1μA as an adlayer grows to 5 nm in thickness, which is readily measureable.

Using a transmission line model to represent the dipole antennas, we derive analytical expressions for the bulk and surface sensitivities of the structure and validate them via comparisons with numerical results. We proved using these expressions that dipole antennas provide much greater bulk and surface sensitivities than monopole antennas because of the existence of the gap in the former, which introduces a capacitance (and enhanced fields) that strongly affects the resonance.

References and links

1.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007), 1st ed.

2.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]

4.

S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express 20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics 10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, M. Martinez-Marco, B. Tomas-Navarro, R. Ortuno, J. Marti, A. Martinez, and P. J. Rodriguez-Canto, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Applied Physics Letters 98, 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat Photon 1, 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Kll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of nir localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Letters 7, 1256–1263 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, and D. G. Hall, “Nonlinear optics of long range surface plasmons,” Applied Physics Letters 41, 906–908 (1982). [CrossRef]

12.

C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Letters 6, 683–688 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 19, 9213–9220 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science 332, 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Letters 6, 827–832 (2006). PMID: [PubMed] . [CrossRef]

16.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 109, 21556–21565 (2005). [CrossRef]

17.

F. Mazzotta, G. Wang, C. Hgglund, F. Hk, and M. P. Jonsson, “Nanoplasmonic biosensing with on-chip electrical detection,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1131 – 1136 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

L. Guyot, A.-P. Blanchard-Dionne, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Integrated silicon-based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Opt. Express 19, 9962–9967 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat Mater 11, 69–75 (2012). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Critically coupled silicon fabry-perot photode-tectors based on the internal photoemission effect at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 20, 12599–12609 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, “Enhanced quantum efficiency internal photoemission detectors by grating coupling to surface plasma waves,” Applied Physics Letters 46, 915–917 (1985). [CrossRef]

22.

C. Daboo, M. Baird, H. H. N. Apsley, and M. Emeny, “Improved surface plasmon enhanced photodetection at an augaas schottky junction using a novel molecular beam epitaxy grown otto coupling structure,” Thin Solid Films 201, 9 – 27 (1991). [CrossRef]

23.

A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide schottky detector,” Opt. Express 18, 8505–8514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicide schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Express 19, 15843–15854 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Locally oxidized silicon surface-plasmon schot-tky detector for telecom regime,” Nano Letters 11, 2219–2224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat Nano 6, 588–593 (2011). [CrossRef]

27.

J. McSpadden, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “Design and experiments of a high-conversion-efficiency 5.8-ghz rectenna,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on 46, 2053 –2060 (1998). [CrossRef]

28.

FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Solutions Inc.).

29.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

30.

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master’s thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, USA (1981).

31.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 23, 123 – 129 (1987). [CrossRef]

32.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Letters 4, 899–903 (2004). [CrossRef]

33.

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 46, 633 –643 (2010). [CrossRef]

34.

R. N. Stuart, F. Wooten, and W. E. Spicer, “Mean free path of hot electrons and holes in metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 119–119 (1963). [CrossRef]

35.

S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2006), 3rd ed. [CrossRef]

36.

A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, “Sub-bandgap asymmetric surface plasmon waveguide schottky detectors on silicon,” Accepted for publication in Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2013).

37.

S. J. Zalyubovskiy, M. Bogdanova, A. Deinega, Y. Lozovik, A. D. Pris, K. H. An, W. P. Hall, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Theoretical limit of localized surface plasmon resonance sensitivity to local refractive index change and its comparison to conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 994–1002 (2012). [CrossRef]

38.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chemical Reviews 108, 462–493 (2008). PMID: [PubMed] . [CrossRef]

39.

V. Brioude and O. Parriaux, “Normalised analysis for the design of evanescent-wave sensors and its use for tolerance evaluation,” Optical and Quantum Electronics 32, 899–908 (2000). [CrossRef]

40.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat Photon 2, 226–229 (2008). [CrossRef]

41.

R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, 1961), 1st ed.

OCIS Codes
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(310.6628) Thin films : Subwavelength structures, nanostructures

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: December 10, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 17, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 2013
Published: February 12, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Mohammad Alavirad, Saba Siadat Mousavi, Langis Roy, and Pierre Berini, "Schottky-contact plasmonic dipole rectenna concept for biosensing," Opt. Express 21, 4328-4347 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4328


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References

  1. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007), 1st ed.
  2. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 1889–1892 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, and J. R. Sambles, “Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings,” Phys. Rev. B54, 6227–6244 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. S. S. Mousavi, P. Berini, and D. McNamara, “Periodic plasmonic nanoantennas in a piecewise homogeneous background,” Opt. Express20, 18044–18065 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Berini, “Bulk and surface sensitivities of surface plasmon waveguides,” New Journal of Physics10, 105010 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuno, M. Martinez-Marco, B. Tomas-Navarro, R. Ortuno, J. Marti, A. Martinez, and P. J. Rodriguez-Canto, “Highly-sensitive chemical detection in the infrared regime using plasmonic gold nanocrosses,” Applied Physics Letters98, 133118 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. C.-Y. Tsai, S.-P. Lu, J.-W. Lin, and P.-T. Lee, “High sensitivity plasmonic index sensor using slablike gold nanoring arrays,” Applied Physics Letters98, 153108 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, “Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding,” Nat Photon1, 641–648 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61, 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Kll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of nir localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Letters7, 1256–1263 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, and D. G. Hall, “Nonlinear optics of long range surface plasmons,” Applied Physics Letters41, 906–908 (1982). [CrossRef]
  12. C. L. Nehl, H. Liao, and J. H. Hafner, “Optical properties of star-shaped gold nanoparticles,” Nano Letters6, 683–688 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Piliarik, P. Kvasnička, N. Galler, J. R. Krenn, and J. Homola, “Local refractive index sensitivity of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express19, 9213–9220 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. W. Knight, H. Sobhani, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Photodetection with active optical antennas,” Science332, 702–704 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: a hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Letters6, 827–832 (2006). PMID: . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B109, 21556–21565 (2005). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Mazzotta, G. Wang, C. Hgglund, F. Hk, and M. P. Jonsson, “Nanoplasmonic biosensing with on-chip electrical detection,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics26, 1131 – 1136 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Guyot, A.-P. Blanchard-Dionne, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Integrated silicon-based nanoplasmonic sensor,” Opt. Express19, 9962–9967 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat Mater11, 69–75 (2012). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Casalino, G. Coppola, M. Iodice, I. Rendina, and L. Sirleto, “Critically coupled silicon fabry-perot photode-tectors based on the internal photoemission effect at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express20, 12599–12609 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, “Enhanced quantum efficiency internal photoemission detectors by grating coupling to surface plasma waves,” Applied Physics Letters46, 915–917 (1985). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Daboo, M. Baird, H. H. N. Apsley, and M. Emeny, “Improved surface plasmon enhanced photodetection at an augaas schottky junction using a novel molecular beam epitaxy grown otto coupling structure,” Thin Solid Films201, 9 – 27 (1991). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Akbari, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Surface plasmon waveguide schottky detector,” Opt. Express18, 8505–8514 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicide schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide,” Opt. Express19, 15843–15854 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. Goykhman, B. Desiatov, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, and U. Levy, “Locally oxidized silicon surface-plasmon schot-tky detector for telecom regime,” Nano Letters11, 2219–2224 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. S. Barnard, R. A. Pala, and M. L. Brongersma, “Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances,” Nat Nano6, 588–593 (2011). [CrossRef]
  27. J. McSpadden, L. Fan, and K. Chang, “Design and experiments of a high-conversion-efficiency 5.8-ghz rectenna,” Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on46, 2053 –2060 (1998). [CrossRef]
  28. FDTD Solutions (Lumerical Solutions Inc.).
  29. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).
  30. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Master’s thesis, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Missouri, USA (1981).
  31. R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of23, 123 – 129 (1987). [CrossRef]
  32. P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Letters4, 899–903 (2004). [CrossRef]
  33. C. Scales and P. Berini, “Thin-film schottky barrier photodetector models,” Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of46, 633 –643 (2010). [CrossRef]
  34. R. N. Stuart, F. Wooten, and W. E. Spicer, “Mean free path of hot electrons and holes in metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.10, 119–119 (1963). [CrossRef]
  35. S. M. Sze and K. K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2006), 3rd ed. [CrossRef]
  36. A. Akbari, A. Olivieri, and P. Berini, “Sub-bandgap asymmetric surface plasmon waveguide schottky detectors on silicon,” Accepted for publication in Sel. Top. Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (2013).
  37. S. J. Zalyubovskiy, M. Bogdanova, A. Deinega, Y. Lozovik, A. D. Pris, K. H. An, W. P. Hall, and R. A. Potyrailo, “Theoretical limit of localized surface plasmon resonance sensitivity to local refractive index change and its comparison to conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A29, 994–1002 (2012). [CrossRef]
  38. J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chemical Reviews108, 462–493 (2008). PMID: . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. V. Brioude and O. Parriaux, “Normalised analysis for the design of evanescent-wave sensors and its use for tolerance evaluation,” Optical and Quantum Electronics32, 899–908 (2000). [CrossRef]
  40. L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat Photon2, 226–229 (2008). [CrossRef]
  41. R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, 1961), 1st ed.

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