## Nonlinear performance of multi-granularity orthogonal transmission systems with frequency division multiplexing |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 6115-6130 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.006115

Acrobat PDF (2231 KB)

### Abstract

Orthogonal transmission with frequency division multiplexing technique is investigated for next generation optical communication systems. Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and single-carrier frequency division multiplexing (SCFDM) schemes are compared in combination with polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) formats. Multi-granularity transmission with flexible bandwidth can be realized through ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) based on the orthogonal technique. The system performance is numerically studied with special emphasis on transmission degradations due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity. The maximum reach and fiber capacity for different spectral efficiencies are investigated for systems with nonlinear propagation over uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) links with lumped amplification.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. 3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Physical layer aspects for evolved universal terrestrial Radio access (UTRA),” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm*.*

7. A. J. Lowery and L. B. Du, “Optical orthogonal division multiplexing for long haul optical communications: a review of the first five years,” Opt. Fiber Technol. **17**(5), 421–438 (2011). [CrossRef]

9. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

9. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

11. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express **20**(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express **20**(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express **20**(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express **20**(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express **20**(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. Y. Chen, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Zhu, F. Zhang, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of ROADM Functionality on an optical SCFDM Superchannel,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(3), 215–217 (2012). [CrossRef]

14. A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM Superchannels for adaptive Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(20), 1526–1528 (2011). [CrossRef]

14. A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM Superchannels for adaptive Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(20), 1526–1528 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 2. Basic theory

*i*th data block

## 3. Multi-granularity design principle

## 4. Basic comparison of OFDM and SCFDM

18. D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory **18**(4), 531–532 (1972). [CrossRef]

19. A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory **29**(4), 543–551 (1983). [CrossRef]

20. I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(9), 631–633 (2010). [CrossRef]

^{−3}is 7.9, 10.9, and 13.9 dB for the granularities of 7.75, 15.5 and 31 GHz, respectively. For PDM-16-QAM signals, the corresponding required OSNRs are 14.7, 17.7, and 20.7 dB, respectively.

21. K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. **E92-B**(12), 3736–3743 (2009). [CrossRef]

## 5. Nonlinear performance

### 5.1 Time and frequency domain averaging

^{−1}is the inverse complementary error function. A BER target of 10

^{−3}corresponds to a

15. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express **16**(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express **16**(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

### 5.2 Simulation bandwidth choice

^{−3}.

### 5.3 Maximum reach and fiber capacity

^{−3}. The transmission reach for BER≤4 × 10

^{−3}is shown in Fig. 8 for QPSK and 16-QAM formats, as a function of optical launch power. For UDWDM operation, optical channel spacing is set as

## 6. Conclusion

## Acknowledgment

## References and links

1. | 3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Physical layer aspects for evolved universal terrestrial Radio access (UTRA),” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm |

2. | R. Dischler and F. Buchali, “Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009, Paper PDPC2. |

3. | X. Yi, N. Fontaine, R. Scott, and S. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

4. | Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

5. | J. Yu, Z. Dong, and N. Chi, “1.96 Tb/s (21×100 Gb/s) OFDM optical signal generation and transmission over 3200 km Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

6. | S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckha, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-Carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35 |

7. | A. J. Lowery and L. B. Du, “Optical orthogonal division multiplexing for long haul optical communications: a review of the first five years,” Opt. Fiber Technol. |

8. | J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “A novel coherent optical single-carrier frequency-division-multiplexing (CO-SCFDM) scheme for optical fiber transmission systems,” Photonics in Switching 2010, Paper JTuB41. |

9. | Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, |

11. | C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express |

12. | Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express |

13. | Y. Chen, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Zhu, F. Zhang, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of ROADM Functionality on an optical SCFDM Superchannel,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

14. | A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM Superchannels for adaptive Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

15. | X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express |

16. | X. Liu and F. Buchali, “A novel channel estimation method for PDM-OFDM enabling improved tolerance to WDM nonlinearity,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009, Paper OWW5. |

17. | F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. |

18. | D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory |

19. | A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory |

20. | I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

21. | K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun. |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications

(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

**ToC Category:**

Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 15, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: February 19, 2013

Published: March 4, 2013

**Citation**

Fan Zhang, Chuanchuan Yang, Xi Fang, Tingting Zhang, and Zhangyuan Chen, "Nonlinear performance of multi-granularity orthogonal transmission systems with frequency division multiplexing," Opt. Express **21**, 6115-6130 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-6115

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### References

- 3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Physical layer aspects for evolved universal terrestrial Radio access (UTRA),” http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm .
- R. Dischler and F. Buchali, “Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009, Paper PDPC2.
- X. Yi, N. Fontaine, R. Scott, and S. Yoo, “Tb/s coherent optical OFDM systems enabled by optical frequency combs,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(14), 2054–2061 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with orthogonal-band multiplexing and subwavelength bandwidth access,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(4), 308–315 (2010). [CrossRef]
- J. Yu, Z. Dong, and N. Chi, “1.96 Tb/s (21×100 Gb/s) OFDM optical signal generation and transmission over 3200 km Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(15), 1061–1063 (2011). [CrossRef]
- S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckha, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-Carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM superchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35 th European Conference on Optical Communication, 2009, Paper PD2.6.
- A. J. Lowery and L. B. Du, “Optical orthogonal division multiplexing for long haul optical communications: a review of the first five years,” Opt. Fiber Technol.17(5), 421–438 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “A novel coherent optical single-carrier frequency-division-multiplexing (CO-SCFDM) scheme for optical fiber transmission systems,” Photonics in Switching 2010, Paper JTuB41.
- Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, LTE-The UMTS Long Term Evolution: from theory to practice (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2009), Chap. 15.
- C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express20(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express20(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Chen, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Zhu, F. Zhang, Y. He, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of ROADM Functionality on an optical SCFDM Superchannel,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 215–217 (2012). [CrossRef]
- A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, and F. Buchali, “Limits of spectral efficiency and transmission reach of optical-OFDM Superchannels for adaptive Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(20), 1526–1528 (2011). [CrossRef]
- X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X. Liu and F. Buchali, “A novel channel estimation method for PDM-OFDM enabling improved tolerance to WDM nonlinearity,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2009, Paper OWW5.
- F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(3), S48–S55 (2010). [CrossRef]
- D. C. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory18(4), 531–532 (1972). [CrossRef]
- A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983). [CrossRef]
- I. Fatadin, D. Ives, and S. J. Savory, “Laser linewidth tolerance for 16-QAM coherent optical systems using QPSK partitioning,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(9), 631–633 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. Ishihara, T. Kobayashi, R. Kudo, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Frequency-domain equalization for coherent optical single-carrier transmission systems,” IEICE Trans. Commun.E92-B(12), 3736–3743 (2009). [CrossRef]

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