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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4355–4360
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Near-field electrospinning of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides

Giulio Biagi, Tobias Holmgaard, and Esben Skovsen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4355-4360 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004355


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Abstract

Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) are typically made using nanolithography fabrication methods. In this paper we demonstrate that near-field electrospinning of polymer nanofibers directly onto a gold coated substrate can be used as an alternative method for rapid prototype fabrication of DLSPPWs. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have been excited directly inside the electrospun fibers using a prism in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration. A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) was used to characterize the propagation of the excited SPP inside the polymer fiber demonstrating the potential for using electrospun polymer fibers as SPP waveguides.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The increasing demand of faster and smaller devices have significantly increased the attention of the scientific world on surface plasmons, since they are now well known to be a way to reduce the dimension of the photonics integrated circuits and, at the same time, to keep high performances in terms of speed and bandwidth [1

1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Surface plasmons are surface electromagnetic modes, propagating along metal-dielectric interfaces [2

2. H. Reather, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings” (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

] and are bound to the surface due to the exponential decay of the intensity along the normal direction. Many efforts have been made to achieve efficient lateral confinement in order to efficiently guide surface plasmons. Various waveguiding structures for surface plasmons, fabricated with different techniques, such as metal stripes [3

3. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

5

5. A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and v-grooves [6

6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]

] have already been investigated. The strong lateral confinement can be also achieved by depositing polymer stripes on a metal surface and using them as waveguides [8

8. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008). [CrossRef]

11

11. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Near field investigation of such dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides (DLSPPWs) has demonstrated that they allow single mode propagation along with long propagation length [12

12. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011124 (2008). [CrossRef]

,13

13. S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243102 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Linear dielectric nanostructures can also be fabricated by other techniques like e.g. near-field electrospinning (NFES), which has proven to be useful for writing linear nanostructures in well controlled patterns [14

14. D. Sun, C. Chang, S. Li, and L. Lin, “Near-field electrospinning,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 839–842 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123111 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper we will show that NFES can be used to deposit polymer waveguides on a thin gold film. The electrospun polymer nanofibers were initially investigated with an atomic force microscope, in order to evaluate the dimension and therefore calculate the mode effective index, which would give the experimental conditions for the SPP excitation. Subsequent characterization using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) was used to demonstrate that SPPs can indeed be guided using electrospun nanofibers deposited on a gold film. The advantage of this new fabrication technique, compared to e-beam or ion beam milling, which represent the most widely used so far for v-grooves and polymer ridges respectively, is the simplicity and fabrication speed of NFES. In addition DLSPPW deposition by electrospinning is well suited for rapid prototyping when testing e.g. new plasmonic circuit designs.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Sample preparation

The sample consists of polymer fibers electrospun onto a thin gold film deposited on an optically flat glass substrate. The polymer solution was made by dissolving 4.0% weight of Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer with a molecular weight of 900000 g/mol in a 3:1 mixture of H2O and tert-butanol. After constant stirring at 250 rpm and 50 ⁰C for 24 hours the polymer solution was completely dissolved and ready to be spun. The gold coated substrate, onto which the electrospun fibers were to be deposited, was a 10mm x 10mm x 0.5mm fused silica glass substrate coated with 3 nm of chrome and 45 nm of gold by electron beam sputtering. The quality of the gold film was tested by reflecting a collimated laser beam of the glass-gold interface. A large narrow dip was observed in the reflected signal at the excitation angle, which is indicative of a strong surface plasmon resonance, which in turn implies a good quality of the gold film.

2.2 Near-field electrospinning of PEO nanofibers

The PEO solution was electrospun using a homebuilt NFES setup (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the setup used for near-field electrospinning of DLSPPWs. HV: High voltage supply, HN: Hypodermic needle, RS: Rotation stage, PZS: 2D Piezo stage, 3DS: 3D manual positioning stage, C: Collector, TB: Teflon block, S: Syringe.
). A 0.9mm x 50mm (20G x 2”) hypodermic needle was used as tip and the tip-to-collector distance and spinning voltage was set to 500 µm and 1000 V respectively. Before electrospinning a small droplet of the PEO solution was deposited at the tip, which was positioned 500 μm away from the intended scan area. Spinning was initiated by poking the droplet with a sharp tungsten tip as demonstrated by Chang et al. [15

15. C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123111 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. After initiating the spinning the collector was moved at a speed of 200 mm/s in a raster scan pattern. The electrospun fibers were deposited in straight parallel 7.5 mm long lines with 150 μm between lines and covering a total area of 4.5 mm x 7.5 mm. The writing of the entire pattern of electrospun fibers took less than 30 seconds after spinning was initiated. The deposited PEO fibers were left to dry and subsequently characterized by SNOM, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

The positive output of the high voltage supply (model MJ30P400 from Glassman High Voltage Inc.) was connected to the 20 Gauge hypodermic needle (HN) used as spinneret, while the ground terminal was connected to the gold coated side of the sample substrate, which served as the collector electrode (C). The sample was mounted on top of an XY piezo stage (PZS, model PIHera P-629.2 from Physik Instrumente). An insulating Teflon block (TB) was placed between the sample and the piezo stage to protect the stage. The piezo stage was mounted on the edge of a rotation stage (RS) to allow the stage to be rotated away from the spinneret for easy access to the stage when exchanging samples. The hypodermic needle used as tip was mounted on a 1.0 ml syringe (s). The syringe was fixed onto a Teflon block (TB) that was mounted onto ax XYZ translation stage (3DS) used for rough positioning of the tip relative to the collector (i.e. the sample). As demonstrated by Chang et.al [15

15. C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123111 (2008). [CrossRef]

], NFES can be optimized to produce nanofibers with diameters that vary less than 10% from the average fiber diameter.

2.3 SNOM setup

The investigation of the fibers has been conducted with the SNOM (see Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the SNOM setup used for near-field investigation. A detailed description of the setup can be found in [11].
). The SNOM was operated in collection mode, which allowed the simultaneous collection of both morphological information and a near-field optical signal from the scanned area.

The sample was mounted on a BK7 glass prism with an index matching immersion oil. Surface plasmons were excited through the prism using a Kretschmann-Raether configuration [2

2. H. Reather, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings” (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

]. A lensed fiber was used to focus a p-polarized beam, generated by an infrared tunable laser, which could emit in the wavelength range of 1500-1650 nm. The lensed fiber was mounted on a rotational stage, used to change the angle of incidence of the excitation beam. An etched uncoated fiber tip was used to raster scan the investigated area, recording the near-field signal and morphological information at the same time. The optical signal was recorded with lock-in detection to improve the signal to noise ratio of the recorded images. A more detailed description of the SNOM setup has been published elsewhere [12

12. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011124 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Fiber characterization

The AFM and SEM investigation (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AFM image of a typical area of the electrospun nanofibers (a), including a cross sectional profile of the fiber that shows the dimensions of the waveguides to be 1.8 µm in width and 160 nm in height (b), SEM image of a nanofiber (c).
) reveals that the waveguides are about 1.8 µm wide and 160 nm high. Although these dimensions are not ideal for SPP waveguiding [16

16. T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

], they still allow for guided SPP modes to propagate as demonstrated below. Considering the measured dimensions, the mode effective index of the waveguide is expected to be close to Neff = 1.15 [16

16. T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and given the dimensions of the electrospun fibers, the expected SPP propagation length was approximately 40 µm [16

16. T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

3.2 SPP excitation

3.3 SPP guiding

SPPs were excited inside the waveguide using three different excitation wavelengths (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near field images of the propagating SPP wave demonstrating SPP waveguiding by the electrospun dielectric nanofiber. (a) Topography, (b) SNOM image for excitation with λ = 1530nm, (c) SNOM image for excitation with λ = 1570nm, (d) SNOM image for excitation with λ = 1630nm.
). The laser was focused onto the glass/gold interface of the sample at an angle of incidence of 49°, exciting the mode effective index of Neff = 1.14. The SPP near-field signal builds up and propagates in the waveguide and decays rapidly due to the short propagation length given by the geometry of the waveguide and the thickness of the Au film. It is evident that the fiber supports single mode propagation, since no oscillation in the guided signal is detected. The SPP propagation length at all three evaluated wavelengths was estimated to be approximately 10 μm, and although this is relative short, it is still long enough that the results shown in Fig. 5 demonstrates that electrospun nanofibers allow surface plasmons propagation and provide a good lateral confinement.

3.4 Discussion

It has been shown how electrospun nanofibers can be used as dielectric-loaded waveguides for surface plasmons excided directly inside the fibers. Although it is clear from the results presented above that SPPs are guided in the fibers, the SPP propagation length is obviously very short. This can be explained by the fact that the dimensions of the waveguide are not ideal for long propagation distances. With the measured values, the propagation length is expected to be lower than 40 µm [10

10. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1307–1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. One way to improve the propagation length is to fabricate electrospun nanofibers with a more spherical cross section. This can e.g. be achieved by using a polymer solution with a higher polymer concentration for the electrospinning. Careful and systematic optimization of the spinning parameters like collector-tip distance, voltage and stage speed should in principle allow the fibers to be optimized for waveguiding SPPs of a given energy. Deposition of nanofibers by NFES is very fast and it is straight forward to add e.g. dye molecules or quantum dots [17

17. N. Tomczak, S. Gu, M. Han, N. F. van Hulst, and G. Julius Vancso, “Single light emitters in electrospun polymer nanofibers: Effect of local confinement on radiative decay,” Eur. Polym. J. 42(10), 2205–2210 (2006). [CrossRef]

] to the polymer solution before spinning and thereby electrospin polymer fibers with molecular dyes or quantum dots embedded. Therefore, NFES of DLSPPWs could be a very promising technique for e.g. testing of new dyes or nanoparticles for SPP amplification or loss compensation by stimulated emission. As a step forward in the fabrication of higher performance plasmonic waveguides by electrospinning, it could also be very interesting to use NFES to fabricate and investigate hybrid waveguides similar to those suggested by Oulton et.al [18

18. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusion

It has been demonstrated that dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides can be fabricated using near-field electrospinning. This fabrication technique is very fast compared with traditional lithographic techniques. Therefore, electrospinning of dielectric loaded SPP waveguides could be a very promising technique for prototyping and testing of new SPP circuit designs, as well as for applications that require additives like quantum dots or dye molecules to be embedded into the waveguides, which is easy to accomplish using electrospinning. For this reason, this technique can be considered a step forward with regards to fabrication and testing of new plasmonic devices.

Acknowledgments

This work was carried out with financial support from the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation, as part of the project Active Nano Plasmonics (ANAP, FTP-project No. 09-072949).

References and links

1.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. Reather, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings” (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

3.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 413–422 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 78(16), 165431 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1307–1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011124 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243102 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Sun, C. Chang, S. Li, and L. Lin, “Near-field electrospinning,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 839–842 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 123111 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

N. Tomczak, S. Gu, M. Han, N. F. van Hulst, and G. Julius Vancso, “Single light emitters in electrospun polymer nanofibers: Effect of local confinement on radiative decay,” Eur. Polym. J. 42(10), 2205–2210 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: December 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 4, 2013
Published: February 12, 2013

Citation
Giulio Biagi, Tobias Holmgaard, and Esben Skovsen, "Near-field electrospinning of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Express 21, 4355-4360 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4355


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References

  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Reather, “Surface plasmons on smooth and rough surfaces and on gratings” (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  3. P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B61(15), 10484–10503 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(5), 668–670 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Boltasseva, T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, K. Kjaer, M. S. Larsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Integrated optical components utilizing long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” J. Lightwave Technol.23(1), 413–422 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, “Channel Polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B66(3), 035403 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, P. Bolger, and A. V. Zayats, “Efficient excitation of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguide modes at telecommunication wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165431 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(9), 094104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1307–1309 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express17(4), 2968–2975 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011124 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(24), 243102 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Sun, C. Chang, S. Li, and L. Lin, “Near-field electrospinning,” Nano Lett.6(4), 839–842 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Chang, K. Limkrailassiri, and L. Lin, “Continous near-field electrospinning for large area deposition of orderly nanofiber patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(12), 123111 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Holmgaard and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. N. Tomczak, S. Gu, M. Han, N. F. van Hulst, and G. Julius Vancso, “Single light emitters in electrospun polymer nanofibers: Effect of local confinement on radiative decay,” Eur. Polym. J.42(10), 2205–2210 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008). [CrossRef]

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