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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 5 — Mar. 11, 2013
  • pp: 5300–5308
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Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides with internal Wheatstone bridges

Jacek Gosciniak, Michael G. Nielsen, Laurent Markey, Alain Dereux, and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 5300-5308 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.005300


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Abstract

We report on monitoring the mode power in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs) by measuring the resistance of gold electrodes, supporting the DLSPPW mode propagation, with internal (on-chip) Wheatstone bridges. The investigated DLSPPW configuration consisted of 1-μm-thick and 10-μm-wide cycloaliphatic acrylate polymer ridges tapered laterally to a 1-μm-wide ridge placed on a 50-nm-thin and 4-um wide gold stripe, all supported by a ~1.7-µm-thick Cytop layer deposited on a Si wafer. The fabricated DLSPPW power monitors were characterized at telecom wavelengths, showing very high responsivities reaching up to ~6.4 μV/μW (for a bias voltage of 245 mV) and the operation bandwidth exceeding 40 kHz.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The massive growth of telecom and data communication traffic in the last decade can be attributed to using optical fibers as the transmission medium which has already taken over the task of long-distance communications from electrical cables and which refines the connections between different parts of large electronic systems. However, in short-distance communications inside information-processing devices on integrated circuit chips and on circuit boards wires still dominate. It means that the optical signals have to be converted to electrical ones, to be amplified, regenerated, or switched, and then they are reconverted to optical signals. It is well known that the optical-to-electronic-to-optical (OEO) conversion is a significant impediment in transmission. Further, a limited capacity of electrical interconnects is a problem for systems even at short distances between chips and on chips. So, replacing existing electronic network switches with optical ones is strongly desired since the need for OEO conversions is removed. Therefore, optical switches can play an important role in applications, including optical cross connection, protection switching, and switching arrays for optical add-drop multiplexing [1

1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic network-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Among many available switching technologies the thermo-optic switches [2

2. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992). [CrossRef]

] are very attractive due their small size, large scalability, and potentiality for integration with waveguide dense-wavelength division-multiplexing multiplexers. Their optical performances, in terms of cross talk and insertion losses, are acceptable for many applications. Thus, the speed of waveguide devices based on the thermo-optic effect is quite adequate for applications oriented on controllable routing of optical signals.

2. Experimental arrangement

The substrate used was standard Si wafer that was covered with a spin-coated ~1.7μm-thick Cytop realized using a procedure similar to those reported in ref [11

11. J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Directional Coupler Switches,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444008 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16300–16309 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Cytop grade CTL-809M and the corresponding solvent CT-SOLV180 used for dilution were obtained from AGC Chemicals Europe Ltd. The other processing resists used: AZnLOF 2070 and LOR-A were from Microchemicals Gmbh and MicroChem Corp., respectively. The investigated DLSPPW-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic representation of the end-fire in/out coupling arrangement showing cleaved PM single-mode optical fibers and a fabricated sample with power monitor structure. (b) Schamatic layout of the investigated power monitor with a microscope image of the actual structure (containing a 1-μm-wide PMMA ridge placed on a 4-μm-wide gold stripe) being incorporated, using an internal Wheatstone bridge configuration. (s) Cross-section of the fabricated structure with a Cyclomer ridge on top of a gold stripe deposited on an underlying Cytop layer with (d) a characteristic mode effective index and propagation length.
) were fabricated by a UV lithography process using a Süss Microtech MJB4 mask aligner in the vacuum contact mode and using consecutively two (commercial) masks. In the first step, a bilayer i-line (365nm) lithography process using AZnLOF resist (the imaging layer) on top of a LOR-A underlayer resist (facilitating the lift-off) followed by gold evaporation and lift-off in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was used to pattern the 50-nm-thick gold electrodes deposited on Cytop. In order to get a good adhesion of LOR on Cytop, we introduced a short oxygen plasma ashing step prior to LOR coating. In the second step, a spin-coated (~0.6 μm-thick) layer of polymer resist - a cycloaliphatic acrylate polymer (CAP) was exposed through the second mask at a wavelength of 250 nm and developed, thus defining the dielectric (polymer) ridges of the DLSPPW circuitry. The polymer ridges were ~1 μm-wide in principal regions of the components and were on both sides connected via 25 μm-long funnel structures with access (10 μm-wide) polymer waveguides extending outside gold covered regions of DLSPPWs all the way up to the substrate edges [Fig. 1(a)], facilitating thereby the end-fire coupling of photonics waveguide with single-mode tapered optical fibers.

To reduce the influence of environmental temperature fluctuations, the internal Wheatstone bridge configuration was implemented with all conductors being stripes similar to that used to guide the DLSPP mode [Fig. 1(b)], so that, in the absence of DLSPP radiation, the bridge was almost perfectly balanced. The internal Wheatstone bridge was connected with the external a bias voltage source and lock-in amplifier by the aluminum wires connected to the bonding pads on the sample by ultrasonic wire bonding. The 4-μm-wide and 46-μm-long DLSPPW gold stripe was electrically isolated from the rest of the DLSPPW structure with 2-μm-wide gaps which introduce additional scattering loss.

3. Operation principle and results

The optical power absorbed by the metal stripe is dissipated into both the top polymer ridge and a substrate and an amount of heat dissipated to ridge depends on thermal resistance and capacity of the surroundings materials. The dissipated power by stripe depends on the SPP attenuation coefficient (propagation length) and the length of the active region. The dynamic increase of the metal stripe temperature ΔT(t) due to the absorption of the SPP mode power at time t can be expressed as
ΔT(t)=RthPin[1exp(αprL)][1exp(t/τ)]
where, Rth is the thermal resistance of the ridge, Pin is the power coupled in the SPP mode, αpr is the SPP attenuation coefficient, L is the active length of the metal stripe and τ is the thermal time constant needed to load thermally a ridge.

The temperature rise causes an increase in the metal resistivity and, consequently, in the stripe resistance that can be evaluated as follow
R(Pin)=R(Pin=0)[1+αthΔT(t)]
where, αth is the thermal resistance coefficient of metal, which for gold is αth = 3.715·10−3[1/K]. It is clearly seen that the resistance increases linearly with the in-coupled power and, thereby, with the transmitted SPP power. This allows measurements of the metal stripe resistance (or its variations) for the purpose of monitoring of the transmitted SPP power.

To monitor changes in the DLSPPW gold stripe resistance the Wheatstone bridge configuration was used. For the balanced bridge being constructed to ensure the maximum response of the Wheatstone bridge, i.e., when R1 = R2 = R3 = Rx(Pin = 0) with the latter resistance being that of the DLSPPW metal stripe in the absence of the SPP radiation, the signal voltage can be expresses as follows
Vs(Pin)=12αthΔT2+αthΔTVb
where Vb is the bias voltage [Fig. 1(b)] and the scattering contribution was neglected (i.e., it was assumed that all propagation losses goes into the absorption losses, which is a reasonable assumption for DLSPPWs). In the Wheatstone bridge configuration for the connections presented in Fig. 1 and in the absence of DLSPP radiation the signal voltage is given by
Vs(Pin=0)=RxR1R2R3(Rx+R3)(R2+R1)Vb
implying that for perfectly balanced bridge (Vs = 0) RxR1 = R2R3.

The responsivity of the investigated power monitors was evaluated by first measuring the signal voltage Vs of the Wheatstone bridge in the absence of the DLSPPW excitation and then measuring the signal voltage for different laser powers [Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Signal voltage measured as a function of the input (with respect to the DLSPPW) optical power (Pin), whose level was estimated from the insertion fiber-to-fiber loss for structure with Cyclomer ridge and Cytop underlying layer for the bias voltage of 255 mV at wavelength 1550 nm (measured and calculated). Slope of linear fits to the experimental data provided the responsivity for each wavelength. (b) Signal voltage as a function of the frequency of modulation of the input laser radiation for structure with Cyclomer ridge. Duty ratio of 50% was kept constant through the conducted measurements.
]. The changes in the signal voltage were found linear with respect to the input laser power, showing the possibility of monitoring the (DLSPPW mode) power-induced changes in the stripe resistance. The slope of the response, which defines the responsivity of the power monitor, was found to be 6.4 µV/µW with Vb = 255 mV what gives responsivity per applied a bias voltage ~25.1 µV/µW∙V. It is over 14-25 times higher compared to the previously reported [13

13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] (1.0-1.8 µV/µW∙V) for structure with MgF2 substrate and with the 1 µm-thick a PMMA ridge. A higher responsivity can be attributed to several factors from which higher absorption losses of the DLSPP mode consequent on the lower ridge height and a higher refractive index of the ridge is the most important factor. Furthermore, the ratio of thermal conductivity coefficients of the ridge to the substrate is much higher for analyzed structure mostly due to much higher thermal conductivity coefficient of Cytop compared to MgF2 (MgF2 – κ = 11.6 (W/mK), Cytop - κ = 0.12 (W/mK)) what influence on the direction of heat dissipation and the amount of heat transferred to the ridge. The ridge temperature increase is proportional to the DLSPP mode power coupled to the plasmonic waveguide and influences the signal voltage drop, which was also calculated theoretically showing very good agreement with measurements [Fig. 2(a)].

Modulation response of the power monitor was studied by chopping the input laser light at various frequencies with the signal voltage being measured by a lock-in amplifier for two different bias voltages [Fig. 2(b)]. It was observed that the signal voltage level is weakly frequency dependent in the analyzed frequency range from 1 Hz to 800 Hz (the upper modulation frequency was limited by use of a mechanical chopper). However, the signal voltage level varies considerably with change in the bias voltage. For a bias voltage Vb = 200 mV, the recorded signal voltage is negative compared to positive a signal voltage observed for increased a bias voltage to Vb = 250 mV. For a larger bias voltage and thereby a larger current in bridge electrodes, the polymer ridge decreases its refractive index increasing the DLSPP mode propagation loss and consequently increasing the stripe resistance through increasing the stripe temperature. Additionally, it was observed that for frequencies below 2 Hz the signal voltage decreases gradually suggesting that, for longer light switching, the heat originated from the light absorption dissipates into the entire system, decreasing in this way a temperature difference between the stripe supporting the DLSPP mode and rest of the system.

It should be noted that the signal voltage and, therefore, the responsivity depends also upon the wavelength used in accord with the dependence of the DLSPP propagation loss caused by metal absorption, which is wavelength dependent. Furthermore, the presence of gaps on both sides of the DLSPP waveguide makes it similar to a Fabry-Perot cavity so the transmission depends strongly on the wavelength exhibiting a periodic dependence with respect to the phase accumulated by the cavity mode per circulation. Smaller transmission implies that the DLSPP mode power is larger in the cavity, increasing the absorption losses and, as a consequence, increasing the signal voltage and responsivity (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Signal voltage with two bias voltages (Vb = 200 mV and Vb = 245 mV) as a function of the light wavelength and the corresponding responsivity and signal transmission as a function of the wavelength for bias voltage Vb = 200 mV (b) and Vb = 245 mV (c) and at the frequency of 200 Hz.
). It should be mentioned that the observed wavelength dependence can be significantly attenuated with the oscillations being strongly suppressed by removing the gaps between the Wheatstone bridge electrodes and the rest of waveguide circuitry. These gaps are really needed only in configurations containing other active plasmonic components, i.e., with other paths for bias and signal currents. The measurements of the resistance between pads 1-4, 2-3, 1-3, and 2-4 [Fig. 1(a)] allow one to evaluate the metal stripe resistance supporting the DLSPP mode to be R≈5.8 Ω what fits very good with calculated one R≈5.7 Ω, using the relation R = ρ(L/w·t) with L = 46 µm, t = 50 nm and w = 4 µm.

To investigate further the monitoring of the power coupled to the plasmonic waveguide we decided to modulate the bias voltage while keeping the in-coupled radiation power constant. The modulated bias voltage was changed from 0 to 50 mV or 100 mV at the desired frequency and then the signal voltage was measured using a lock-in amplifier. In the absence of light coupled to the DLSPPW, the signal voltage was measured to be −131.05 μV and −263.2 μV for a bias voltage 50 mV and 100 mV, respectively, with the latter being modulated at the frequency of 1 kHz. It should be noted that, even for a perfectly balanced Wheatstone bridge, one should expect nonzero signal voltages in the absence of light, because the bias current would heat different bridge arms differently due to the presence of a polymer ridge on the top of waveguide stripe electrode. Heating of the polymer-loaded electrode would, in this case, occur similar to its heating by the DLSPPW mode, since the light absorption takes place also inside this stripe. One should therefore expect similar frequency responses in both cases and benefit from a relative ease, with which current modulation can be implemented as compared to the optical power modulation. Also, similar frequency responses when modulating the bias voltage are expected with and without the (non-modulated) radiation being coupled into the DLSPPW mode.

The frequency response was observed to be almost flat in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 40 kHz with local maxima and minima not exceeding however ~5% of the average value [Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Signal voltage increases with reference to the propagating mode (light ON) and a signal voltage in the absence of the propagating mode (light OFF) as a function of the frequency of the modulation of the bias voltage (AC voltage) for two AC voltage – Vb = 50 mV and Vb = 100 mV showing a frequency cutoff of 40 kHz. (b) Signal voltage increases and transmission of the signal as a function of the wavelength for the AC voltage amplitude of 100 mV and modulated at the frequency of 1 kHz. In the absence of the propagating mode (light OFF) the signal voltage was −263.2 μV.
]. The situation changes for lower and higher frequencies, at which the signal voltage drops to zero. In the case of low frequencies, the signal voltage decreases to zero as a result of equalization of temperatures between the heated part of the Wheatstone bridge and the rest of the structure as mentioned above. On the contrary, for high frequencies, the ridge experiences a problem to follow rapid changes in the temperature, decreasing thereby the difference in current induced heating of the polymer-loaded and other bridge electrodes, and the signal voltage drops down. The measured frequency cutoff is in the range of 75-100 kHz, which corresponds to the response time of 10-13μs. Additionally, the wavelength dependence of the signal voltage (with the light coupled into the DLSPPW) and transmission show similar behavior to the observed previously with a DC bias voltage and modulated light power, with a maximum and minimum transmission and voltage for wavelength 1550 nm and 1600 nm, respectively [Fig. 4(b)].

Based on the signal voltage increase with the applied voltage the responsivity was calculated taking into account the 6.5 μW laser power coupled to the plasmonic waveguide. Obtained responsivity of 0.12 μV/μW for Vb = 100 mV was much lower compared to the previously reported with a DC bias voltage. However, it should be noted that in the case of measurements with a DC bias voltage the bias voltage level was higher compared to the measurements with the AC bias voltage. The power dissipated by stripe and, in consequence, the temperature of the ridge while heated increases quadratically with the applied voltage what influences on the DLSPP mode absorption. The higher a ridge temperature is the lower ridge refractive index and the higher the DLSPP mode absorption will be. So, increasing the ridge temperature via increasing a bias voltage causes a higher DLSPP mode absorption for the same optical power coupled to the plasmonic waveguide what influences on the further ridge temperature increases and higher signal voltage drop measured by lock-in amplifier.

To confirm the high cut off frequency of the power monitor the temporal response was recorded for a modulation bias voltage 284 mV and 428 mV connected to the pads 1 and 2 (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Temporal response of the transmitted signal (blue curve) for AC voltage amplitude of 428 mV and modulated at the frequency of 1 kHz with the exponential fit (red curve) showing the rise and fall time of ~15 μs. (b) Transmitted signal amplitude and average signal as a function of wavelengths for AC voltage amplitude of 284 mV and 428 mV and modulated at the frequency of 1 kHz. (c) Power dissipated by the metal stripe supporting the DLSPP mode as a function of the bias voltage. (d) Cyclomer ridge temperature increases and signal voltage increases (Vs(ON)-Vs(OFF)) as a function of a bias voltage. The ridge temperature increases calculated under assumption that only 30% of dissipated power by metal stripe supported the DLSPP waveguide is transferred to the ridge.
) with the total resistance measured on 26.83 Ω.

The total power dissipated by the stripe together with connecting electrodes and wires was evaluated on ~3 mW and ~6.8 mW for a bias voltage 284 mV and 428 mV with a power dissipated by the metal stripe supporting the DLSPP mode evaluated on 355 μW and 792 μW respectively. However, it should be emphasized that only 20-30% of the dissipated power contribute to the temperature increase of the ridge as a results of ridge contact area with the metal electrode and a thermal conductivity coefficient difference between materials which are in contact with electrode. At the same time a temporal response of the light modulated by voltage of 428 mV showed a switching on/off time being in the range of 15 μs what corresponds to the cut off frequency of 70 kHz [Fig. 5(a)] and fits very good with the cut off frequency of the power monitor [Fig. 4(a)]. The power dissipated by metal stripe supporting the DLSPP mode depends quadratically on the bias voltage and for the low bias voltage of 50 mV is 20 μW. However, only part of dissipated power is transferred to the ridge. The transfer amount depends on the ridge contact’s area with the metal electrode, thermal conductivity coefficient’s difference between ridge and substrate below metal electrodes, and the amount of dissipated power. The smaller is the dissipated power, the larger amount of heat is transferred to the ridge. It was calculated that, for a bias voltage of 50 mV, almost 75% of power is transferred to the ridge, while for the 100 mV it is only 30%.

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the European Union (EU) project FP7-249135 (PLATON) and by the Danish Council for Independent Research (contract no. 09-072949).

References and links

1.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic network-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83–85 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proceedings of the IEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomas, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518529 (2010).

5.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(21), 211101 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4391–4402 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Directional Coupler Switches,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444008 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16300–16309 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Nikolajsen, and K. Leosson, “Integrated power monitor for long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun. 255(1–3), 51–56 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep 2, 652 (2012). [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 13, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 7, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 17, 2013
Published: February 25, 2013

Citation
Jacek Gosciniak, Michael G. Nielsen, Laurent Markey, Alain Dereux, and Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi, "Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides with internal Wheatstone bridges," Opt. Express 21, 5300-5308 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-5300


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References

  1. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic network-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors,” IEE Trans. Comput.57(9), 1246–1260 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulation at 1.5 μm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett.28(1), 83–85 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proceedings of the IEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomas, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4, 518529 (2010).
  5. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(21), 211101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5833–5835 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. A. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(11), 4391–4402 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gosciniak, V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, S. Massenot, and A. Dereux, “Fiber-coupled dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express18(5), 5314–5319 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express18(2), 1207–1216 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometers and Directional Coupler Switches,” Nanotechnology23(44), 444008 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Gosciniak, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient thermo-optically controlled Mach-Zehnder interferometers using dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express20(15), 16300–16309 (2012). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(4), 2972–2978 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. Nikolajsen, and K. Leosson, “Integrated power monitor for long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Commun.255(1–3), 51–56 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. S. Papaioannou, D. Kalavrouziotis, K. Vyrsokinos, J.-C. Weeber, K. Hassan, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. Kumar, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. Baus, T. Tekin, D. Apostolopoulos, H. Avramopoulos, and N. Pleros, “Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications,” Sci Rep2, 652 (2012). [PubMed]

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