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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 4970–4978
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Achromatic GRIN singlet lens design

Richard A. Flynn, E. F. Fleet, Guy Beadie, and James S. Shirk  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 4970-4978 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.004970


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Abstract

Gradient refractive index (GRIN) materials are attractive candidates for improved optical design, especially in compact systems. For GRIN lenses cut from spherically symmetric GRIN material, we derive an analogue of the “lens maker’s” equation. Using this equation, we predict and demonstrate via ray tracing that an achromatic singlet lens can be designed, where the chromatic properties of the GRIN counterbalance those of the lens shape. Modeling the lens with realistic materials and realistic fabrication geometries, we predict we can make an achromatic singlet with a 19 mm focal length using a matrix of known polymers.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The potential benefits of GRIN optics have been well documented [1

1. D. T. Moore, “Design of singlets with continuously varying indices of refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(7), 886–894 (1971). [CrossRef]

3

3. V. I. Tarkhanov, “Lens with a spherical gradient of refractive index, ideally focusing for an object at a finite distance,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(6), 610–615 (2006). [CrossRef]

] but only more recent advances in materials manufacturing techniques, such as ion exchange and polymer composite systems, allow for well-behaved, useful GRIN optics [4

4. D. T. Moore, “Gradient-index optics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 19(7), 1035–1038 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 5

5. G. Beadie, J. S. Shirk, A. Rosenberg, P. A. Lane, E. Fleet, A. R. Kamdar, Y. Jin, M. Ponting, T. Kazmierczak, Y. Yang, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Optical properties of a bio-inspired gradient refractive index polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11540–11547 (2008). [PubMed]

]. GRIN materials exhibit inhomogeneous surface refraction and continuous bulk focusing, a significantly more complex optical behavior than standard lenses. Because of this complexity, development in GRIN optical modeling and design has typically followed known manufacturing capabilities, which includes both man-made advances and the multitude of natural GRIN lenses found in biological eyes.

A recent advance in manufacturing nanolayered polymer composite systems creates a new class of optical material: moldable GRIN sheets with a highly arbitrary index profile and a relatively high material index range, δn (the value 0.08 has already been demonstrated) [5

5. G. Beadie, J. S. Shirk, A. Rosenberg, P. A. Lane, E. Fleet, A. R. Kamdar, Y. Jin, M. Ponting, T. Kazmierczak, Y. Yang, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Optical properties of a bio-inspired gradient refractive index polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11540–11547 (2008). [PubMed]

7

7. Y. Jin, H. Tai, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and J. S. Shirk, “New class of bioinspired lenses with a gradient refractive index,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 103(3), 1834–1841 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The manufacturing technology, shown schematically in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the manufacturing process for building a GRIN lens. Individual films consist of a nanolayered composition of at least 2 different polymers. Each film can have a different index of refraction. The films are stacked to conform to a desired index profile, molded, and then polished to produce GRIN lenses. AFM image, right, has thicker nanolayered pairs (~188 nm) than are used in GRIN films and is shown only to illustrate the layered structure.
, reliably produces the designed index profile in a clear, moldable, and polishable lens. Using this new material system, researchers already demonstrated a GRIN lens with corrected on-axis spherical aberrations where the layers were molded into a spherical GRIN plano-convex lens [5

5. G. Beadie, J. S. Shirk, A. Rosenberg, P. A. Lane, E. Fleet, A. R. Kamdar, Y. Jin, M. Ponting, T. Kazmierczak, Y. Yang, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Optical properties of a bio-inspired gradient refractive index polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11540–11547 (2008). [PubMed]

]. Geometric aberration correction primarily occurred at the plano-interface where the index profile varied across the aperture, much like the correction from a curved surface intersecting an axial gradient. Chromatic compensation remained to be considered.

Prior analysis of chromatic aberration compensation in GRIN lenses has emphasized refractive index distributions that are either radial [8

8. K. S. R. Krishna and A. Sharma, “Chromatic aberrations of radial gradient-index lenses. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 35(7), 1032–1036 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. F. Bociort, “Chromatic paraxial aberration coefficients for radial gradient-index lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(6), 1277–1284 (1996). [CrossRef]

] or general frameworks using families of polynomials [10

10. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. 5. Chromatic paraxial aberrations of lenses with axial or cylindrical index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(11), 1495–1500 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. It is well established that axial GRIN distributions can perform spherical aberration compensation when limited to monochromatic systems [12

12. P. K. Manhart and R. Blankenbecler, “Fundamentals of macro axial gradient index optical design and engineering,” Opt. Eng. 36(6), 1607–1621 (1997). [CrossRef]

].

The current work explores chromatic aberration compensation within a GRIN singlet lens, where spherical GRIN distributions are polished into plano-convex elements. While the GRIN distributions are spherical, the lens surfaces are not concentric with the GRIN distributions. Since the lens surface shape “cuts across the grain” of the GRIN distribution, GRIN both alters refraction at the lens surfaces and curves the light path inside the lens (referred to in prior work as the surface and transfer contributions respectively [10

10. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). We apply a scalar wave-based analysis which demonstrates the principle of GRIN chromatic aberration compensation. We derive a focal length function similar to the “lens maker’s” equation, which allows analytical matching of focal length at two distinct wavelengths. The analysis accounts for surface and transfer contributions, within the paraxial approximation to ray propagation. This new analysis is called for because the spherically symmetric GRIN distributions used here do not fit readily into the general framework cited above [10

10. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. 5. Chromatic paraxial aberrations of lenses with axial or cylindrical index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(11), 1495–1500 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. That prior analysis assumed a certain degree of separation of variables between the axial and radial GRIN variations (Eq. (1) of reference 10

10. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

). In the present case, axial and radial index variations are connected through a square root of sum of squares relationship. This relationship is not supported in the cited framework. For further validation, we use commercial ray trace software [13

13. ZEMAX software, Zemax Development Corp, www.zemax.com

] to analyze axial chromatic aberration and to explore achromat GRIN design space. The analysis below considers the GRIN to be continuous. Any effects of discrete layering due to the fabrication method described above are considered outside the scope of this paper. For those interested, an initial estimation of discrete effects has been calculated [14

14. G. Beadie and J. S. Shirk, “Effects of diffraction and partial reflection in multilayered gradient index polymer lenses,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThU3.

]. That treatment shows the effect to be minimal for current fabrication techniques. Let us return to the analysis at hand. As compared to a homogeneous lens of similar shape, the focal point shift over visible wavelengths is reduced by 4 orders of magnitude, from millimeters to sub-micron, in an optimized achromat GRIN singlet.

2. Theory

Our aim is to develop analytic expressions helpful for achromatizing spherical GRIN singlets. To that end, we assumed a specific GRIN geometry and utilized the thin lens approximation. The lens geometry is depicted in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The lens is defined by a center thickness tc, surface radius of curvature RL, and a gradient index radius of curvature RG, both radii defined relative to the vertex of the lens on the left hand side (z = 0). RG and RL are positive as shown. In the inset is the distance Δz traveled by a ray at height y from the vertex plane to the surface of the lens.
. The lens is cut from a mold with a spherical GRIN index distribution which varies linearly with distance from the spherical origin. A plano-convex lens is shaped and polished out of this mold, in such a way that the center of GRIN curvature lies on the optical axis but well outside the lens, either in front of or behind it.

To determine the focusing properties of the lens, we compute the wavefront transmitted through the optic when illuminated by plane parallel light. In accordance with the thin lens approximation, the phase-front is calculated as if light remains parallel to the propagation axis throughout the lens element. Because of the lens and GRIN symmetry the wavefront is cylindrically symmetric, so it is sufficient to compute the wavefront ϕ(y) along one axis y perpendicular to the propagation direction z:
φ(y)=koΔz(y)+koΔz(y)tcn[r(y,z)]dz
(1)
where ko is the vacuum wavevector of the light, Δz(y) is the distance in air from the vertex plane to the lens surface at height y, tc is the center thickness of the lens, r(y,z) is proportional to the distance from the GRIN center of curvature at point (y,z) within the lens, and n(r) is the index of refraction at r. The first term is the accumulated phase in air before striking the curved front surface, while the second represents the phase from traversing the GRIN.

We find r(y,z) from
r(y,z)=RG|RG|y2+(RGz)2
(2)
where RG is the radius of curvature of the GRIN contour at the lens vertex, with the usual sign convention RG>0 if the center lies to the right of the lens and RG<0 otherwise. Note that for RG<0, r takes on negative values within the lens. As mentioned above, we model a simple linear relationship for the index of refraction:
n(r)=n0+a(rRG)
(3)
where n0 is the index of refraction of the lens at its vertex and a is the rate of index change with distance. (Because it will come up later in the text, we point out that for all values of RG the index of refraction n1 at the back vertex of our lenses is given by n1 = n0a tc.) Assuming that RG>>(y,z), which implies paraxial (y) and thin lens (z) assumptions, and inserting Eq. (2) into Eq. (3) gives an approximate GRIN profile along the integral
n(y,z)=n0+aRG[zRG+y22RG2+ϑ{(yz2/RG3),(z3/RG3)}]
(4)
The form for Δz depends on the radius of curvature of the front surface. Denoting the radius of curvature of the lens RL and assuming that RL >> y, again a paraxial assumption:
Δz(y)=y[y2RL+ϑ{(y/RL)3}].
(5)
Substituting the expressions in Eqs. (4) and (5) into Eq. (1) and computing the integral, we arrive at an approximate wave front
φ(y)ko(n0tcatc22)ko2(n01RLatcRG)y2+ko4(a2RL2aRLRG)y4.
(6)
By comparison, a wavefront which would focus perfectly at a focal distance f is written as:
φf(y)=φo+ko(ff2+y2)=φokof2(yf)2+ϑ{kof(y/f)4}
(7)
From the second terms of Eqs. (6) and (7), we find an analytic approximation for the focal length f(λ) of the plano-convex GRIN lens:
f(λ)=(n0(λ)1RLa(λ)tcRG)1
(8)
where we call out the dependence of variables a, n0 and f on wavelength, λ.

The first term of Eq. (8) is simply what the lens maker’s equation predicts for a plano-convex lens:
f(λ)nonGRIN=(n0(λ)1RL)1
(9)
The two-term sum in Eq. (8) is analogous to the thin-lens focal length expression for a compound lens, f = (1/f1 + 1/f2)−1. We can see how the geometric optical power, the first term, compares with the GRIN optical power, the second term. Critically, the power of the GRIN component depends not on a single index value, but rather the rate of change in index via the slope parameter, a. The GRIN power also grows as the GRIN curvature, 1/RG, becomes stronger. (In the limit of RG → 0, Eq. (8) is invalid, as small RG violates the approximation RG >> (y,z).) Note that the GRIN power can be both positive and negative. If a and RG have opposite signs then the GRIN adds focal power to the lens. On the other hand, if they have the same sign then they serve to weaken the lens power.

Equation (8) lays the foundation for achromatizing the GRIN singlet. For that reason we highlight the wavelength dependence of the parameters for the first time, which arises from the fact that real materials exhibit dispersion. The wavelength dependence of n0 is easy enough to understand – whatever material is at the vertex of the lens will exhibit some level of optical dispersion which is described by n0(λ). The wavelength dependence of a(λ) is similar. At the back vertex of the lens (z = tc and y = 0) the index at some reference wavelength λref is defined by [n0(λref) – a(λref) tc]. Just as for the front vertex, this index function is associated with a material composition at the back vertex. This different material composition will exhibit its own dispersion characteristic, likely of different shape than that of the front vertex. Suppose the back material has both a higher index of refraction and steeper dispersion than the front vertex. Then a(λref) would be negative-valued, creating the higher index. Also, a(λblue) would have greater magnitude than a(λred), leading to higher dispersion at the back vertex.

3. Achromat design

Due to the number of parameters involved in Eq. (8), we can choose lens parameters which allow for identical focal lengths at two different wavelengths. To see how the parameters are chosen, we consider the difference in optical powers 1/f for the same lens at two different wavelengths λblue and λred:
1fblue1fred=[n0(λblue)n0(λred)]RL[n0(λblue)n0(λred)][n1(λblue)n1(λred)]RG
(10)
where we use Eq. (8) twice and remember from the comment after Eq. (3) that (a tc) is equal to the difference in index between the front and back vertices (n0n1). If we restrict ourselves to materials with normal dispersion and assume a plano-convex lens, then the first term in Eq. (10) will always be positive. To obtain a chromatically balanced lens, therefore, the second term must also be positive, and equal to the first term.

To obtain an idea of the lens geometries required for a balanced lens, assume that the material at the front vertex has a higher index, and correspondingly higher dispersion, than the material at the back vertex. In this case the dispersion at the front vertex (n0bluen0red) would be greater than that at the back vertex (n1bluen1red) and the GRIN radius of curvature RG would have to be greater than zero to get a balanced lens. Taking the same materials but reversing their order, so that the high-index material is located at the back vertex, requires the sign of RG to change in order to maintain a chromatic balance.

In designing these lenses, we consider the GRIN radius RG and material properties fixed and solve for the radius of curvature RL which sets the focal length difference in Eq. (10) equal to zero:
RL=RGΔn0Δn0Δn1
(11)
In Eq. (11) we adopt the shorthand Δnj = [nj(λblue) - nj(λred)] at surface j. We express the balanced focal length, where fred = fblue, by combining Eq. (8) at λred with Eq. (11):

fbalanced=RG/Δn1n1(λred)1Δn1n0(λred)1Δn0
(12)

4. Achromat simulations

To validate the idea of an achromatic GRIN lens, we simulated several lenses in the optical design program ZEMAX®. While ZEMAX has the capability to trace rays through gradient index materials, and furthermore has a built in capability to model a spherical GRIN profile, it does not possess the native ability to model dispersion in a spherical GRIN lens. Therefore we were required to develop our own software model which could communicate dispersive GRIN information to ZEMAX’s ray trace engine. Each base material’s dispersion is modeled by Cauchy’s formula, as described in [15

15. R. Ditteon, Modern Geometrical Optics (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

] on p. 17, Eq. (1).37-1.39, with coefficients calculated solely from index and abbe number. This integrated model was validated by comparing ZEMAX-computed wavefronts transmitted through GRIN test cases to those calculated from independently-developed GRIN propagation code, based on published algorithms [16

16. B. D. Stone and G. W. Forbes, “Differential ray tracing in inhomogeneous media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(10), 2824–2836 (1997). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. A. Sharma, D. V. Kumar, and A. K. Ghatak, “Tracing rays through graded-index media: a new method,” Appl. Opt. 21(6), 984–987 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Wavefronts calculated using the two methods agreed to within picometers of optical path length.

The approach to ZEMAX modeling used below is meant to be consistent with the theoretical approach above. Each lens blends two ideal materials described by refractive index, n, and Abbe number, V, to create a linear variation in index versus RG consistent with Eq. (3). The two materials' index, Abbe values (n, V) represent a fairly typical polymer (1.48, 60) and a high index dispersive polymer (1.70, 20) unless noted otherwise. An appropriate value of index slope, a, is chosen so that the index never exceeds the limits of the base polymers throughout the lens volume. Each lens is 1 mm thick; however to first order the lens thickness value is immaterial as long as Δn0-Δn1 remains unchanged. Lens shape is plano-convex, as illustrated in Fig. 2. We optimize each lens by fixing the GRIN profile and allowing the software's optimization routine to select a surface power that shows least chromatic effect.

With the ability to model a dispersive GRIN in ZEMAX, we first set out to validate the balanced focal length equation, Eq. (12). Choosing the Fraunhofer F and C lines as the blue and red wavelengths, respectively, used to balance the focal length via Eqs. (10) and (11) provides a natural way to use the definition of the Abbe number Vj to compute Δnj = Vj / (nj – 1), with nj as the d-line wavelength of material j. There’s no unambiguous way to compute n(λred) from n, V, however, so rather than using Eq. (12) to report the balanced focal length we report the focal length at the d-line as calculated from Eq. (8) and the curvature computed in Eq. (11). Included in Table 1

Table 1. Results from Four Test Cases Comparing a Full Ray Trace to the Approximation in Eq. (12)

table-icon
View This Table
are focal lengths calculated from Eq. (8) and those determined by a ray trace through the ZEMAX model. Achromatic focal length match can be achieved both for standard material pairs displaying increasing dispersion with index and for more exotic materials pairs with decreasing dispersion with index, and in each case both for negative and positive GRIN curvature. Table 1 enumerates these four different combinations, where GRIN curvature is held constant at 20 mm but can be positive or negative. The exotic case of decreasing dispersion with index is included for academic interest; such materials are not currently in use. Agreement between ray traced and theoretically predicted focal lengths is within ± 2% of the paraxial theory.

Higher power lenses result when the GRIN contours curve in opposite direction to the surface radius, e.g. when RG is negative and RL positive. This higher power results from rays encountering a more rapidly varying radial GRIN profile.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Computed longitudinal focal shifts as a function of wavelength. Left: a single homogeneous lens (solid line) and several near-optimized GRIN lenses that bracket the GRIN achromat. Right: the GRIN achromat plotted on vertical scale 10,000x smaller than the plot on the left.
further explores axial chromatic aberration by showing how the image plane location shifts, relative to the d-line focal point, versus wavelength over the visible spectrum. The GRIN radius RG is fixed at 20 mm. The left plot shows the focal shift for both a non-GRIN lens with RL = 27 mm (solid line), and two less than fully optimized GRIN singlets with RL = 26 and 28 mm (2 dashed lines). As RL is varied, the GRIN can both over-correct (RL = 28 mm) and under-correct (RL = 26 mm) the chromatic focal shift. We find the best overall focal shift at RL = 27.095 mm, depicted in the right plot in Fig. 3 (note the expanded vertical scale).

The use of n0 and n1, index at the front and back vertex of the lens, in Table 1 obscures an important consideration in a real spherically-varying GRIN lens. While one extreme index appears at a surface vertex, the other typically appears at a surface edge. Consider a lens spanning a maximum material index range of 1.48 to 1.70, with RG = −8 mm and a = −0.18. As Fig. 4
Fig. 4 GRIN profiles in a plano-convex lens. The index of refraction is plotted, left, along the center of the lens on the optical axis (z) and, right, across the rear surface of the lens (x) at z = 1 mm. These profiles are for an idealized material made from two materials of base index 1.48 and 1.7, and are calculated for λ = 587.6 nm.
shows, the minimum index occurs at the vertex of the front surface (Z = 0, left plot), but the maximum index occurs at the edges of the back surface (X = ± 2 mm, right plot). This boundary issue is incorporated into our ZEMAX model.

5. Conclusion

Nano-layered polymer composites offer an exciting new optical material for manufacturing high-performance GRIN lenses. A significant theoretical contribution herein is the derivation of equations that provide a starting point for ray-based optimization of achromatic GRIN singlets. These equations relate optical power to lens surface radius, gradient iso-index contour radius, refractive index range and dispersion. Three points stand out in GRIN singlet design. First, a strong dependence of δn on λ is at least as important as the magnitude of δn. Increasing the relative dispersion between the two polymer constituents substantially increases the power of the resultant achromat. Second, more aggressive molding of the GRIN contours to achieve a small RG is desirable. Chromatic effects in the GRIN are stronger for small RG, resulting in a higher power achromatized system. Higher power lenses result when RG is opposite in sign to the surface radius, since rays encounter a more rapidly varying radial GRIN profile. Third, placing the lower dispersion material at the highest power lens surface allows the achromat to achieve the highest overall optical power.

This work shows the principle of an achromat GRIN singlet lens through a first order theoretical treatment verified by ray trace analysis. Future work should explore GRIN singlet lenses of more sophisticated shape than plano-convex and provide a fuller treatment of residual aberration. Further, the analysis of material properties indicates the need for further research on layering polymers with a broader variety of dispersion curves.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

D. T. Moore, “Design of singlets with continuously varying indices of refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(7), 886–894 (1971). [CrossRef]

2.

J. M. Gordon, “Spherical gradient-index lenses as perfect imaging and maximum power transfer devices,” Appl. Opt. 39(22), 3825–3832 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

V. I. Tarkhanov, “Lens with a spherical gradient of refractive index, ideally focusing for an object at a finite distance,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(6), 610–615 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

D. T. Moore, “Gradient-index optics: a review,” Appl. Opt. 19(7), 1035–1038 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

G. Beadie, J. S. Shirk, A. Rosenberg, P. A. Lane, E. Fleet, A. R. Kamdar, Y. Jin, M. Ponting, T. Kazmierczak, Y. Yang, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Optical properties of a bio-inspired gradient refractive index polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11540–11547 (2008). [PubMed]

6.

C. D. Mueller, S. Nazarenko, T. Ebeling, T. L. Schuman, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Novel structures by microlayer coextrusion - talc-filled PP, PC/SAN, and HDPE/LLDPE,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 37(2), 355–362 (1997). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Jin, H. Tai, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and J. S. Shirk, “New class of bioinspired lenses with a gradient refractive index,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 103(3), 1834–1841 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

K. S. R. Krishna and A. Sharma, “Chromatic aberrations of radial gradient-index lenses. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 35(7), 1032–1036 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

F. Bociort, “Chromatic paraxial aberration coefficients for radial gradient-index lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(6), 1277–1284 (1996). [CrossRef]

10.

P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. 5. Chromatic paraxial aberrations of lenses with axial or cylindrical index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(11), 1495–1500 (1971). [CrossRef]

12.

P. K. Manhart and R. Blankenbecler, “Fundamentals of macro axial gradient index optical design and engineering,” Opt. Eng. 36(6), 1607–1621 (1997). [CrossRef]

13.

ZEMAX software, Zemax Development Corp, www.zemax.com

14.

G. Beadie and J. S. Shirk, “Effects of diffraction and partial reflection in multilayered gradient index polymer lenses,” in Frontiers in Optics, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper FThU3.

15.

R. Ditteon, Modern Geometrical Optics (John Wiley & Sons, 1998).

16.

B. D. Stone and G. W. Forbes, “Differential ray tracing in inhomogeneous media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(10), 2824–2836 (1997). [CrossRef]

17.

A. Sharma, D. V. Kumar, and A. K. Ghatak, “Tracing rays through graded-index media: a new method,” Appl. Opt. 21(6), 984–987 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(080.3630) Geometric optics : Lenses
(110.2760) Imaging systems : Gradient-index lenses
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
(080.5692) Geometric optics : Ray trajectories in inhomogeneous media

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: November 20, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 14, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 16, 2013
Published: February 21, 2013

Citation
Richard A. Flynn, E. F. Fleet, Guy Beadie, and James S. Shirk, "Achromatic GRIN singlet lens design," Opt. Express 21, 4970-4978 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-4970


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References

  1. D. T. Moore, “Design of singlets with continuously varying indices of refraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.61(7), 886–894 (1971). [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Gordon, “Spherical gradient-index lenses as perfect imaging and maximum power transfer devices,” Appl. Opt.39(22), 3825–3832 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. I. Tarkhanov, “Lens with a spherical gradient of refractive index, ideally focusing for an object at a finite distance,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.8(6), 610–615 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. D. T. Moore, “Gradient-index optics: a review,” Appl. Opt.19(7), 1035–1038 (1980). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Beadie, J. S. Shirk, A. Rosenberg, P. A. Lane, E. Fleet, A. R. Kamdar, Y. Jin, M. Ponting, T. Kazmierczak, Y. Yang, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Optical properties of a bio-inspired gradient refractive index polymer lens,” Opt. Express16(15), 11540–11547 (2008). [PubMed]
  6. C. D. Mueller, S. Nazarenko, T. Ebeling, T. L. Schuman, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Novel structures by microlayer coextrusion - talc-filled PP, PC/SAN, and HDPE/LLDPE,” Polym. Eng. Sci.37(2), 355–362 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Jin, H. Tai, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and J. S. Shirk, “New class of bioinspired lenses with a gradient refractive index,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci.103(3), 1834–1841 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. K. S. R. Krishna and A. Sharma, “Chromatic aberrations of radial gradient-index lenses. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt.35(7), 1032–1036 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Bociort, “Chromatic paraxial aberration coefficients for radial gradient-index lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A13(6), 1277–1284 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. II. Chromatic paraxial aberrations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.61(6), 777–783 (1971). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. J. Sands, “Inhomogeneous lenses. 5. Chromatic paraxial aberrations of lenses with axial or cylindrical index distributions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.61(11), 1495–1500 (1971). [CrossRef]
  12. P. K. Manhart and R. Blankenbecler, “Fundamentals of macro axial gradient index optical design and engineering,” Opt. Eng.36(6), 1607–1621 (1997). [CrossRef]
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