OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4774–4782
« Show journal navigation

Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications

N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4774-4782 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004774


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1223 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Enhanced light trapping is an attractive technique for improving the efficiency of thin film silicon solar cells. In this paper, we use FDTD simulations to study the scattering properties of silicon nanostructures on a silicon substrate and their application as enhanced light trappers. We find that the scattered spectrum and angular scattering distribution strongly depend on the excitation direction, that is, from air to substrate or from substrate to air. At the dipole resonance wavelength the scattering angles tend to be very narrow compared to those of silicon nanostructures in the absence of a substrate. Based on these properties, we propose a new thin film silicon solar cell design incorporating silicon nanostructures on both the front and back surfaces for enhanced light trapping.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Simulations

We study the scattering properties of silicon nanostructures on a silicon substrate using numerical methods, specifically Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). Commercial FDTD software from Lumerical [17

17. Lumerical FDTD Solutions, www.lumerical.com.

] is used for the simulation. The silicon nanostructures studied are cylindrical in shape. Based on their dimensions, silicon nanostructures can possess strong electric and magnetic dipole resonances (Mie Resonances) which scatter light strongly in the infrared [18

18. J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and visible [19

19. A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6459–6463 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4815–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The nanostructure studied has a diameter of 240 nm and height of 240 nm. These dimensions are chosen such that the Mie resonances of these nanostructures cover the wavelength region of interest in solar energy applications.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Cross-section of FDTD simulation set-up. Monitor S1 comprises two 2-D monitors orthogonal to each other, i.e., one in the Z-X plane and the other in the Z-Y plane. Intensity field distribution within the Si nanoparticle and also the angular distribution of power scattered by Si nanoparticle is obtained from monitor S1. Scattered spectrum of Si nanoparticle is obtained from monitor S2. Monitor S2 consist of six 2-D monitors arranged to form a box around the Si nanoparticle. TFSF source is a box with Si nanoparticle at its center. The TFSF source divides simulation space into total field region (space within TFSF box) and scattered field region (space outside of TFSF box). Propagation is in the z-direction with polarization along the x-axis.
shows a cross-section of the simulation set-up. The “total field scattered field” (TFSF) source is used. TFSF is a plane wave source designed for simulating nanoparticle scattering. This source appears as a 3-D box in which one side is used as the injection plane. For this study, the injection side (plane) will always be perpendicular to the z-axis and direction of excitation will be indicated by an arrow. The TFSF source divides the simulation space into two regions: the total-field region and the scattered-field region. The region enclosed by the TFSF source is the total-field region because it contains both the incident (source) field and the scattered signal (scattered by the nanostructures) while the region outside the TFSF box contains only the scattered signal and so it is referred to as the scattered-field region. We study the scattering properties of silicon nanostructures on a silicon substrate by measuring their scattered spectrum, angular distribution of scattered power, and also, intensity field distribution within the nanostructure. For these measurements we use power monitors which collect high accuracy power flow information in the frequency domain. These monitors can also output H and E field values at specific spatial locations for a given wavelength. To collect the scattered spectrum, we use six 2-D power monitors arranged to form a box (S2) around the nanostructure. Dimensions of the box are 480 nm, 480nm, and, 420 nm in the x, y, and, z directions, respectively. The normalized nanostructure scattering cross-section is obtained by dividing the scattered power transmitted through this box of monitors by the source intensity and the geometric cross-sectional area of the nanostructure. For angular distribution of scattered power and intensity field distribution we use two 2-D monitors (S1) arranged orthogonal to each other in the z-x and z-y planes, respectively. These monitors have dimensions 4.6 µm by 4.6 µm.

3. Results and discussions

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) A: silicon nano-cylinder in air; B: silicon nano-cylinder on silicon substrate with excitation direction from air to silicon substrate; C: silicon nano-cylinder on silicon substrate with excitation direction from silicon substrate to air. (b) Normalized scattering cross-section from the three scenarios
shows 3 different scenarios. A: silicon nanostructure in a homogenous medium (air); B: silicon nanostructure on silicon substrate with excitation direction from air to silicon substrate; C: silicon nanostructure on silicon substrate with excitation direction from silicon substrate to air. We will simply use scenario A, scenario B and, scenario C in the remainder of the text when referring to each of the above cases. Scenario B could correspond to the case where light is incident normally from air to the front (top) surface of a solar cell with the silicon nanostructures acting as an AR coating [16

16. P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3,692 (2012).

]. On the other hand, scenario C could depict the case where light within the silicon solar cell is propagating from the front (top) side towards the back (bottom) side of the solar cell with the silicon nanostructures functioning as a mirror scattering the light back into the solar cell.

Figure 2(b) show scattering spectra for all 3 scenarios. The spectra A, B, C are completely different from each other. The spectrum of scenario A show the first 2 Mie resonances [20

20. A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4815–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] at wavelengths of 800 nm and 1000 nm which corresponds to electric and magnetic dipole resonances, respectively. The magnetic dipole resonance occurs when the wavelength inside the silicon nanostructure is approximately equal to the dimension of the nanostructure in the direction of propagation. Wavelength inside silicon is given by wavelength in air divided by refractive index of silicon. The spectrum corresponding to scenario B indicates line-width broadening when compared to scenario A. This line-width broadening can be explained by the fact that the silicon substrate has introduced new loss channels for the silicon nanostructure (nano-resonator) [16

16. P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3,692 (2012).

]. The spectrum for scenario C has a strong resonance peak at a wavelength of 900 nm and a weak shoulder at a wavelength of 1100 nm. Differences in scattering cross-section between scenario B and scenario C can be explained as resulting from a difference in electric field driving strength [22

22. F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The effective dielectric function of a nanoparticle on a substrate depends on the substrate dielectric, medium dielectric, and, the coupling strength between the nanoparticle and its image within the substrate [12

12. K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-substrate interaction on localized plasmon resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For scenarios B and C, the coupling strength between the Si nanoparticle and its image within the substrate depends on the nanoparticle dipole moment. The nanoparticle dipole moment is directly proportional to the electric field driving strength [22

22. F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, a difference in electric field driving strength between scenarios B and C implies a difference in coupling strength between Si nanoparticle and its image in both scenarios. As such, the effective dielectric function for Si nanoparticle in scenario B is different from that in scenario C.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 These figures correspond to plots of |E|2 for scenarios A, B, and C (see Fig. 2(a)) at resonant wavelengths of 800 nm for A and B, and, 900 nm for C (see Fig. 2(b)). The presence of the silicon substrate has modified the intensity field distributions. (d) and (g) further indicates differences based on the direction of excitation. Polar plots of scattered power indicate extreme narrowing of scattered angles for B and C compared to A. For B and C, upper half of polar plot lies inside the silicon substrate.
shows the intensity field distribution inside the Si nanostructure together with the angular distribution of the scattered power at a resonance wavelength of 800 nm for scenarios A (Figs. 3(a)-3(c)) and B (Figs. 3(d)-3(f)), and also, at a resonance wavelength of 900 nm for scenario C (Figs. 3(g)-3(i)). Note that the source is polarized in the x-direction and the propagation direction is as indicated in Fig. 2(a). The angular and intensity field distributions correspond to plots of |E|2 As mentioned above and also shown in Fig. 1, the two 2-D power monitors orthogonal to each other and located in Z-X and Z-Y planes are used to generate intensity field distributions inside the nanostructure and polar plots of scattered power. The polar plots in black are obtained from a monitor in the Z-X plane while the plots in red are from monitor in Z-Y plane. These polar plots are obtained by extracting the values of Ex, Ey and Ez for spatial locations x, y, z lying on the circumference of a circle of radius 1.5 µm. The center of the circle coincides with the center of the silicon nanostructure. Figures 3(a)-3(c) show intensity field and polar plots of the scattered power for scenario A at a wavelength of 800 nm, which clearly indicates electric dipole scattering characteristics [21

21. A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4815–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is important to note that for scenarios B (wavelength at 800 nm) and C (wavelength at 900 nm), the resonances are hybrids of electric and magnetic dipole modes. They are not pure electric dipole modes as in scenario A. The presence of the silicon substrate induces an anti-symmetric electric dipole image which results to an induced magnetic dipole mode [23

23. E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The induced magnetic dipoles are shown in Fig. 3(e) (scenario B) and Fig. 3(h) (scenario C) as circular intensity field distributions [18

18. J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Associated to the circular field distribution is a displacement current loop resulting to the magnetic dipole. Another clear distinction between scattering for a silicon nanostructure in air (scenario A) and a silicon nanostructure on a silicon substrate (scenarios B and C) is evident in the angular distribution plots. Polar plots for scenarios B (Fig. 3(f)) and C (Fig. 3(i)) as compared to scenario A (Fig. 3(c)) show a very narrow angular distribution of scattered power and also preferential scattering into the silicon substrate. It has already been reported that particles on high index substrates like silicon will scatter preferentially into the substrate [24

24. F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We observe an additional effect being the drastic narrowing of the angular distribution of scattered power. This narrow scattering distribution is due to the existence of the electric and the induced magnetic dipole resonances at the same wavelength [7

7. W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. B. Rolly, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20376–20386 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This is because the scattered light from the induced magnetic and electric dipoles interfere constructively.

Polar plots of scattered power and intensity field distribution profiles were also studied at wavelengths of 1000 nm for scenario A (Figs. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Plots of |E|2 for scenarios A (a, b, c), B (d, e, f), and C (g, h, i) (see Fig. 2(a)) at magnetic dipole resonant wavelengths of 1000 nm for A, 1050 nm for B, and, 1100 nm for C (see Fig. 2(b)). Circular intensity field distribution seen in (b), (e), and, (h) is an indication of the presence of a magnetic dipole resonance. (c), (f), and, (i) correspond to angular scattering patterns.
- 4(c)), 1050 nm for scenario B (Figs. 4(d)-4(f)) and also, 1100 nm for scenario C (Figs. 4(g)-4(i)). Figure 4(d) for scenario B shows intensity profile where both edges of the silicon nanostructure have an almost equal and identical field intensity distribution, while Fig. 4(g) for scenario C shows an uneven intensity field distribution. Such an uneven intensity distribution could give rise to weak electric dipole resonance.

4. Double sided solar cell design

At a wavelength of 800 nm (Fig. 3(f)) and 1050 nm (Fig. 4(f)), scenario B scatters preferentially into the silicon substrate. Likewise, scenario C scatters preferentially into silicon substrate at a wavelength of 900 nm (Fig. 3(i)). As such, we propose a very simple thin film silicon solar cell design that could incorporate silicon nanostructures as scatterers on both the front (top) and back (bottom) surfaces. It has already been shown that silicon nanostructures patterned on the front surface of solar cells can function as efficient AR coatings [16

16. P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3,692 (2012).

]. Here, we show that by including silicon nanostructures on the back (bottom) side of a 2 µm thick solar cell structure, the scattered signal that escapes from the back surface can be reduced by approximately 80%.

As shown in Fig. 5, a
Fig. 5 (a) proposed double sided solar cell structure with silicon nanoparticles on the front and back surfaces. Silicon nanoparticle on front surface scatters light into cell and nanoparticles on back surface scatter the light back into the cell. Monitor M2 (M1) measures power scattered out through the back (front) surface of the cell. (b) Spectra of scattered power measured by M2 (inset is measured by M1). Black (red) spectrum corresponds to nanoparticles present (absent) on the back surface of cell.
2-D power monitor (M2) is placed on the back (bottom) side of the cell and another 2-D power monitor (M1) is placed on the front (top) side of the cell. M1 measures any backscattered light while M2 measures any forward scattered light transmitted through the solar cell structure. On the back (bottom) side of the cell seven silicon nanostructures are arranged such that six form a hexagon with the seventh at the center of the hexagon. All silicon nanostructures have identical dimensions, i.e. diameter and height are 240 nm, respectively. The silicon nanostructures are all equidistant from each other with a center-to-center distance of 480 nm. These seven nanostructures are spread out over an area with diameter of 1200 nm. Note that silicon has a critical angle of approximately 16 degrees, so, for a 2 µm thick cell, scattered signals from a silicon nanoparticle located on the front side of the cell will escape from the back surface through an area with diameter of approximately 1140 nm. By choosing the center-to-center distance as 480 nm we ensure that the nanostructures do not couple with each other. Inter-particle coupling will modify the scattering properties. In a real device, the front and back surfaces will have many nanostructures with inter-particle distance of 480 nm so that coupling between particles is negligible. The arrow in the TFSF source indicates that excitation is in the positive z-axis direction. Note that silicon nanostructures on the front (top) surface depicts scenario B while silicon nanostructures on the back (bottom) side depict scenario C. Figure 5(b) corresponds to the spectrum measured by M2 (bottom) while the inset is measured by M1 (top). The spectrum in red is obtained when there are no silicon nanostructures on the back (bottom) side of the cell, while the spectrum in black corresponds to the case when nanostructures are present on the backside. The spectra indicate that when the back surface is patterned with silicon nanostructures, significantly less scattered power escapes from the back side of the cell for wavelengths from 700 nm to 1050 nm, while, more scattered power escapes at wavelengths greater than 1050 nm. This is consistent with the angular scattering plots which indicate that at a wavelength of 1100 nm scenario C scatters preferentially in the forward direction (Fig. 4(i)) while at 900 nm, it scatters preferentially in the backward direction (Fig. 3(i)).

Since we can generate the angular scattering distribution plots for silicon nanoparticles on a silicon substrate for all wavelengths, we use the technique developed by Goetzberger [26

26. A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” 15th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (1981)

] to calculate the fraction of total scattered power (from silicon nanoparticle on the front side) that is trapped within the 2 µm thick silicon solar cell structure (structure in Fig. 5(a)). This technique [26

26. A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” 15th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (1981)

] calculates total absorption efficiency for solar cell by summation of a geometric series. The black spectrum in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Black: absorption by 2 µm thick silicon solar cell structure incorporating front and back silicon nanoparticles. Red: Yablonovitch theoretical absorption limit for 2 µm thick silicon solar cell. Blue: absorption by 2 µm thick silicon film.
shows the fraction of total scattered power trapped within the double sided solar cell structure. For comparison, absorption within a 2 µm thick silicon layer (blue) and the Yablonovitch theoretical absorption limit [27

27. E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982). [CrossRef]

] (red) for 2 µm thick silicon solar cell are also plotted. The calculated short circuit currents are 34.5 mA/cm2 for Yablonovitch limit case, 26.7 mA/cm2 for the double-sided cell and 14.1 mA/cm2 for a 2 µm thick silicon film. We assumed 100% internal quantum efficiency in the calculation of the short circuit currents.

5. Conclusions

We have shown that the scattering properties of silicon nanostructures are strongly modified by the presence of a silicon substrate. These modified scattering properties enable silicon nanostructures to be used for enhanced light trapping in silicon solar cells. The presence of the silicon substrate results to an induced magnetic dipole with resonance energy degenerate with that of the electric dipole. Narrowing of the angular distribution of the scattered light is also observed. The angular scattering distribution indicates that depending on wavelength and direction of excitation, the effect of the substrate on the silicon nanostructure can be such that the light is scattered away from the high index silicon substrate. We also showed that the light trapping efficiency of a thin film silicon solar cell can be significantly improved by using silicon nanostructures as scatterers on both the front and back side of the cell.

Acknowledgments

This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

References and links

1.

S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(8), 1063–1065 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1255–1259 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 827–832 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: Nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2694–2701 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

N. T. Fofang, N. K. Grady, Z. Y. Fan, A. O. Govorov, and N. J. Halas, “Plexciton dynamics: exciton-plasmon coupling in a J-aggregate-Au nanoshell complex provides a mechanism for nonlinearity,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1556–1560 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plexcitonic nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton coupling in nanoshell-J-aggregate complexes,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3481–3487 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5489–5497 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(40), 21536–21546 (2012). [CrossRef]

9.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

M. W. Knight, Y. Wu, J. B. Lassiter, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Substrates matter: influence of an adjacent dielectric on an individual plasmonic nanoparticle,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 2188–2192 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-substrate interaction on localized plasmon resonances,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2080–2086 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. R. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4865–4877 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. J. Chen, L. Shao, T. Ming, K. C. Woo, Y. C. Man, J. F. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Observation of the Fano resonance in gold nanorods supported on high-dielectric-constant substrates,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6754–6763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y. Wu and P. Nordlander, “Finite-difference time-domain modeling of the optical properties of nanoparticles near dielectric substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7302–7307 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3,692 (2012).

17.

Lumerical FDTD Solutions, www.lumerical.com.

18.

J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(9), 097402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6459–6463 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3749–3755 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express 19(6), 4815–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano 7(1), 664–668 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

B. Rolly, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20376–20386 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” 15th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (1981)

27.

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.3820) Materials : Magneto-optical materials
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
(290.5850) Scattering : Scattering, particles
(350.6050) Other areas of optics : Solar energy
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Solar Energy

History
Original Manuscript: December 27, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 13, 2013
Published: February 19, 2013

Citation
N. T. Fofang, T. S. Luk, M. Okandan, G. N. Nielson, and I. Brener, "Substrate-modified scattering properties of silicon nanostructures for solar energy applications," Opt. Express 21, 4774-4782 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4774


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. J. Oldenburg, G. D. Hale, J. B. Jackson, and N. J. Halas, “Light scattering from dipole and quadrupole nanoshell antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(8), 1063–1065 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. N. A. Mirin and N. J. Halas, “Light-bending nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(3), 1255–1259 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Wang, D. W. Brandl, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanorice: A hybrid plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett.6(4), 827–832 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Mukherjee, H. Sobhani, J. B. Lassiter, R. Bardhan, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fanoshells: Nanoparticles with built-in Fano resonances,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2694–2701 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. T. Fofang, N. K. Grady, Z. Y. Fan, A. O. Govorov, and N. J. Halas, “Plexciton dynamics: exciton-plasmon coupling in a J-aggregate-Au nanoshell complex provides a mechanism for nonlinearity,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1556–1560 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. T. Fofang, T. H. Park, O. Neumann, N. A. Mirin, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Plexcitonic nanoparticles: plasmon-exciton coupling in nanoshell-J-aggregate complexes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3481–3487 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Liu, A. E. Miroshnichenko, D. N. Neshev, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Broadband unidirectional scattering by magneto-electric core-shell nanoparticles,” ACS Nano6(6), 5489–5497 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Pellegrini, P. Mazzoldi, and G. Mattei, “Asymmetric plasmonic nanoshells as subwavelength directional nanoantennas and color nanorouters: a multipole interference approach,” J. Phys. Chem. C116(40), 21536–21546 (2012). [CrossRef]
  9. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(19), 191113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  10. M. W. Knight, Y. Wu, J. B. Lassiter, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Substrates matter: influence of an adjacent dielectric on an individual plasmonic nanoparticle,” Nano Lett.9(5), 2188–2192 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, and M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 073105 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. K. C. Vernon, A. M. Funston, C. Novo, D. E. Gómez, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Influence of particle-substrate interaction on localized plasmon resonances,” Nano Lett.10(6), 2080–2086 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. J. Chen, T. Ming, S. R. Zhang, Z. Jin, B. C. Yang, and J. F. Wang, “Effect of the dielectric properties of substrates on the scattering patterns of gold nanorods,” ACS Nano5(6), 4865–4877 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. J. Chen, L. Shao, T. Ming, K. C. Woo, Y. C. Man, J. F. Wang, and H. Q. Lin, “Observation of the Fano resonance in gold nanorods supported on high-dielectric-constant substrates,” ACS Nano5(8), 6754–6763 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Wu and P. Nordlander, “Finite-difference time-domain modeling of the optical properties of nanoparticles near dielectric substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7302–7307 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, and A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat. Commun.3,692 (2012).
  17. Lumerical FDTD Solutions, www.lumerical.com .
  18. J. C. Ginn, I. Brener, D. W. Peters, J. R. Wendt, J. O. Stevens, P. F. Hines, L. I. Basilio, L. K. Warne, J. F. Ihlefeld, P. G. Clem, and M. B. Sinclair, “Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 097402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. E. Miroshnichenko and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in all-dielectric oligomers,” Nano Lett.12(12), 6459–6463 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. B. Evlyukhin, S. M. Novikov, U. Zywietz, R. L. Eriksen, C. Reinhardt, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and B. N. Chichkov, “Demonstration of magnetic dipole resonances of dielectric nanospheres in the visible region,” Nano Lett.12(7), 3749–3755 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. García-Etxarri, R. Gómez-Medina, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, C. López, L. Chantada, F. Scheffold, J. Aizpurua, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and J. J. Sáenz, “Strong magnetic response of submicron silicon particles in the infrared,” Opt. Express19(6), 4815–4826 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 033113 (2010). [CrossRef]
  23. E. Xifré-Pérez, L. Shi, U. Tuzer, R. Fenollosa, F. Ramiro-Manzano, R. Quidant, and F. Meseguer, “Mirror-image-induced magnetic modes,” ACS Nano7(1), 664–668 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, and K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express19(25), 25230–25241 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Rolly, B. Stout, and N. Bonod, “Boosting the directivity of optical antennas with magnetic and electric dipolar resonant particles,” Opt. Express20(18), 20376–20386 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Goetzberger, “Optical confinement in thin Si-solar cells by diffuse back reflectors,” 15th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (1981)
  27. E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.72(7), 899–907 (1982). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited