OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 4 — Feb. 25, 2013
  • pp: 5077–5085
« Show journal navigation

Boron Nitride plasma micro lens for high intensity laser pre-pulse suppression

Y. Katzir, Y. Ferber, J.R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 4, pp. 5077-5085 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.005077


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1308 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate that amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and pre-pulses for high power lasers can be suppressed by propagating the pulse through a boron nitride plasma microlens. The microlens is created by ablating a boron-nitride (BN) disk with a central hole using an Nd:YAG laser . The plasma lens produced in the ablation process exhibits different focal lengths for the high intensity main pulse and low intensity pre-pulse that increases the main pulse/pre-pulse contrast ratio by one order of magnitude while maintaining high transmittance of the pulse energy.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Increasing the contrast ratio between a laser pulse and any residual amplified radiation has important implications for a wide range of applications. Many ultra-high intensity laser matter interaction experiments require the target to be at solid density at the arrival of the laser pulse. This is particularly true for ultrathin foil targets used in laser acceleration schemes. Any pre-pulse preceding the main pulse may interfere with this requirement due to pre-plasma formation. Prepulses originating from regenerative amplifiers or from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) are a common feature of high intensity laser experiments. In laser laser-solid target interactions the laser intensities may be well above1018 W/cm2, extremely high contrast ratios for the investigation of laser-matter interactions are demanded in order to prevent target ablation prior to the arrival of the main pulse. Several methods have been put to use for this purpose: second harmonic generation after pulse compression [1

1. Y. Huang, C. Zhang, Y. Xu, D. Li, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Ultrashort pulse temporal contrast enhancement based on noncollinear optical-parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 781–783 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], polarization wave generation (XPW) [2

2. A. Jullien, O. Albert, F. Burgy, G. Hamoniaux, J. P. Rousseau, J. P. Chambaret, F. Augé-Rochereau, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “10-10 temporal contrast for femtosecond ultraintense lasers by cross-polarized wave generation,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 920–922 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], plasma mirrors [3

3. S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, “Prepulse suppression for high-energy ultrashort pulses using self-induced plasma shuttering from a fluid target,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 134–136 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and relativistic plasma shutters [4

4. S. A. Reed, T. Matsuoka, S. Bulanov, M. Tampo, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, R. Kodama, D. W. Litzenberg, K. Krushelnick, and A. Maksimchuk, “Relativistic plasma shutter for ultraintense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201117 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These methods have several drawbacks: low transmission, beam dispersion, and low durability which, for example, makes plasma mirrors unsuitable for high repetition systems. Moreover, reaching extremely high intensities requires tight focusing, for which the common approach is to use a large radius laser beam with conventional optical components such as mirrors. For focusing intense ultra short pulses, the intensity on the optics must stay below the damage threshold of these components. Thus this approach limits the geometrical characteristics of the focused beam such as the focal spot size and focal length.

In this work we demonstrate the use of a plasma lens that is almost transparent to a high-intensity laser pulse, but disperses the low-intensity pre-pulses and does not have the focusing limitations of conventional optics for high power lasers. Compared with conventional optics, plasma lenses have a substantially higher damage threshold [5

5. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. We have recently demonstrated focusing of a laser pulse by a plasma channel microlens with a hollow plasma density profile [6

6. Y. Katzir, S. Eisenmann, Y. Ferber, A. Zigler, and R. F. Hubbard, “A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031101 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. A plasma channel lens is a short cylindrical column of plasma with a density minimum on its axis. The experimental results were consistent with analytical and simulation estimates of the focal length of a plasma channel lens [7

7. R. F. Hubbard, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Kaganovich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “High intensity focusing of laser pulses using a short plasma channel lens,” Phys. Plasmas 9(4), 1431–1442 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, their focusing properties can be tailored to the incident laser intensity by exploiting the ionization properties of the background gas, as demonstrated here.

Section 2 discusses the theoretical basis for the plasma lens and presents simulations of the experiment. Section 3 discusses the experimental results. Section 4 presents our conclusions.

2. Theoretical basis and simulation

The refractive index of a plasma is given by the expression np=(1ωp2/ωL2)1/2, and is mostly determined by the electron density. Here, ωp=(4πNe2/me)1/2 is the plasma frequency, ωLis the laser angular frequency, N is the plasma electron density meis the electron mass and e is the magnitude of the electron charge. The transverse variation of the electron density determines the focusing properties of the plasma by introducing a transverse variation in np. In the absence of such a variation, the laser pulse will expand over a characteristic distance termed the Rayleigh length, ZR0=πRL2/λ, where RL is the laser spot size, and λ is the wavelength. As demonstrated in numerous experiments, a plasma channel with a density minimum on axis can guide a laser pulse over many Rayleigh lengths.

In addition, a short plasma channel can in principle act as a microlens with a well- defined focal length. For an axially symmetric parabolic density variation, i.e., ωp2(r)=ωp02(1+r2/Rp2), whereωp0 is the plasma frequency at the center of the channel (r=0), and Rp is the characteristic channel radius, the focal length zf of a plasma channel lens can be calculated analytically and is given by Eq. (10) in [7

7. R. F. Hubbard, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Kaganovich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “High intensity focusing of laser pulses using a short plasma channel lens,” Phys. Plasmas 9(4), 1431–1442 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The focal length scales with the Rayleigh length of the laser pulse at when it enters the plasma channel lens and is a function of the on-axis plasma density, the axial thickness of the lens plasma Δ, and the characteristic channel radius. Equation (11) of the same reference provides an analytical estimate of the focal spot size Rf, which scales with the initial laser spot size R0. These analytical estimates neglect relativistic self-focusing in the lens plasma and assume that Δzf.

The plasma lens electron density is a function of propagating laser intensity due to ionization; hence the lens can be made to affect low-intensity (pre-pulse) and high-intensity components of a laser pulse differently. In our experiment, a plasma lens was created using a low power nanosecond laser to ablate the surface of a Boron-Nitride [8

8. Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Ablation characteristics of cubic-boron nitride ceramic with femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(12), 6447–6450 (2001). [CrossRef]

] (BN) composite disk with a hole drilled in the center, the resulting spatial plasma profile has a hollow profile with low density plasma nearer the center Such a microlens has the advantage that proper timing between the creation of the lens and main beam, allows for control over the focal length. During the interaction of a sufficiently intense femtosecond laser the Boron and Nitrogen ions previously generated by the ablating laser [6

6. Y. Katzir, S. Eisenmann, Y. Ferber, A. Zigler, and R. F. Hubbard, “A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031101 (2009). [CrossRef]

], will go through further ionization. Considering these ions electron configurations and ionization potentials, the low and high intensity components of the pulse propagate through different plasma density profiles and accordingly, have different focusing properties. For intensities below the multiphoton ionization threshold the original plasma density is unaffected, and the focusing properties of the plasma lens are preserved. Thus, with proper choice of plasma lens parameters, the relatively low-intensity pre-pulse is strongly focused by the lens and then rapidly disperses, causing significant intensity reduction on the target placed at distance of several Rayleigh lengths from the plasma lens. Upon arrival of the high-intensity main pulse, the hollow profile of the plasma lens is almost instantaneously flattened by the leading edge of the main pulse. For laser intensities below 1020W/cm2 the ionization process will stop once all the electrons, except the last 1s2 electrons, will be removed. Thus, the plasma lens becomes a layer with a relatively uniform transverse profile (infinite focal length) that is almost transparent to the main laser pulse. The concept is illustrated in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of differences in propagation between the prepulse and main pulse. The prepulse is strongly focused by the plasma lens and then disperses while leaving the plasma distribution unaffected. As the main pulse arrives it further ionizes the plasma and neutral gas, thus destroying the plasma lens and propagating mostly unaffected.
.

We simulated the propagation of the prepulse and main laser pulse through a plasma lens using the HELCAP code [9

9. P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, “Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 046418 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11(5), 2865–2874 (2004). [CrossRef]

] for parameters similar to our experimental set up. The plasma lens was modeled as a parabolic transverse density variation as shown in Fig. 2(b)
Fig. 2 (a) Simulated intensity contours as a function of time and transverse coordinate at z=0. (b) Transverse profile of electron density at t=0.3psec (lighter solid curve) just before the arrival of the laser pulses,t=0.1psec (dashed curve) at the leading edge of the main pulse, and t=0 (short-dashed curve) at the peak intensity of the main pulse. The transverse intensity profile of the main pulse is denoted by the thicker solid curve.
(thin solid curve) with a longitudinal extent of 0.5mm, a plasma density of 1017cm3 at the center of the lens and Rp35μm. The pre-pulse and main pulse were initially collimated and taken to have Gaussian transverse and longitudinal profiles with spot size radius of 150μm. The pulse durations of the main pulse and pre-pulse were 85fsecIn our simulations we assume that the origin of the prepulse is the leakage from regenerative amplifier, the duration of this prepulse is about the same as the main pulse but it arrives about 10nsec before. In order to reduce the computation time of the simulation the two pulses were separated temporally by 0.25psec. The peak intensity of the main pulse was 4.8×1015W/cm2 while the pre-pulse had a factor of 100lower intensity. The laser wavelength was 800nm and the total laser energy was ~20mJ. Multiphoton ionization was assumed to be the dominant ionization mechanism for the boron nitride gas. In addition to the hollow plasma, it was assumed that the ablation process produces a uniform gas fill.

The laser pulses were propagated a distance of 5mm, corresponding to the distance after the lens at which the pulses were imaged experimentally. Figure 2(a) shows the electron density contours at z=0 as a function of time and transverse coordinate. It is seen that the plasma channel is present for t<0.1psec, i.e., before the arrival of the main laser pulse, but is completely filled in by the ionization process early in the main pulse. Figure 2(b) shows the transverse profile of electron density at t=0.3psec (lighter solid curve) just before the arrival of the laser pulses, t=0.1psec (dashed curve) at the leading edge of the main pulse, and t=0 (short-dashed curve) at the peak intensity of the main pulse. The transverse intensity profile of the main pulse is denoted by the thicker solid curve.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Simulated intensity contours as a function of time and transverse coordinate at (a) z=0, (b) z=0.7mm, and (c) z=5mm for a laser pulse and pre-pulse passing through a plasma lens. (d) On-axis temporal profile of intensity at z=0 (dashed curve) and z=5mm showing the reduction in pre-pulse amplitude.
displays the intensity profiles of the two laser pulses at z=0 (panel a) before the plasma lens, z=0.7mm (panel b) near the focus of the pre-pulse, and at z=5mm (panel b) after the plasma lens.

The pre-pulse is observed to undergo focusing by the plasma lens with a focal length of ~0.7mm and is defocused and reduced in intensity when the pulses arrive at the imaging plane (z=5mm). The main pulse is distorted by ionization on its leading edge but remains relatively intact. Figure 3(d) displays the on-axis intensity profiles corresponding to panels (a) and (c) and shows the pre-pulse intensity reduced by a factor of ~5 at the imaging plane.

3. Experiment

In our experiment, a BN disk with a hole drilled in its center is irradiated by a single Nd:YAG laser pulse (100mJ, 1.06μm, 5ns FWHM) to create the initial plasma lens. The disk has a 1cm outer diameter and a 1mm thickness. A capillary hole with a 300μm diameter is drilled through the center of the disk (Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup. Two photodiodes were used to measure the contrast ratio: photodiode 1 was set before the plasma lens, measuring a leak from an input mirror; photodiode 2 was placed after the plasma lens measuring a reflection off a beam splitter. Each photodiode output was divided into two channels with two different scales, depicting the prepulse and main pulse intensities, thus determining their ratio.
).

The Nd:YAG laser pulse was focused such that it will ablate a diameter of 2mm around the capillary entrance in order to ensure uniform fluence at the perimeter of the drilled hole. All measurements were done in a vacuum chamber using backing pressure of 4×104 Torr. To characterize the plasma lens temporal and spatial characteristics, we measured the plasma radial density profile along the capillary by imaging the capillary exit along a slit at the entrance of a spectrometer, such that only a thin strip, one diameter long, would pass at a 1:10magnification [11

11. T. Palchan, D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, P. Sprangle, C. Ting, and A. Zigler, “Electron density in low density capillary plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061501 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The spectrum was captured by a fast gated (10ns) ICCD camera (Andor Tech., DH520). 1D hydro code “Hyades” simulation for this scenario showed typical plasmas temperature of 1eV which determines that the Stark line broadening is predominant over all other broadening effects. By measuring the broadening of doubly ionized Boron emission lines(λ=4121Å) [12

12. R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques (Academic Press, 1965).

, 13

13. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

] we were able to determine the spatial plasma density distribution at various times.

Evaluation of plasma lens focusing characteristics, after passage of the ablating pulse, was conducted using a 0.5TW Ti:Sapphire laser pulse (35mJ, 70fs, 800nm central wavelength). Plasma measurements were made with and without the main beam in order to explore the plasma density distribution differences in the ablated plasma. The main beam was focused on the capillary entrance and then imaged to determine its shape and radius. In order to observe the effect of the plasma microlens on the pre-pulse, we deliberately readjusted the contrast ratio between the pre-pulse, which originated in the regenerative amplifier 12.5ns before the main pulse, to 1:200 so it would be within the dynamic range by a fast photodiode.

We first characterized the operation of the plasma lens at low power using a pulse train from an 800nm,86MHzTi:Sapphire oscillator. Each pulse had a duration of 15fs and an energy of 0.5nJ. The beam was imaged into the fast gated (20ns) ICCD camera. The Ti:Sapphire pulse energy was simultaneously measured after the lens by a fast photodiode. The measurement of the lens transmission revealed that the conditions are optimal for focusing ~70ns after the ablating laser reaches the capillary surface. At this delay time, the plasma density profile has a low minimum value on axis 1017cm3.

We then propagated the high-intensity main laser pulse (with a pre-pulse) and measured the plasma distribution after passage of the main pulse. This measurement revealed that the transverse variation of the plasma density, and hence the focusing properties of the plasma lens was eliminated, presumably due to further ionization by the main pulse (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured plasma density before arrival of the main pulse (red) shows the hollow profile corresponding to different optical path lengths as a function of distance from capillary center causing focusing at low intensities. Plasma density after arrival of the main pulse (blue) showing a smoothing the hollow profile.
).

In order to compare the contrast ratio before and after passage through the plasma lens the photodiodes output were divided into two different input sockets of an oscilloscope. Each input was set to measure a different scale corresponding to sought intensity. Thus out of a single pulse 4 measurements were made: pre pulse and main pulse before and after the plasma lens. According to these measurements the contrast ratios were calculated. Measurement of the pre-pulse contrast ratio after passing through the plasma lens showed an order of magnitude increase compared to before the plasma lens (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Prepulse suppression. Blue line shows contrast ratio in the absence of the plasma lens. Green line shows contrast ratio with plasma lens. The contrast ratio increases an order of magnitude when propagating through the lens.
).

Imaging the beam after propagation through the plasma lens, showed that the prepulse is focused by it and expands after the focal point to an extent that is undetectable by the imaging camera; whereas the main pulse is passes mostly unaffected. An image of the pulse shows a dramatic increase in diameter of the low intensity components, while at the same time, slight focusing of the high intensity component (Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)Image of high intensity laser pulse without plasma lens (PL). (b) high intensity pulse with PL and ND filter of OD = 1.5 added. c)low intensity without PL. d) low intensity with PL.
).

Energy transmittance was measured to be 93%. The disk shows an erosion of (10μm) per shot, so that a millimeter thick disk can endure around a hundred shots before needing replacement.

4. Conclusions

We have experimentally demonstrated the use of a plasma lens to significantly reduce pre-pulse of a high-intensity ultra-short laser pulse while transmitting > 90% of the laser pulse energy. These results can be interpreted through the following mechanism: the relatively low intensity pre-pulse is focused by the plasma microlens and later defocused. In this stage the focal length is less than1mm. The pre-pulses intensity is too low to affect the electron density, therefore leaving the plasma microlens intact. As the main pulse arrives, the intensity of its leading edge is high enough for further ionization, thus smoothing the plasma distribution and effectively reducing or eliminating the plasma lens focusing effect. As shown in Fig. 5, this effect is restrained, i.e. a defocusing lens is not created by a peak in plasma density at the center of the capillary. The restraining effect can be explained by the structure of Boron electron configurations: the first three (2p and 2s2) electrons can be removed by the main pulse laser, where as the remaining 1s2 electron requires an intensity exceeding that of the laser (same explanation goes for the Nitrogen). This creates a different divergence for the pre-pulse and the main pulse, allowing for focusing and divergence of the pre-pulse before the desired target and eliminating any residual radiation interaction before arrival of the main pulse. These effects are illustrated in the simulation results shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Our experimental results support this interpretation. The plasma density measured before the arrival of the main pulse shows the presence of a plasma channel, while after the passage of the main pulse, the plasma density is relatively uniform. Correspondingly, the prepulse is observed to be substantially suppressed, which the main pulse propagates through relatively unaffected. An alternate explanation can be attributed to fast plasma shuttering . The plasma ablated from the walls moves toward the capillary center and generates a parabolic electron density profile on axis of the capillary, causing strong focusing of the prepulse. By the time that the main pulse arrives (after 12.5nsec) the electron density non-uniformity has reduced considerably allowing the main pulse to pass almost undisturbed.

Either of these mechanisms can be utilized for pre-pulse suppression for high intensity laser-matter interactions and can be viewed as an ultrafast dynamic optical switch. This switch reduces the fluence of the pre-pulse reaching the target while leaving the main pulse mostly unaffected.

In principle, the plasma lens can be tuned by controlling the electron density, making it possible to move the position of the focus without physically moving any optical component. In addition, the high durability and slow deterioration of BN makes it suitable for high repetition laser systems.

References and links

1.

Y. Huang, C. Zhang, Y. Xu, D. Li, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Ultrashort pulse temporal contrast enhancement based on noncollinear optical-parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 781–783 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. Jullien, O. Albert, F. Burgy, G. Hamoniaux, J. P. Rousseau, J. P. Chambaret, F. Augé-Rochereau, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “10-10 temporal contrast for femtosecond ultraintense lasers by cross-polarized wave generation,” Opt. Lett. 30(8), 920–922 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, “Prepulse suppression for high-energy ultrashort pulses using self-induced plasma shuttering from a fluid target,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 134–136 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

S. A. Reed, T. Matsuoka, S. Bulanov, M. Tampo, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, R. Kodama, D. W. Litzenberg, K. Krushelnick, and A. Maksimchuk, “Relativistic plasma shutter for ultraintense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201117 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. Katzir, S. Eisenmann, Y. Ferber, A. Zigler, and R. F. Hubbard, “A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031101 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

R. F. Hubbard, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Kaganovich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “High intensity focusing of laser pulses using a short plasma channel lens,” Phys. Plasmas 9(4), 1431–1442 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Ablation characteristics of cubic-boron nitride ceramic with femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(12), 6447–6450 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, “Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(4), 046418 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas 11(5), 2865–2874 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Palchan, D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, P. Sprangle, C. Ting, and A. Zigler, “Electron density in low density capillary plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061501 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques (Academic Press, 1965).

13.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

OCIS Codes
(320.5550) Ultrafast optics : Pulses
(350.5400) Other areas of optics : Plasmas

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 24, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 6, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 10, 2013
Published: February 22, 2013

Citation
Y. Katzir, Y. Ferber, J.R. Penano, R. F. Hubbard, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, "Boron Nitride plasma micro lens for high intensity laser pre-pulse suppression," Opt. Express 21, 5077-5085 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-4-5077


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. Y. Huang, C. Zhang, Y. Xu, D. Li, Y. Leng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Ultrashort pulse temporal contrast enhancement based on noncollinear optical-parametric amplification,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 781–783 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Jullien, O. Albert, F. Burgy, G. Hamoniaux, J. P. Rousseau, J. P. Chambaret, F. Augé-Rochereau, G. Chériaux, J. Etchepare, N. Minkovski, and S. M. Saltiel, “10-10 temporal contrast for femtosecond ultraintense lasers by cross-polarized wave generation,” Opt. Lett.30(8), 920–922 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, D. M. Gold, H. Nathel, and W. White, “Prepulse suppression for high-energy ultrashort pulses using self-induced plasma shuttering from a fluid target,” Opt. Lett.18(2), 134–136 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. A. Reed, T. Matsuoka, S. Bulanov, M. Tampo, V. Chvykov, G. Kalintchenko, P. Rousseau, V. Yanovsky, R. Kodama, D. W. Litzenberg, K. Krushelnick, and A. Maksimchuk, “Relativistic plasma shutter for ultraintense laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(20), 201117 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(11), 1784–1794 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Katzir, S. Eisenmann, Y. Ferber, A. Zigler, and R. F. Hubbard, “A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(3), 031101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. R. F. Hubbard, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. Kaganovich, P. Sprangle, and A. Zigler, “High intensity focusing of laser pulses using a short plasma channel lens,” Phys. Plasmas9(4), 1431–1442 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Hirayama and M. Obara, “Ablation characteristics of cubic-boron nitride ceramic with femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys.90(12), 6447–6450 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Sprangle, J. R. Peñano, and B. Hafizi, “Propagation of intense short laser pulses in the atmosphere,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.66(4), 046418 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, A. Ting, D. F. Gordon, and C. A. Kapetanakos, “Propagation of ultra-short, intense laser pulses in air,” Phys. Plasmas11(5), 2865–2874 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Palchan, D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, P. Sprangle, C. Ting, and A. Zigler, “Electron density in low density capillary plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(6), 061501 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Plasma Diagnostic Techniques (Academic Press, 1965).
  13. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited