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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 5 — Mar. 11, 2013
  • pp: 5949–5956
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Unidirectional surface plasmon-polariton excitation by a compact slot partially filled with dielectric

Dongdong Li, Dao Hua Zhang, Changchun Yan, Tao Li, Yueke Wang, Zhengji Xu, Jun Wang, and Fei Qin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 5949-5956 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.005949


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Abstract

We propose a new scheme on unidirectional surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) excitation with the following advantages: ultracompact size, working at arbitrary incidence angle and over a wide spectrum. The proposed structure utilizes a partially filled metallic slot with dielectric to realize unidirectional SPP excitation via direct field manipulation. We theoretically and numerically show that unidirectional SPP excitation with a ratio of 93% can be achieved by a structure with a 50 nm slot. The proposed structure keeps its functional capability over incident angles from −80° to 80°, and has a broadband working spectrum of more than 70 nm.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) have received much attention for their ability to confine electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit [1

1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007), Chap. 2.

]. The ultimate confinement ability of SPPs makes it possible to bridge the gap between nanoelectronic and microphotonic devices for integrated hybrid chips. Over the past decades, tremendous progress has been made in developing functional SPP components. Many plasmonic devices such as waveguide [3

3. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle Plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, and D. Li, “Wedge-shaped metal-dielectric composite metamaterials for light control,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 4(4), 170–174 (2010). [CrossRef]

], couplers [5

5. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and splitters [6

6. J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun 2, 525 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and M. A. Fiddy, “Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14794–14801 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have been proposed.

To address these issues, we propose a new scheme to achieve efficient unidirectional SPP excitation. The proposed scheme has an extremely small size (about 50 nm of its lateral size), works over a broad spectrum and at nearly arbitrary incidence angle.

2. Structure and working principle

The schematic of proposed structure with labeled dimensions and materials is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Structure (a) and working principle (b) of the proposed scheme for unidirectional lunching of SPPs.
. It consists of a silver (Ag) slab covered by a chromium (Cr) mask on which a partially filled slot is opened. The substrate and the ambient environment are modeled as the high-index dielectric and air, respectively. The structure can be divided into two functional blocks, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The first block resembles a partially filled metal-insulator-metal MIM slot structure which is primarily used to control the SPPs propagation direction. It manipulates the field distribution inside the low-index (air) and high-index (dielectric) regions, so that more energy is confined in the air region. The second block is a thin silver layer located beneath the slot waveguide and it controls the strength of the excited SPPs at the air/Ag and dielectric/Ag interfaces. By carefully selecting the wavelength, the SPPs excited at the dielectric/Ag interface can be much stronger than that excited at the air/Ag interface. When the two functional blocks are combined together, the energy confined inside the air region can be effectively coupled with the SPPs excited at the dielectric/Ag interface. Due to the asymmetric arrangement of the air region and dielectric region, the SPPs excited at the dielectric/Ag interface almost only contain wave vectors pointing to the positive x-axis direction.

The idea is schematically illustrated in Fig. 1(b). When a plane wave is illuminated on the slot, the incident wave is scattered by the slot and generates high spatial frequency components with kx_incident >>k0, where kx_incident and k0 are the transverse wave vector of the scattered wave and the free space wave vector, respectively. Due to the high refractive index contrast ratio between the air and high-index dielectric, the scattered waves are mainly confined in the air region and they contain transverse wave components pointing to both positive x-axis and negative x-axis directions. Since the high-index region is located on the right hand side of the air region, for the scattered waves confined in the air region, only these waves with the transverse wave vector pointing to positive x-axis can reach the dielectric/Ag interface. If these wave components can provide sufficient transverse wave vectors to excite SPPs at the dielectric/Ag interface, the exited SPPs will have a propagation direction along the positive x-axis. Next, when the SPPs excited the dielectric/Ag interface are coupled with the plasmon modes excited at the output surface, they also propagate along the positive x-axis direction. As the scheme only relies on the geometric manipulation of the field distribution to excite SPPs in the desired direction, it can be scaled down to an extremely small size and works with arbitrary incidence angle.

3. Simulation and discussion

The structure in Fig. 1(a) is numerically investigated by the Radio Frequency (RF) module of COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a in frequency domain. The simulation domain has a dimension of 5000 nm × 5000 nm with perfectly matched layers (PMLs) as the boundaries to reduce the backscattered waves. To ensure the accuracy of the calculations, the maximum mash size for the regions around the slot and for the remaining regions are 0.2 nm and 1 nm, respectively. The permittivities of Ag and Cr are extracted from experimental data [23

23. W. L. David and W. R. Hunter, “Silver (Ag),” and “Chromium (Cr),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

], while the permittivity of the high-index dielectric is assumed to be 4 over the spectrum of interest. In optical range, such high-index dielectric permittivity can be realized by a variety of materials such as Silicon nitride (Si3N4), Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2). At 515 nm, the permittivities of the above mentioned materials are 4.123 [24

24. T. Bååk, “Silicon oxynitride; a material for GRIN optics,” Appl. Opt. 21(6), 1069–1072 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], 4.16 [25

25. R. A. Chipman, “Optical and physical properties of materials,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

] and 7.2 [26

26. J. R. Devore, “Refractive indices of rutile and sphalerite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41(6), 416–419 (1951). [CrossRef]

], respectively. The simulated structure has a slot width of 50 nm, and the slot is half-filled with the high-index dielectric inclusion (the filling ratio of the high-index dielectric is 50%). Figures 2(a)
Fig. 2 Demonstration of unidirectional SPP excitation at λ = 515 nm. The permittivties of Ag and Cr are −9.3 + 0.8i and −12.2 + 24i, respectively. (a) Energy distribution of the structure when a TM-polarized plane wave normally illuminates at the slot. Inset of the figure illustrates the energy distribution inside the slot with better contrast. (b) Normalized energy distribution at the output surface. (c) Energy distributions inside the partially filled slot. Cutline A and Cutline B are located at the plane 30 nm and 1 nm from the bottom of the slot, respectively.
and 2(b) illustrate unidirectional SPP excitations when a 515 nm transverse magnetic (TM) polarized plane wave with H||z-axis is normally illuminated on the slot. The total energy density (named as the time averaged power flow S in COMSOL, where S is the Poynting vector which can be calculated by S = 1/2*Re(E × H*)) is used to qualify the energy distribution inside the slot. From the simulations, it can be seen that most of the electromagnetic energy is confined at the substrate/silver interface located on the right-hand side of the slot, which is a clear indication of unidirectional SPP excitation.

Next, we theoretically show that the SPPs propagation direction can be controlled by manipulating the field distribution inside the slot. Introduction of a high-index dielectric in a MIM slot will modify the local field distribution inside the slot from two aspects. Firstly, it breaks the symmetric power distribution inside the slot, resulting in more energy confinement in the air region. As shown in the inset of Fig. 2(a) and the dashed blue line in Fig. 2(c), before the incident light excites SPPs at the dielectric/Ag interface, more energy is confined in the air region. For a MIM slot without dielectric inclusion, the electric field polarized perpendicular to the air/Cr interface is restricted around the interfaces due to the high dielectric discontinuity between air and Cr. When the two interfaces of the Cr slot are brought closer together, the plasmonic waves around the two interfaces interact and the energy is almost completely confined inside the air slot [27

27. S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000). [CrossRef]

30

30. M. W. Maqsood, R. Mehfuz, and K. J. Chau, “High-throughput diffraction-assisted surface-plasmon-polariton coupling by a super-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21669–21677 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When a high-index dielectric is added, it introduces another high dielectric discontinuity at the dielectric/air interface, which breaks the symmetrical energy distribution. Due to the continuity of the electric displacement vector at the interface, the normal component of the electric field in the air region is increased by a factor of εd, where εd is the permittivity of the dielectric inclusion [31

31. I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express 18(1), 348–363 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Our simulations also reveal that the higher is the contrast ratio between the air and high-index dielectric, the more is the energy confined inside air region. Similar results have been found for dielectric slot-waveguide made of high-index-contrast materials [32

32. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since more energy is confined in the air region which is located on the left side of the dielectric/Ag interface, when the energy is coupled with SPPs excited at dielectric/Ag interface, the excited surface waves will have wave vector components pointing to the positive x-axis. In this way, we can control the propagation direction of the excited SPPs.

kspp=k0εmetalεdielectricεdielectric+εmetal.
(1)

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Dispersion relation of SPPs at the interfaces of air/Ag (blue dashed curve) and dielectric/Ag (black solid curve), as well as the spectrum of the dominant transverse wave vector components of the scattered light (violet scatter plot). The permittivities of Ag and Cr are extracted from reference [23]. The horizontal axis and the vertical axis correspond to the real part (a) and imaginary part (b) of the wave vector and wavelength, respectively. Peaks 1 and 2 are centered at 410 nm and 350 nm, respectively.
shows the dispersion relations of the SPPs propagating at the air/Ag and dielectric/Ag interfaces. It can be seen that, over a broad spectrum (above 380 nm), the wave vector kspp_dielectric required to excite SPPs at the dielectric/Ag interface is always higher than the wave vector kspp_air required to excite SPPs at the air/Ag interface. When the incidence with high wave vector components is used to excite SPPs at both interfaces, the SPPs excited at dielectric/Ag interface is much stronger than that excited at air/Ag interface due to the smaller wave vector mismatch. At peak 2 (λ = 350 nm), however, kspp_dielectric becomes smaller than kspp_air. In this case, the SPPs excited at air/Ag interface will be much stronger than that excited at dielectric/Ag interface. These results indicate that such a structure can selectively excite SPPs either dominated by the dielectric/Ag interface or the air/Ag interface by tuning the incident wavelength, provided that the incidence contains sufficient high wave vector components. For the proposed structure, due to the small size of the partially filled slot, the high wave vector components can be simply generated by the scattered electromagnetic waves at the partially filled slot in block 1. To quantitatively estimate the phase mismatches between the scattered light and both SPPs, we estimated the dominant transverse wave vector components of the scattered light. The spectrum of the dominant wave vector components of kx_incident is plotted in Fig. 3(a). From the spectrum, it can be seen that the scattered light indeed contain high transverse wave vector components that larger than both kspp_dielectric and kspp_air. For λ>380 nm, the wave vector mismatch between kx_incident and kspp_dielectric is smaller than that between kx_incident and kspp_air. Thus the strength of the SPPs excited at the dielectric/Ag interface can be much stronger than that excited at the air/Ag interface.

To verify the above analysis, we numerically evaluated the intensity of the electromagnetic field confined at the dielectric/Ag and air/Ag interfaces. In our simulations, the intensity is obtained by integrating the total energy confined at the dielectric/Ag and air/Ag interfaces as illustrated in Fig. 1(a). Figure 5
Fig. 5 Intensity of the electromagnetic field confined at the dielectric/Ag and air/Ag interfaces. Peak 1, 2 and 3 are centered at 400 nm, 350 nm and 515 nm, respectively.
shows the intensities of the electromagnetic field confined at the dielectric/Ag and air/Ag interfaces with respect to the incident wavelengths ranging from 320 nm to 800 nm. At the air/Ag interface, the maximum intensity is achieved around λ = 350 nm (peak 2), which is in good agreement with the theoretical value based on dispersion relation shown in Fig. 4. At the dielectric/Ag interface, two peaks centered at 400 nm and 515 nm are observed. From the dispersion curves, they correspond to the two intersecting points 1 and 3 in Fig. 4, respectively.

Based on the above analysis, it is clear that the proposed structure is capable of unidirectional excitation of SPPs by manipulating the field distributions in the slot. In order to achieve long distance propagation, the imaginary part of the wave vector should be small. For the two SPP intensity peaks obtained at the dielectric/Ag interface, the peak at 400 nm, originated from the intrinsic SPP mode, has the imaginary part of the wave vector much larger than the peak at 515 nm (Fig. 3(b)). Therefore, the incidence at around 515 nm should have a much longer propagation distance.

To qualitatively evaluate the energy propagated in unidirectional, we evaluated the ratio η = IR/(IR + IL), where IR and IL are the intensity of the propagated SPPs at the output surface, located 500 nm and −500 nm from the center of the slot, respectively. For a 50 nm wide slot half-filled with the high-index dielectric, it is found that the ratio η is as high as 93% for the incident wavelength of 515 nm, and an average of about 90% over a spectra ranging from 460 nm to 530 nm, as shown in Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 Unidirectional SPPs excitation capability (measured in term of the ratio η) of the structure (a) at different wavelength. (b) at different incidence angle. The incidence wavelength is fixed at 515 nm.
. These results undoubtedly indicated that most of the transmitted energy propagate in the positive x-axis direction only. The broad working spectrum of the structure can be understood by the dispersion relation analysis. Since the degree of the SPPs excited at the dielectric/Ag/ dielectric layers will always be stronger than that at the air/Ag/dielectric layers for incident wave with λ>360 nm, it is not surprising that high performance unidirectional SPP excitation can be achieved over a wide spectrum. In addition, we also estimated the total efficiency of the unidirectional excitation of the SPPs, which is defined as the ratio of the energy guided through the positive x-axis direction over the total input energy at the slot. For a 50 nm wide slot half-filled with the high-index dielectric, the total efficiency is about 23% for the incidence of 515 nm.

To know the effect of incident angle on the unidirectional propagation, we estimated the ratio η for the incident angles from −80° to 80° and no significant change is found in the incident range. In the numerical simulations, the 50 nm wide slot is half-filled with high-index dielectric. The incidence wavelength is fixed at 515 nm. As it can be seen from Fig. 6(b), the ratio η only change slightly when the incident angle is varied. This is because the wave vectors used to control the direction of SPP propagation is generated by the asymmetric field distribution in the slot, and it is almost independent of the incident angle.

Such a unidirectional SPP generator could be realized with the assistance of current nanofabrication systems such as electron beam lithography (EBL) and focused ion beam (FIB). The possible main fabrication processes are schematically illustrated in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Main fabrication processes of the unidirectional SPP generator.
. These include deposition of Ag film on Si3N4 substrate, fabrication of a 50 nm wide Si3N4 layer through pattern transfer by EBL, deposition and planarization of the Cr mask layer and partial removal of Si3N4 by FIB milling.

3. Conclusion

In summary, we proposed a new scheme for unidirectional excitation of SPPs. The proposed structure is ultracompact and can realize unidirectional excitation in a broad incident spectrum, and is insensitive to the incidence angle. Such a scheme could help in achieving larger scale integration of all-optical devices, and has potential applications in optical communication, sensing and imaging.

Acknowledgment

This project is supported by National Research Foundation (NRF-G-CRP 2007-01), A*Star (092154009), Singapore, AOARD, State Key Program for Basic Research of China (Nos. 2012CB921501) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11174136).

References and links

1.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007), Chap. 2.

3.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle Plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, and D. Li, “Wedge-shaped metal-dielectric composite metamaterials for light control,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 4(4), 170–174 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun 2, 525 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and M. A. Fiddy, “Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14794–14801 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011114 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

Y. Wang, L. Wang, J. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041113 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

N. Bonod, E. Popov, L. Li, and B. Chernov, “Unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons by slanted gratings,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11427–11432 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Roszkiewicz and W. Nasalski, “Unidirectional SPP excitation at asymmetrical two-layered metal gratings,” J. Phys. B 43(18), 185401 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Baron, E. Devaux, J. C. Rodier, J. P. Hugonin, E. Rousseau, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, and P. Lalanne, “Compact antenna for efficient and unidirectional launching and decoupling of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4207–4212 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. González, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3(5), 324–328 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

T. Xu, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Wang, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Directional excitation of surface plasmons with subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101501 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

Y. Wang, L. Wang, J. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun. 283(9), 1777–1779 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

L. Wang, T. Li, L. Li, W. Xia, X. G. Xu, and S. N. Zhu, “Electrically generated unidirectional surface plasmon source,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8710–8717 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. Baron, E. Devaux, J. C. Rodier, J. P. Hugonin, E. Rousseau, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, and P. Lalanne, “Compact antenna for efficient and unidirectional launching and decoupling of surface plasmons,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4207–4212 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. He, J. Liu, K. Wang, X. Wang, and Z. Gong, “Efficient directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by partial dielectric filling slit structure,” Opt. Commun. 285(21-22), 4588–4592 (2012). [CrossRef]

20.

S. B. Raghunathan, C. H. Gan, T. van Dijk, B. Ea Kim, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, P. Lalanne, and T. D. Visser, “Plasmon switching: Observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15326–15335 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

X. Li, Q. Tan, B. Bai, and G. Jin, “Tunable directional beaming assisted by asymmetrical SPP excitation in a subwavelength metallic double slit,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(5), 052401–052403 (2012). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(4), 041113 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

W. L. David and W. R. Hunter, “Silver (Ag),” and “Chromium (Cr),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

24.

T. Bååk, “Silicon oxynitride; a material for GRIN optics,” Appl. Opt. 21(6), 1069–1072 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

R. A. Chipman, “Optical and physical properties of materials,” in Handbook of Optics, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

26.

J. R. Devore, “Refractive indices of rutile and sphalerite,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41(6), 416–419 (1951). [CrossRef]

27.

S. Astilean, Ph. Lalanne, and M. Palamaru, “Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 175(4-6), 265–273 (2000). [CrossRef]

28.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 263902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008). [CrossRef]

30.

M. W. Maqsood, R. Mehfuz, and K. J. Chau, “High-throughput diffraction-assisted surface-plasmon-polariton coupling by a super-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21669–21677 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

I. Avrutsky, R. Soref, and W. Buchwald, “Sub-wavelength plasmonic modes in a conductor-gap-dielectric system with a nanoscale gap,” Opt. Express 18(1), 348–363 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

K. Y. Kim, Plasmonics - Principles and Applications (InTech Rjieka Croatia 2012), Chap. 6.

OCIS Codes
(240.0240) Optics at surfaces : Optics at surfaces
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: November 21, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 15, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 17, 2013
Published: March 4, 2013

Citation
Dongdong Li, Dao Hua Zhang, Changchun Yan, Tao Li, Yueke Wang, Zhengji Xu, Jun Wang, and Fei Qin, "Unidirectional surface plasmon-polariton excitation by a compact slot partially filled with dielectric," Opt. Express 21, 5949-5956 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-5949


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References

  1. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and applications (Springer, 2007), Chap. 2.
  3. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle Plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, and D. Li, “Wedge-shaped metal-dielectric composite metamaterials for light control,” Metamaterials (Amst.)4(4), 170–174 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(8), 081111 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. J. S. Q. Liu, R. A. Pala, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Cai, and M. L. Brongersma, “A submicron plasmonic dichroic splitter,” Nat Commun2, 525 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Yan, D. H. Zhang, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and M. A. Fiddy, “Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express18(14), 14794–14801 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Wang, L. Aigouy, E. Bourhis, J. Gierak, J. P. Hugonin, and P. Lalanne, “Efficient generation of surface plasmon by single-nanoslit illumination under highly oblique incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Wang, L. Wang, J. Liu, X. Zhai, L. Wang, D. Xiang, Q. Wan, and B. Meng, “Plasmonic surface-wave bidirectional splitter in different angles of incident light,” Opt. Commun.283(9), 1777–1779 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Chen, Z. Li, S. Yue, and Q. Gong, “Efficient unidirectional generation of surface plasmon polaritons with asymmetric single-nanoslit,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(4), 041113 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. N. Bonod, E. Popov, L. Li, and B. Chernov, “Unidirectional excitation of surface plasmons by slanted gratings,” Opt. Express15(18), 11427–11432 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Roszkiewicz and W. Nasalski, “Unidirectional SPP excitation at asymmetrical two-layered metal gratings,” J. Phys. B43(18), 185401 (2010). [CrossRef]
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