## Hitless wavelength-selective switch based on quantum well second-order series-coupled microring resonators |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 6377-6390 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.006377

Acrobat PDF (3478 KB)

### Abstract

A hitless wavelength-selective switch (WSS) based on InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well (MQW) second-order series-coupled microring resonators is proposed and fabricated. In the core layer, a five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well (FACQW) structure is employed. The WSS is driven by the electrorefractive index change in the FACQW core layer caused by the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE). The wafer for the WSS is grown by molecular beam epitaxy and waveguide structures are formed by dry etching. Boxlike spectrum responses and hitless switching characteristics of the WSS are successfully demonstrated for the first time. The change in coupling efficiency at a coupler between a ring and a busline and between rings and its effect on the switching characteristics are also discussed.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. K. Suzuki, T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, and A. Himeno, “Low loss fully reconfigurable wavelength-selective optical 1× *N* switch based on transversal filter configuration using silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **16**(6), 1480–1482 (2004). [CrossRef]

2. S. J. Emelett and R. Soref, “Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. **23**(4), 1800–1807 (2005). [CrossRef]

3. Y. Goebuchi, T. Ka, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(3), 538–540 (2006). [CrossRef]

11. S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, Z. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “A compact and low power consumption optical switch based on microrings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **20**(12), 1021–1023 (2008). [CrossRef]

12. T.-J. Wang and C.-H. Chu, “Wavelength-tunable microring resonator on lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **19**(23), 1904–1906 (2007). [CrossRef]

13. J.-H. Song, D.-H. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Polymeric microring resonator enabling variable extinction ratio,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **46**(7), L145–L147 (2007). [CrossRef]

14. D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **17**(2), 336–338 (2005). [CrossRef]

19. X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(10), 821–823 (2012). [CrossRef]

20. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **53**(22), 2173–2176 (1984). [CrossRef]

21. J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **12**(3), 320–322 (2000). [CrossRef]

25. S. Ravindran, A. Datta, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “GaAs based long-wavelength microring resonator optical switches utilising bias assisted carrier-injection induced refractive index change,” Opt. Express **20**(14), 15610–15627 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26. T. Makino, T. Gotoh, R. Hasegawa, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Microring resonator wavelength tunable filter using five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(16), 2387–2393 (2011). [CrossRef]

27. H. Kaneshige, Y. Ueyama, H. Yamada, H. Yajima, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well Mach-Zehnder modulator with single microring resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **51**(2), 02BG01 (2012). [CrossRef]

29. H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **34**(7), 1197–1208 (1998). [CrossRef]

30. T. Arakawa, T. Toya, M. Ushigome, K. Yamaguchi, T. Ide, and K. Tada, “InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well exhibiting giant electrorefractive index change,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **50**, 032204 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 2. Transfer function of series-coupled microring resonator

31. G. Barbarossa, A. M. Matteo, and M. N. Armenise, “Theoretical analysis of triple-coupler ring-based optitacl guided-wave resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. **13**(2), 148–157 (1995). [CrossRef]

33. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, “A general planar waveguide autoregressive optical filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. **14**(3), 437–447 (1996). [CrossRef]

4. T. Kato and Y. Kokubun, “Optimum coupling coefficients in second-order series-coupled ring resonator for nonblocking wavelength channel switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. **24**(2), 991–999 (2006). [CrossRef]

*η*is the field amplitude transmittance in the coupling region,

*t*is the power transmittance, and

*K*is the power coupling efficiency. If the coupler is lossless,

*η*= 1 and

*K*= 1−

*t*, and the matrix is unitary. Equation (1) can be rewritten as the relation between (

*E*

_{c2},

*E′*

_{c2}) and (

*E*

_{c1},

*E′*

_{c1}),where

*β*is the propagation constant given by 2

*πn*

_{eq}/

*λ*and

*a*is the transmittance after the transmission through length

_{i}*l*(

_{i}*i*= 1 or 2) in the resonator;

*n*

_{eq}is the equivalent refractive index. The matrices

**R**and

**R**

^{−1}represent the clockwise and counterclockwise propagations, respectively.

*L*= 2

*l*

_{1}= 2

*l*

_{2}, the transfer matrix is given by

*E*

_{A},

*E*

_{D},

*E*

_{I}, and

*E*

_{T}are the field amplitudes at the add, drop, input, and through ports, respectively, and

*L*is the round-trip length of Ring

_{i}*i*. The transfer function from the input port to the through port,

*E*

_{T}/

*E*

_{I}, is given byThe transfer function from the input port to the drop port,

*E*

_{D}/

*E*

_{I}, is given by

## 3. Principle of hitless switching

3. Y. Goebuchi, T. Ka, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(3), 538–540 (2006). [CrossRef]

7. Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. **39**(12), 922–924 (2003). [CrossRef]

34. T. Kato, Y. Goebuchi, and Y. Kokubun, “Experimental study of optimum coupling efficiency of double series coupled microring resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **45**(10A), 7741–7745 (2006). [CrossRef]

*n*

_{1}and Δ

*n*

_{2}). The extinction ratio is also defined as shown in Fig. 4.

## 4. Device design and fabrication

### 4.1. Design of ring resonator

**C**

_{t1}=

**C**

_{t2}and

**R**

_{r1}=

**R**

_{r2}, that is, the coupling efficiency between the microrings

*K*

_{b1}=

*K*

_{b2}≡

*K*

_{b}, the round-trip length of microrings

*L*

_{1}=

*L*

_{2}≡

*L*, and

*a*

_{1}=

*a*

_{2}≡

*a*

^{1/2}, where

*a*is the transmittance per round.

_{0.53}Ga

_{0.47}As/In

_{0.52}Al

_{0.48}As FACQW, 50 nm In

_{0.52}AlGa

_{0.24}As

_{0.24}separate confinement heterostructure layers, and p/n-doped InP cladding layers (

*n*= 3.17). The total thickness of the core layer is approximately 300 nm. To reduce the absorption loss caused by the p-doped upper cladding layer, a 200 nm undoped InP layer is inserted close to the core layer. The waveguide is buried with benzocyclobutene (BCB) (

*n*= 1.543 at

*λ*= 1550nm). The width of the waveguide,

*w*, is 1.45 μm, which satisfies the single mode condition. The average refractive index of the FACQW layer is calculated to be 3.394 using a formula for calculating the average refractive index of dielectric multilayers [35]. To obtain the propagation constant

*β*( = 2

*πn*

_{eq}/

*λ*), the effective refractive index

*n*

_{eff}is used instead of

*n*

_{eq}, considering the dependence of refractive index on wavelength. In this design,

*n*

_{eff}is assumed to be 3.843.

26. T. Makino, T. Gotoh, R. Hasegawa, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Microring resonator wavelength tunable filter using five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(16), 2387–2393 (2011). [CrossRef]

*w*

_{g}, and the depth of the gap,

*d*

_{g}, are 0.3 and 1.25 μm, respectively. The depth of the gap,

*d*

_{g}, is slightly smaller than that in the previous WSS [28]. The round-trip length of each ring resonator is 304.2 μm, which corresponds to the free spectral range (FSR) of 2.07 nm. The designed parameters of the proposed WSS are shown in Table 1.

### 4.2. InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well* (*FACQW*)*

9. T. Kato, Y. Goebuchi, and Y. Kokubun, “Improvement of switching characteristics of hitless wavelength-selective switch with double-series-coupled microring resonators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **46**(6A), 3428–3432 (2007). [CrossRef]

_{0.53}Ga

_{0.47}As and In

_{0.52}Al

_{0.48}As layers were employed as well and barrier layers, respectively. They are both lattice-matched to an InP substrate. The FACQW consists of a 19-monolayer (ML) well (QW1) and a 22-ML well (QW2) including a 3-ML barrier layer, and QW1 and QW2 are coupled through an 8-ML barrier layer. This structure shows a unique behavior of the QCSE, that is, the absorption peak intensity near the band edge increases without a redshift with an increase in applied electric field.

30. T. Arakawa, T. Toya, M. Ushigome, K. Yamaguchi, T. Ide, and K. Tada, “InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well exhibiting giant electrorefractive index change,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **50**, 032204 (2011). [CrossRef]

**k**·

**p**perturbation theory with the 4 × 4 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian [36

36. S. L. Chuang, “Efficient band-structure calculations of strained quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter **43**(12), 9649–9661 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*n*was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig relation. As a result, we found that an electrorefractive index change Δ

*n*/Δ

*F*as large as 1.9 × 10

^{−4}cm/kV can be expected in the ideal FACQW in the wavelength range of 100 nm from 1480 nm to 1580 nm. In addition, we have experimentally demonstrated a low-voltage InGaAs/InAlAs FACQW Mach-Zehnder modulator with the product of the half-wavelength voltage

*V*

_{π}and phase shifter length

*L*

_{p}(

*V*

_{π}

*L*

_{p}) as low as 1.2 Vmm at a wavelength of 1.55 μm [37

37. T. Arakawa, T. Hariki, Y. Amma, M. Fukuoka, M. Ushigome, and K. Tada, “Low-voltage Mach-Zehnder modulator with InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **51**, 042203 (2012). [CrossRef]

*n*/Δ

*F*= 9.0 × 10

^{−5}cm/kV. Using the InGaAs/InAlAs FACQW as the waveguide core of a microring resonator, a high-speed and low-voltage wavelength-tunable filter is expected to be realized.

### 4.3. Fabrication

26. T. Makino, T. Gotoh, R. Hasegawa, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Microring resonator wavelength tunable filter using five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” J. Lightwave Technol. **29**(16), 2387–2393 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 5. Switching characteristics

### 5.1. Single ring filter

*K*

_{b1}and

*K*

_{b2}are defined in the figure. The depth of the gap in the directional couplers, the round-trip length of the microrings, and the length of the coupling regions are 1.25, 316.7, and 95.5 μm, respectively. The designed coupling efficiency between the buslines and the microring is 0.542. The electrodes were formed only on the microring resonators. Therefore, the microrings are electrically separated from the other waveguides.

*n*

_{core}at the resonant wavelengths of 1547.6, 1549.6, and 1551.6 nm as a function of applied dc reverse bias voltage

*V*

_{a}, considering the optical confinement factor (0.527). Considering the filling factor

*p*of the FACQW in the core layer (

*p*= 0.574), the electrorefractive index change in the FACQW at

*V*= −14 V is evaluated to be approximately 7.3 × 10

^{−3}. This result shows that the refractive index change of the FACQW is almost constant in this wavelength region, which is consistent with the discussion in [30

30. T. Arakawa, T. Toya, M. Ushigome, K. Yamaguchi, T. Ide, and K. Tada, “InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well exhibiting giant electrorefractive index change,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **50**, 032204 (2011). [CrossRef]

^{−5}at

*V*

_{a}= −14 V [37

37. T. Arakawa, T. Hariki, Y. Amma, M. Fukuoka, M. Ushigome, and K. Tada, “Low-voltage Mach-Zehnder modulator with InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **51**, 042203 (2012). [CrossRef]

^{2}at −18 V). Therefore, the main cause of the change in refractive index is the QCSE in the FACQW core layer. Unfortunately, the refractive index change of the core layer is smaller than that theoretically predicted even though the index change in the FACQW is still three times larger than that in a conventional square QW with the same wavelength of the absorption edge. The cause of this deterioration in the electrorefractive index change is considered to be the nonuniform electric field in the core layer [37

37. T. Arakawa, T. Hariki, Y. Amma, M. Fukuoka, M. Ushigome, and K. Tada, “Low-voltage Mach-Zehnder modulator with InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. **51**, 042203 (2012). [CrossRef]

*T*

_{T}, and that from the input port to the drop port,

*T*

_{D}, can be calculated by

*L*is the round-trip length of the microring. The depth of the dip in the through-port response and the height of the resonant peak in the drop-port response at the resonant wavelength are given by

*a*,

*K*

_{b1}, and

*K*

_{b2}are obtained.

*K*

_{b1}and

*K*

_{b2}on the applied reverse voltage is shown in Fig. 10(b). As shown in the figure,

*K*

_{b1}increases by approximately 0.06 when the applied reverse voltage is changed from 0 to −15 V. On the other hand,

*K*

_{b2}decreases by approximately 0.04 with the change in the applied reverse voltage. The reason for these changes in coupling efficiency can be explained as follows; in the fabrication process of the WSS, the resist patterns for the gaps in the directional couplers are drawn by EB lithography and those for the waveguides are drawn by photolithography. In this device, it is considered that the positions of the whole EB resist patterns for the gaps were slightly shifted downward in Fig. 9(a) from the center of the directional coupler, as shown in Fig. 8(c). This off-centered position of the gap results in the degradation of the symmetry of the directional couplers. That is, for example, the busline waveguide becomes wider than the microring waveguide in Directional Coupler 1 (DC1). Therefore, when the voltage was applied to the microring and its equivalent refractive index increased, the symmetry of DC1 was recovered, leading to the increase in

*K*

_{b1}. On the other hand, the situation for Directional Coupler 2 (DC2) was opposite, leading to the decrease in

*K*

_{b2}. This change in coupling efficiency has an effect on the switching characteristics of the WSS.

### 5.2. Second-order series-coupled microring WSS

*λ*= 1549.1 nm, a reverse voltage

*V*

_{1}of 3.0 V was applied to Ring 1 to match the resonant wavelength of Ring 1 with that of Ring 2 because there was a difference of approximately 0.10 nm between the resonant wavelengths of the two microrings. Next,

*V*

_{2}of −14 V was applied to Ring 2 for the OFF state. Finally,

*V*

_{1}of −15 V was applied to Ring 1 for the ON state at

*λ*= 1550.1 nm. As shown in Fig. 11(a), the hitless switching of approximately 1.0 nm owing to the electrorefractive index change in the MQW core layer was successfully demonstrated. The FSR and full FWHM of the bandwidth are approximately 2.1 and 0.25 nm, respectively. The extinction ratios of the drop-port response of the initial and final ON states are 8.7 and 11.5 dB, respectively. A boxlike spectrum response was obtained, as shown in Fig. 11(b) owing to the second-order series-coupled microrings. The shape factor defined as [5

5. S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S. T. Chu; “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. **20**(8), 1525–1529 (2002). [CrossRef]

*K*

_{b1},

*K*

_{r}and

*K*

_{b2}, respectively, of the WSS were evaluated by fitting the theoretical spectrum responses of the through and drop ports to the measured spectra. The evaluated coupling efficiencies in the WSS are shown in Table 2 . The coupling efficiencies for the initial ON state are evaluated by the fitting, and those for the OFF and final ON states were calculated by considering of the change in coupling efficiency discussed in Sect. 5.1. As shown in Table 2, there are large discrepancies between the designed and measured coupling efficiencies. The reason for the discrepancies is thought to be the depth of the fabricated gaps in the directional couplers was larger than that designed (1.25 μm) and/or the gaps in the couplers are off-centered, as shown in Fig. 8(c).

## 6. Conclusions

## Acknowledgment

## References and links

1. | K. Suzuki, T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, and A. Himeno, “Low loss fully reconfigurable wavelength-selective optical 1× |

2. | S. J. Emelett and R. Soref, “Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

3. | Y. Goebuchi, T. Ka, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

4. | T. Kato and Y. Kokubun, “Optimum coupling coefficients in second-order series-coupled ring resonator for nonblocking wavelength channel switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

5. | S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S. T. Chu; “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

6. | S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “A highly compact third-order silicon microring add-drop filter with a very large free spectral range, a flat passband and a low delay dispersion,” Opt. Express |

7. | Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. |

8. | B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

9. | T. Kato, Y. Goebuchi, and Y. Kokubun, “Improvement of switching characteristics of hitless wavelength-selective switch with double-series-coupled microring resonators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

10. | O. Tsilipakos, T. V. Yioultsis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical analysis of thermally tunable microring resonator filters made of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. |

11. | S.-J. Chang, C.-Y. Ni, Z. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “A compact and low power consumption optical switch based on microrings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

12. | T.-J. Wang and C.-H. Chu, “Wavelength-tunable microring resonator on lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

13. | J.-H. Song, D.-H. Kim, and S.-S. Lee, “Polymeric microring resonator enabling variable extinction ratio,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

14. | D. Geuzebroek, E. Klein, H. Kelderman, N. Baker, and A. Driessen, “Compact wavelength-selective switch for gigabit filtering in access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

15. | M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, “Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

16. | C. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express |

17. | R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, “Precision tunable silicon compatible microring filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

18. | T. Hu, W. Wang, C. Qiu, P. Yu, H. Qiu, Y. Zhao, X. Jiang, and J. Yang, “Thermally tunable filters based on third-order microring resonators for WDM applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

19. | X. Luo, J. Song, S. Feng, A. W. Poon, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon high-order coupled-microring-based electro-optical switches for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

20. | D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Band-edge absorption in quantum well structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

21. | J. V. Hryniewicz, P. P. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

22. | V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, K. Ritter, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, J. Goldhar, and P.-T. Ho, “All-optical nonlinear switching in GaAs-AlGaAs microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

23. | R. Grover, Member, IEEET. A. Ibrahim, S. Kanakaraju, L. Lucas, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, “A tunable GaInAsP–InP optical microring notch filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

24. | H. Simos, A. Bogris, N. Raptis, and D. Syvridis, “Dynamic properties of a WDM switching module based on active microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

25. | S. Ravindran, A. Datta, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, “GaAs based long-wavelength microring resonator optical switches utilising bias assisted carrier-injection induced refractive index change,” Opt. Express |

26. | T. Makino, T. Gotoh, R. Hasegawa, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Microring resonator wavelength tunable filter using five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

27. | H. Kaneshige, Y. Ueyama, H. Yamada, H. Yajima, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “InGaAs/InAlAs multiple quantum well Mach-Zehnder modulator with single microring resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

28. | H. Ikehara, T. Goto, H. Kamiya, T. Arakawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Hitless wavelength-selective switch using multiple quantum well second-order series coupled microring resonators,” Photonics in Switching (PS) 2012, Th-S24–O07 (2012). |

29. | H. Feng, J. P. Pang, M. Sugiyama, K. Tada, and Y. Nakano, “Field-induced optical effect in a five-step asymmetric coupled quantum well with modified potential,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

30. | T. Arakawa, T. Toya, M. Ushigome, K. Yamaguchi, T. Ide, and K. Tada, “InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well exhibiting giant electrorefractive index change,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

31. | G. Barbarossa, A. M. Matteo, and M. N. Armenise, “Theoretical analysis of triple-coupler ring-based optitacl guided-wave resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

32. | R. Orta, P. Savi, R. Rascone, and D. Trinchero, “Synthesis of multiple-ring-resonator filters for optical systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

33. | C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, “A general planar waveguide autoregressive optical filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

34. | T. Kato, Y. Goebuchi, and Y. Kokubun, “Experimental study of optimum coupling efficiency of double series coupled microring resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

35. | M. Born and E. Wolf, |

36. | S. L. Chuang, “Efficient band-structure calculations of strained quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter |

37. | T. Arakawa, T. Hariki, Y. Amma, M. Fukuoka, M. Ushigome, and K. Tada, “Low-voltage Mach-Zehnder modulator with InGaAs/InAlAs five-layer asymmetric coupled quantum well,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. |

**OCIS Codes**

(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

(230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators

(230.7408) Optical devices : Wavelength filtering devices

**ToC Category:**

Optical Devices

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 4, 2013

Revised Manuscript: February 23, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: February 25, 2013

Published: March 6, 2013

**Citation**

Hiroki Ikehara, Tsuyoshi Goto, Hiroshi Kamiya, Taro Arakawa, and Yasuo Kokubun, "Hitless wavelength-selective switch based on quantum well second-order series-coupled microring resonators," Opt. Express **21**, 6377-6390 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-5-6377

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### References

- K. Suzuki, T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Shibata, H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, and A. Himeno, “Low loss fully reconfigurable wavelength-selective optical 1× N switch based on transversal filter configuration using silica-based planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(6), 1480–1482 (2004). [CrossRef]
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